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shelter within the walls of the fort, is over-run by an active enemy. I must ever be remembered with made, however, among others, a respect.

drawing of Marmalong bridge, Every object that now presented which is a very modern work, itself to the imagination bore the built, as I am informed, at the prisame threatening and calamitous vate expence of an Armenian mer. aspect : the country houses of the chant. It is over a small river that English, within one mile of the fort, runs near the mount, and falls into were stripped of their furniture, by the sea at a little distance before the owners, even to the doors and the village of St. Thomas, four miles window-blinds; this, indeed, was to the southward of Madras. The no more than necessary, as the ene. Portuguese had formerly a conside. my extended their depredations rable settlement at this village. The even to the walls of Maciras ; and church and the dwelling-houses of a no security could be found without few Portuguese families yet remain the fort, until the camp was form. here. The legendary tale of the ed at the Mount, a place about ten Roman catholic church is, that St. English miles west of Madras. Thomas the apostle, in the course Every one now possessing a house of his mission to India, suffered mar. within the fort, was happy in ac- tyrdom on the spot where the church comodating the family of his friend, is built. who before had resided on Choultry The settlement of Madras was plain.

formed by the English at or about The troops being collected from the middle of the last century, and different quarters, with provisions was a place of no real consequence, and a proper train of artillery, the but for its trade, until the war so vanquished spirits of the people ap- ably carried on by general Stringer peared to revive ; and the reyot Lawrence, from the years 1748 to was again seen cultivating his rice 1752 ; and which originated from fields, or collecting the fruits. Nothe claims of Chunda Saib, in oppo. thing less was expected when the sition to our ally, Mahomed Ally army took the field, but that Hyder Cawn, the present nabob of Arcot; Ally would very soon be escorted from which period the English may by a party of our troops into Fort be considered as sovereigns. In the St. George, and there make a public school of this able officer the lord atonement for the miseries he had Clive received his military educaoccasioned. This vision soon va. tion. nished, in the unhappy fate of colo. Fort St. George, or Madras, rises, nel Baillie's detachment, and the as has been already intimated, from return of the army from a three the margin of the sea, and is allow. weeks' campaign, reduced in its ed by the ablest engineers to be a numbers and dispirited by its losses. place of considerable strength. It These circumstances are too strong. was planned by the ingenious Mr. ly marked in the page of history Robins, author of lord Anson's voyto make it necessary to recount ages, who was eminent for his genetheir particulars in a descriptive ral and philosophical, as well as for work like this. The arrival of sir his mathematical knowledge. Since Eyre Coote from Bengal, with mo. his time, many works have been ney and other supplies, in Septem- added. ber, and the active measures pur. In Fort St. George are many sued by that gallant officer, restor- handsome and spacious streets. The ed confidence to the trvops; and houses may be considered as elegant, the most sanguine hopes of the in- and particularly so from the beauhabitants from his exertions were tiful material with which they are not disappointed.

finished, the chunam. The inner The opportunities that offer to a apartments are not highly decoratpainter are few, in a country which ed, presenting to the eye only white


walls ; which, however, from the to the religion of the Hindoos; but marble-like appearance of the stuc- whether they are connected with co, give a freshness grateful in so the rites and worship of Bramah or hot a country. Ceilings are very not, I am not able to say; for some uncommon in the rooms. Indeed, it of them are of the most indecent is impossible to find any which will kind. I made an accurate drawing resist the ravages of that destructive of this building, which was sent to insect, the white ant. These ani. England, and lost on board the Ge. mals are chiefly formidable from the neral Barker, East Indiaman, when immensity of their numbers, which that ship was wrecked on the coast are such as to destroy, in one night's of Holland, in 1781 ; but as I have time, a ceiling of any dimensions. I made drawings of other Hindoo saw an instance in the ceiling to a temples, I less lament the loss. portico of the admiralty, or governor's house, which fell in flakes of twenty feet square. It is the wood. work, which serves for the basis of For the Literary Magazine. the ceilings, such as the laths, beams, &c., that these insects attack; and LITERARY, PHILOSOPHICAL, COMthis will serve to explain the circum- MERCIAL, AND AGRICULTURAL stance I have just mentioned.

INTELLIGENCE. The houses on Choultry plain are many of them beautiful pieces of BY a recent census, it appears architecture, the apartments spaci. that, on the 1st December, 1807, ous and magnificent. I know not there were contained in the city and that I ever felt more delight than in county of New York, going on a visit to a family on Choul.


39,991 try plain, soon after my arrival at

Females 41,763 Madras, in the cool of the evening,

Male slaves 658 after a very hot day. The moon shone in its fullest lustre, not a cloud

Female do. 1,118 overcast the sky, and every house on


83,530 the plain was illuminated. Each family, with their friends, were in the The following table exhibits the open porticoes, enjoying the breeze. population, as taken at different pe. Such a scene appears more like a riods : tale of enchantment than a reality,

In 1697 to the imagination of a stranger just

4,302 1756

15,000 arrived.


21,863 There are few objects to be met

1786 with here, which serve to illustrate

23,614 1791

33,131 the history or characters of the ori. ginal inhabitants of India. One,



1805 however, is too curious to be omit


1807 ted, and that is a beautiful Hindoo

83,530 temple, or pagoda, at Tripplecane, By which it appears that the two miles south of Madras. It is population has more than tripled of considerable magnitude ; and the from 1786 to 1805, a period of twentop of the building rising considera. ty years. bly above the trees, it is seen all over the country. Adjoining to the temple is a large tank, with steps The whole debt of the United descending to the bottom, filled with States, on the 1st of January, 1807, water. The whole is of stone, and was 67,727,756 dollars. the masonry excellent. On the sur. By appealing to official documents face of the temple are many basso we find : . relievos, which I suppose to relate That in a period of twenty years

the population of this country has of this species is an incapability of increased nearly 3,000,000.

taking the water), remained growlThat the dwelling-houses have in ing for some time on the bank; at the same period increased from last it retired to the woods, and left .640,000 to 1,225,000.

our distinguished traveller rejoicing That the improved lands have at his ability to rejoin his comparisen from 1,120,000 to 2,390,400 nions. These bears are considered acres.

as great curiosities, and are to be That the average price per acre sent to Peale's museum in Philadelhas risen from two to six dollars. phia, for the inspection of the curi.

That the number of horses has ous, increased from 600,000 to 1,200.000, and the horned cattle from 1,200,000 to 2,950,000.

We learn that an immensely va. That the merchant vessels have luable white marble quarry has been increased from 250,000 to 1,207,000. discovered at Sing-Sing (Mount

That the imports have risen from Pleasant) on the North River, about 11 to 80 millions of dollars.

85 miles from New York. It is alThat the exports of domestic pro. lowed by judges to be equal to that duce have increased from 9 to 42 imported from Philadelphia or from millions.

Stockbridge quarry, And the exports of foreign goods from 1 to 36 millions.

That the national revenues have 'The Prince of Peace has just increased, in a period of twelve caused to be published, in the Ga. years, from 8 to nearly 17 millions zette of Madrid, a notice, of which of dollars, while the expenditures, the following is an extract: making an allowance for the extin. The ship La Plata, belonging to guishment of the principal of the the Philippine company, and comdebt, have been nearly stationary. manded by D. J. B. Montervede, go

That the specie in circulation ing from Manilla to Lima, discoverhas risen in the period of twenty ed, on the 18th February, 1806, a years from ten to seventeen millions, group of islands, the most southern

of which is situated about 3 degrees

27 minutes of north latitude, 162 The secretary of war has receiv. degrees 5 minutes of longitude to cd from New Orleans two grisly the eastward of Cadiz. These bears. They are, as their names islands, 29 in number, occupy a indicate, of a grey colour, and in space of ten leagues from N. E. to their native woods grow to an im- S.E., and are separated by channels, mense size, it is said so as to weigh one or two leagues wide ; they are 7 or 800 wt., and are then extreme. low, and intersected by forests and ly fierce. The animals sent to gen. rivulets. Their inhabitants are of Dearborn were caught when very the most pacific disposition. They young, and are now perfectly tame, are tall and well made, robust and Grisly bears are so fierce and for. agile; their complexion is of an olive midable that the Indians never at. colour; their noses flat, and hair tack them, except in large compa- black and curled, but rather long. nies; in which case generally one or more of them become a sacrifice to their temerity. Governor Lewis, The following notice respecting when in the Missouri country, was the comet has been given in the pursued by a grisly bear, and to save Moniteur of the 8th of October. himself dashed into the river, where Mr. Pons, belonging to the observahe remained up to his neck in wa. tory at Marseilles, was the first as. ter ; while the bear, unable to pur. tronomer who discovered the cosue him (for one of the peculiarities met in France, on the 20th of last Literary, &c., Intelligence. . [Jan. 1, month; and M. Thuis, of the said its environs, a strong shock of establishment, noticed it on the 21st an earthquake, accompanied with and 22d. From the observations some very remarkable circumstan. which they communicated to the ces. The noise, which was heard astronomers at Paris, M. Burck. at the moment of the commotion, hardt determined the following or resembled the rattling of carriages bit, which he presented to the class proceeding with great velocity. of mathematical and philosophical The fishermen on the Rhine saw sciences of the National Institute, on numbers of fish thrown out of the the 5th of this month : Passage to water. The wind suddenly ceased, the perihelion, 25th September, the sky became suddenly thick three, A. M. ; distance of ihe peri. with clouds, and towards midnight helion 0.6158 ; perihelion 291° 4' ; a shock again occurred, which was nucleus 267° 47'; inclination 48° 4'; followed by a third, about three in movement direct. These hints, the morning. On the preceding says M. Burckhardt, will be suffi- day there was a sharp frost, which cient to calculate the route of the in many places congealed the wacomet, but it may be discovered ter. No lives were lost by the without any trouble, as it is distin- event. guishable by the naked eye as soon as night has closed. It is now (September 25th) to the left of Arc. Launch of earl Stanhope's new turus, between the stars of the invented vessel.-Yesterday the boreal crown and those of Libra launch of this curious constructed to the west. Its motion is one de- vessel, invented by earl Stanhope, gree per day towards the north, took place in the pond in Kensingand rather more than a degree to. ton gardens, opposite the palace, wards the east. This comet was where it was brought in an unfialso seen on the 28th at Vezoul, nished state last week from Mr. and M. Flaugergues perceived it on Keating's, carpenter, in Castle. the 26th at Viviers. It seemed to street, Oxford-street. The work. him like a white nebulous spot, vemen were ever since busy in com. ry brilliant, and similar to a star of pleting it, and had not entirely the second magnitude. It was sur finished it before three o'clock yesrounded by a nebulosity of about terday afternoon. It is thirty six minutes in diameter, and had a feet long by seven wide: it has a tail about a degree and a half in round bottom, both ends being sharp length. It is the opinion of the In- something like a weaver's shuttle. stitute that this comet is different The sides were painted yellow, from any with which we are ac- with the port holes on the sides; quainted.

and windows at each end, painted A letter from Munich, dated Oc- to imitate real. On each side, toe tober 8, says:

wards each end (as it was made to · On the 1st inst. a comet was sail either way without putting observed in the north-west of the about), were three gills, which horizon; it is large, and rather opened out, or closed, by means of pale. Its tail appearing direct to pulling an iron rod on the deck, wards the earth, prevents a correct which was cased with copper in judgment being formed of its length. such a manner as to render it waYesterday, at 7 o'clock in the eve. ter-proof: instead of the bottom be. ning, that phenomenon .again 'ap- ing pitched outside, it was covered peared. In the last century three with a composition, an invention of comets were seen, one in 1709, one the noble earl's, which, as soon as in 1740, and the other in 1768. : spread on quite hot, became so hard

that a chisel could not cut it, and On the evening of the 11th Sep. it had the quality of resisting any tember, was telt at Nieuwied, and force by its being elastic, so as to answer the purpose of copper highly gratified at the sight, which covering. His lordship's country made amends for the disappointseat is covered with the same ment in the morning on account of composition instead of lead. The the delay. His lordship, after trylaunch, and the experiments to be ing several experiments in roundtried, were expected to take place ing, tacking, and keeping to a cerbetween eleven and twelve o'clock, tain point, landed about six o'clock, at which hour there were between and expressed his perfect satisfac. three and four hundred persons tion, and confidence in having sucpresent, among whom were several ceeded in his design ; the benefits ladies of distinction, and many na. and advantages of which are numeval officers; but being informed rous, and are as follows :--that that she would not be ready to be there is one-third of the expence launched before three o'clock, most saved in the construction of a seof the company dispersed; some re. venty-four; that on account of being turned to town, others strolled rather flat-bottomed, it will carry through the delightful and roman. more tonnage ; it will navigate in tic walks in the gardens; and very shallow water, and over breakothers went to take some refresh- ers or sunken rocks, without the ment in the town of Kensington. risk that a ship without a keel runs; At the hour of three o'clock, the on approaching any rock or coast, crowd began to re-assemble in it can immediately retire, without great numbers. About a quarter loss of time in putting about ; does past three it was launched into the not require half the sails, all of water, by means of rollers placed which can be worked by the men on on deal planks. Previous to being the deck, without going aloft; the launched, there was a temporary composition which covers it is infi. ladder fixed to one end, in order to nitely cheaper than copper, and anascertain which answered best, that swers the same purpose ; it can sail or the gills. As soon as it was nearly against the wind, by working launched there was one ton and à the gills ; with many other advanhalf of ballast taken on board ; his tages with which we are as yet un. lordship and a lieutenant of the na. acquainted. Several experienced vy, and some sailors, &c., went on officers expressed themselves very board ; having no sails, they rowed warmly in favour of it. The next up and down the pond, then twice trial will be in the presence of some round; the men at the oars kept of the lords of the admiralty, &c. pulling regularly; when it was found that the gills beat the rudder in velocity, and turned coastways On Monday, December the 14th, with greater ease, having the ad. between break of day and sunrise, vantage of returning back without a terrestrial meteor was seen from pulling about ship. After the first Poughkeepsie, in the state of New trial there was another ton of bal. York, flaming across the heavens in last taken on board. After being a direction from N. W. to S. E. an hour on the water the second Apparently it was as large as the time, during which his lordship moon at full, inconceivably light, and marked down his remarks, about 5 travelled with amazing velocity, o'clock the masts were put on leaving a luminous train behind. board, the canvas spread, with the The light occasioned thereby, when union jack at the mainmast head: it crossed the zenith, was nearly she then sailed most majestically equal to mid-day. A ridge of hea. with a light wind, and nothing vy, dark clouds lay along the south could possibly make a grander ap- and east, behind which it passed when pearance. She returned with the it had arrived within about 30 deother head foremost, without put- grees of the horizon, illuminating ting about. The spectators were the cloud, for a moment, in all its

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