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OF THE ISLANDS FERNANDEZ AND
something to remark, that she ex or in the Asiatic style : he called claimed with a sigh, I no longer him the sun of botanists, the Jupiter wonder that Linnæus is so well of the literati, the secretary of Naknown over the whole province of ture, an ocean of science, a moving Upsala! Linnæus, who, instead of mountain of erudition, and other apthe province of Upsala, expected to pellations to the same effect. Linhear the whole universe, was so næus, far from feeling displeasure shocked, that he would show her at such excessive and ridiculous nothing more of the museum, and compliments, interrupted the panesent the lady away quite confounded gyrist at each phrase, embracing at the change of his humour, and at him, and calling him his dearest the same time firmly believing that friend. her high encomium had wounded the feelings of the great philosopher.
One day, being in a melancholy temper, he gave orders that no per For the Literary Magazine. son should be admitted to him, and placed himself, in his bed-gown and AN ACCOUNT night-can, sad and pensive, upon his OF JUAN sofa. An officer in the Swedish ser. MASA FUERO, IN THE PACIvice arrived with a party of ladies, who had made a journey for the ex. press purpose of seeing the Linnæan THE island of Juan Fernandez collection. The officer was denied has frequently been described by admittance; but, being aware of the early navigators of the Pacific Linnæus' caprice, he would not be ocean, who touched there for rerefused by the servant, but pushed freshments, and by the freebooters by him, and entered the chamber who made it a place of resort for where Linnæus was sitting. At the rendezvous of their forces or the first some indignation was shown at division of their spoil. At a convethis intrusion ; but the officer intro. nient distance from the coast of duced the ladies with a most extra. Peru, unsettled and unfortified, vagant panegyric to the illustrious abounding in almost every requisite philosopher, who was the sole object for refitting, revictualling, wooding, of their journey; to the man whom and watering, it became not only a the whole world allowed to be the desirable station, but was long an greatest ; to that man who had put unsuspected or despised retreat. Nature herself to the rack, in order. The dormant vigilance, however, to discover her dearest secrets, &c. of the Spaniards, was at length Linnæus's surly humour instantly for: aroused, and a settlement was made sook him, and he never appeared in 1766 or 1767 upon the island of more amiable in his manners than to Juan Fernandez. In the latter this officer, whom he embraced ten- year, captain Carteret, on his voyderly, calling him his true friend, &c. age round the world, upon opening He was so singularly enamoured with Cumberland bay, was suprized to praise, that his mind was never in find the island in possession of the that sedate state which would have Spaniards, who had built a fort, on enabled him to distinguish true com which the Spanish colours were flymendation from flattery and decep- ing and some cannon mounted. Ma. tion. The clergyman, who at first ny cattle were seen on the hills, did not credit such reports, was con- and about twenty houses on differvinced of their reality by one of his ent parts of the island. Carteret friends, who composed so ridiculous neither anchored nor had any coma eulogy for Linnæus, that the weak- munication with the shore, but sailest child might have treated it as a ed immediately for Masa Fuero. farce or satire ; it was worded in Since that time no accounts have the bombast of the middle ages, been given to the public respecting
VOL. VIII. NO, LI.
it; for, with the characteristic jea. scene of verdure, being covered with lousy of the nation, access to its wood. The west side affords no shores was denied to strangers al- anchorage, nor any landing-place, most without exception. An intel. the cliffs rising almost perpendiculigent and zealous navigator, how- larly from the sea. When abreast ever, lieutenant John Moss, of the of the north-west point, the first British navy, then commanding the valley or landing-place opens where ship William on the southern whale there is anchorage in fourteen faand seal fishery, visited both Juan thom water, but quite in an open Fernandez and the adjacent island and exposed situation. Here, the of Masa Fuero, in the year 1792. It Spaniards have a guard-house and is from his MSS. that the following one gun. About half a mile to the account of the modern state of those east-north-east is the great bay islands is given, and may be not un- (Cumberland bay of the buccaneers), acceptable to the public, contrasted which is land-locked from east to with the accounts which have ap- north-west by west; but there is no peared of its former state, when un. anchorage in less than forty fathoms, inhabited and uncultivated.
till within half a cable's length of Juan Fernandez lies in latitude the shore. The town or village is 330 40 S. and 80° 30' W. from very pleasantly situated in a fine Greenwich*. In making this is valley between two high hills. A land captain Moss first stood along battery of five guns is placed just the west side of it, and at noon round the west point of the harbour, came abreast of the north point. and commands the road, though it He was not aware of its having been is very possible to land without a settled by the Spaniards, and went gun being brought to bear on the in the boat to see if there was a boats. This battery is built of loose safe anchorage, and to catch fish. stones, piled up breast high, and In hauling round the north-west forming embrazures, without mortar point, he was surprized to find the or any kind of cement. On the left place fortified, and a small village of the valley, on a little eminence, in the valley. He immediately another battery was then construct. landed, and applied to the governor ing of masonry; it has two faces, for leave to anchor and to fish with fourteen embrazures in each, Neither request, however, one face pointing to the anchorage, formally granted; but getting into and the other fanking the village ; a position where none of the guns there were only five guns mounted could bear on the boat, he caught as on that side which faces the road, many fish as served the whole and one on the other. By cutting a ship's company:
serpentine path along the side of the In making the island from the west- western hill, two small guns have ward, it appears elevated at the been got to the top of it. Accordnorth end, and slopes away towards ing to the report of the command. the south, with a remarkable islet ant, however, the whole force on the or large rock detached about half a island, in January, 1792, consisted of mile off the south point. At a dis- six soldiers, and forty of the settlers tance the whole island appears like armed and trained. Captain Moss an entire rock; but on a nearer ap was not at that time permitted to proach the intersecting vallies dis- refresh his crew at Juan Fernandez. cover themselves, and display a fine He saw great numbers of goats on
the sides of every hill, and regretted * Dampier assigns its situation in much that he could not be allowed 34° 45' s. latitude, 84° W. longitude ; to stay, on account of the progress but the publiser of Anson's Voyage, of the scurvy on board his ship, as well as captain Sharp, placing it in which would have been speedily arthe latitude of 33° 40', are confirmed rested by the fresh venison, fish, and by captain Moss.
vegetables to be obtained there.
On the 15th of November, 1792, sion of the herb of Paraguay, which however, he touched a second time they suck up through a pipe or tube, at Juan Fernandez, and when with which serves more than one person, in three miles of the great bay, went and is handed over from one to the on shore to obtain the governor's other. The women were in genepermission to cut wood. This time ral handsome, and every house leave was most readily granted by swarmed with children. In one to the governor, don Juan Calvo de la which captain Moss paid a visit, Canteza, who supplied all the wants there was a young woman only of the English as much as was in his twenty years of age, who had six power. He ordered his own people children, and was again pregnant. to assist in cutting wood, and his Strangers who fall in with Juan oxen to draw it to the water side. Fernandez and Masa Fuero may A small present, which captain mistake the one for the other, as Moss, from his nearly exhausted they both lie in the same latitude, stock, made to the governor in re- though they are very different. turn for his civilities, consisted of a The north end of Juan Fernandez dozen of wine, a dozen of plates, is highest, while Masa Fuero is two dishes, half a dozen of wine. lowest to the north. This circum.' glasses, a small pot of pickles, and stance, and the small island which a pair of new boots. In return he lies off the south end of Juan Fer. presented captain Moss with a loaf nandez, are distinctive marks to be of sugar, four fine sheep, a large depended on. The two islands lie quantity of vegetables, milk, and as eighty miles from each other, but much crawfish as he wanted. He one has been seen from the other in also allowed him to purchase the a clear day. flesh of two bullocks jerked, which
The island of Masa Fuero is un. cost a mere trifle.
inhabited, except by seals and goats. There are about forty houses in It lies in latitude 33° 41' south, and the town, and several in different longitude 81° 40' west. There is parts of the island. Every house no practicable landing-place on the has a garden, with arbours of grape north end of the island, on account vines, forming a delightful shade. of the prodigious surf; and on the Figs, cherries, plumbs, and almonds east side, where captain Moss landappeared, all green, and abundance ed, it is so bad, that the people of potatoes, cabbages, onions, thyme, were obliged to swim through the and other vegetables and herbs; but surf, after procuring some boatnone of them in perfection, as a kind loads of seal skins. Seals abound of grub is said in a great measure to here, and the shores are covered destroy the kitchen gardens. with them. There is likewise plen
The dress of the women is very ty of wood, but difficult to be got off: singular: they wear a petticoat in one of the vailies four or five which reaches only a little below the cords of wood were found, whick knee, and which is spread out by a the heavy .surf prevented them hoop at the bottom to a great dis- from getting away, as it probably tance round them, leaving the legs had done the persons who cut it. entirely exposed, and, were it not The wood is principally a kind of for the drawers they wear, all below red cedar, and a sort of hard yelthe waist might be seen when they low wood like box, capable of taking stoop. They wear long hair, plait., a fine polish. During the time the ed into forty or fifty small braids,' Williain remained at the island, which hang straight down the back. goats enough were caught to afford This dress, the governor stated, was the crew a constant supply of fresh likewise that of the ladies of Peru provisions ; and abundance of fish and Chili. In every house that cap- may likewise be taken in a very tain Moss entered, he was presented short time. Captain Moss sa.w by the women with maté, the infu. large and small hawks there; the
smallest no bigger than a goldfinch, ing a considerable distance from the and something like it. Living shore. On the east side there is a wholly undisturbed by, man in this small inlet that has good landing distant spot, these birds were quite when the wind is from S. W. to N. tame. A wild cabbage was found, N. W., but the wind at S. E. blows but it would not boil soft ; the sail. right in. It is the only place they ors, however, eat it. The island saw where a boat could be hauled is distant from the main land of up. They got there 2100 seals in South America one hundred and the few days of their stay. Captain forty leagues, and eighty miles west Moss called this inlet Enderby's of Juan Fernandez. The south end Cove, in compliment to one of his is the highest, its cliffs being almost owners. perpendicular from the sea, and in the calmest, weather it has a bad surf breaking on it. The north end is also high, but a fine green low For the Literary Magazine. point stretches from the bottom of the cliff to the northward, a perfect GARNERIN'S NOCTURNAL ASCENlevel of at least a mile and a half. The east side of the island is the most pleasing, being split into val. GARNERIN, the celebrated aelies which are rich in verdure, co ronaut, has addressed the following vered with trees, and abounding letter to the editors of one of the with flowers of the lily and violet Paris journals: kinds. A copious stream of water Gentlemen, before I undertake runs down every valley, and ex. the second nocturnal aerial voyage, pands in its descent amongst the which will take place at Tivoli on rocks into several successive reser. Saturday, the 19th of September, I voirs, which hold large quantities. ought to give some account of that Bat the seals play in these waters which I performed in the night be so far up the vallies, that the wa. tween the 4th and 5th of August ter has a bad taste, unless it is ta. last. ken from above the places which My balloon was lighted by 20 they frequent.
lamps. Many persons felt some Masa Fuero yields all the refresh: alarm from the number of these ments that can reasonably be wish- lights, and their proximity to the ed, and if it afforded good anchor- balloon, in case a diminution of the age, it would be a very desirable pressure in the upper regions place for ships to touch at ; but it should oblige me to let out the hydoes not, though there are places drogen gas by the lower orifices. where an anchor may be let go in They feared lest, in this case, the foul ground. On a temporary visit, gas should find its way to the lights, however, standing off and on an take fire, and communicate the swers every purpose, and nothing flames to the balloon. I had forebut great distress can warrant an seen this inconvenience. In the choring here. When under weigh, first place, the balloon, which was a vessel is ready to shift as the wind the same in which I ascended at does, thereby always keeping on the Milan, was only two-thirds filled, lee side of the island, for it is im- that I might defer the emission of possible to land on the weather side. the gas as long as possible ; in the All ships that come here for seals next, the nearest lamps to the balshould have a strong built boat to loon were 14 feet distant from it ; anchor behind the surf, where she and lastly, conductors were placed might be loaded by hauling them in such a manner as to convey the off.
Captain Moss had his boats gas away in a direction contrary to staved in one of his attempts to land, the lights. the surf running so high, and break Having made these arrange
ments, I felt no hesitation to under. which I had not before seen since take a nocturnal voyage. I ascend. my departure. ed from Tivoli, at 11 at night, un At a quarter to three, I heard der the Russian flag, as a token of country people speak, and remarkpeace. There was not any decided ing the illumination of my balloon. current in the atmosphere, but only Having asked them, they informed undulations, which tossed me about, me that I was over the department I believe a great part of the night. of L'Aisne. To this it was owing, that I was first The sun gradually approaching, carried towards St. Cloud, and after afforded me, at half past three, the wards brought back over Vincennes, magnificent spectacle of his rising in a diametrically opposite direction. above an ocean of clouds. The How favourable this circumstance warmth of his rays acting on the would have been to the speculations balloon, the hydrogen gas again exof those who pretend to direct bal. panded; the atmospheric air be. loons! I was in the full force of my came more rarified, while there ascension when the fire-works of was nothing to add to the quantity Tivoli were let off ; the rockets of the counterbalancing weight. scarcely seemed to rise from the The consequence was a new ascenearth ; Paris, with its lamps, ap- sion, during which I was tossed peared a plain, studded with lu. about Rheims and Chalons, and minous spots. Forty minutes after carried at four o'clock to an eleva. my departure I attained an eleva. tion of more than 8000 fathoms
; tion of 2200 fathoms; the thermo- there, under a magnificent sky anci meter fell 3 degrees below 0. My a resplendent sun, I experienced balloon dilated considerably as it a cold of ten degrees. The balloon passed through a cloud; in which dilated much more considerably The lights lost their brilliancy, and than it had yet done. The tempeseemed ready to be extinguished. rature was insupportable ; tormentIt was as urgent to give vent to the ed by cold, hunger, and a disposihydrogen gas, dilated to such a de- tion to sleep, I resolved to descend, gree as to threaten to burst the bal. in an oblique direction, which loon, as it was interesting to collect brought me to the ground in the comsome of the air of this region. mune of Courmelois, near the banks Both these operations I performed of the Vesle, five leagues from at once without difficulty ; and the Rheims, not far from Loges, and emission of the gas brought me to a 45 leagues from Paris, after a voymilder region.
age of seven hours and a half. At 12 o'clock I was only 600 fa The air collected forty minutes thoms from the earth, and heard after my departure in a cloud, in the barking of dogs. A quarter of which the lights lost their brillianan hour afterwards I lost sight of cy, and seemed on the point of goall the lights on the earth, grew ex. ing out, presented, on analysis, no tremely cold, and could no longer remarkable difference from the air perceive the stars, doubtless on ac. taken on the surface of the earth. count of the clouds.
There was only a very small addiAt one in the morning, the cold tional portion of carbonic acid, but still continuing, I was carried to a not sufficient to produce any change higher elevation; the hydrogen gas in the state of my lights. It was again expanded. About two, I per- nothing but the density of the ceived the stars, and saw several clouds, ready to be converted into meteors dancing about the balloon, rain, that diminished their brillianbut at such a distance, as not to cy. Though I was carried, at four give me any alarm.
o'clock, to the height of more than At half after two, the day began three thousand fathoms, my head to dawn with me, and having again was not so swollen but that I could descended, I perceived the eartla, put on my hat; on the contrary, I