Page images

the eye

land song ;

Are chill and comfortless; or barn- the time of Henry VII. It contains yard snug,

many curious particulars, which Where flocking birds, of various mark the manners and way of livplume, and chirp

ing in that rude, not to say barbarDiscordant, cluster on the leaning ous age; as well as the prices of stack,

commodities. I have extracted a few From whence the thresher draws the of them from that piece, which rustling sheaves.

gives a true picture of ancient manO, Nature! all thy seasons please ners, and is one of the most singu.

lar monuments that English antiOf him who sees a Deity in all. quity affords us : for we may be It is His presence that diffuses confident, however rude the strokes, charms

that no baron's family was on a noUnspeakable, o’er mountain, wood, bler or more splendid footing The and stream.

family consists of 166 persons, masTo think that He, who hears the hea

ters and servants : 57 strangers are venly choirs, Hearkens complacent to the wood. whole 223. Two-pence halfpenny

reckoned upon every day : on the

are supposed to be the daily ex. To think that he who rolls yon solar

pence of each for meat, drink, and sphere, Uplifts the warbling songster to the firing. This would make a groat sky;

of our present money : supposing To mark His presence in the migh- provisions between three and four ty bow,

times cheaper, it would be equivaThat spans the clouds, as in the lent to fourteen-pence : no great tints minute

sum for a nobleman's house-keepOf tiniest flower; to hear his awful ing ; especially considering that the voice

chief expence of a family, at that In thunder speak, and whisper in the time, consisted in meat and drink: gale ;

for the sum allotted by the earl for To know, and feel his care for all his whole annual expence is 1118 that lives;

pounds, 17 shillings, and 8 pence; 'Tis this that makes the barren waste

meat, drink, and firing cost 796 appear

pounds, 11 shillings, and 2 pence, A fruitful field, each grove a para more than two thirds of the whole : dise.

in a modern family it is not above Yes! place me 'mid far stretching

The woodless wilds,

a third, p. 157, 158, 159. Where no sweet song is heard ; the is managed with an exactness that

whole expence of the earl's family heath-bell there Would sooth my weary sight, and is very rigid, and, if we make no

allowance for ancient manners, tell of Thee! There would my gratefully uplifted such as may seem to border on an eye

extreme ; insomuch, that the numSurvey the heavenly vault by day, by ber of pieces, which must be cut night,

out of every quarter of beef, mutWhen glows the firmament from ton, pork, veal, nay stock-fish and pole to pole;

salmon, are determined, and must There would my overflowing heart be entered and accounted for by the exclaim,

different clerks appointed for that The heavens declare the glory of the purpose. If a servant be absent a Lord,

day, his mess is struck off: if he go The firmament shows forth his handy on my lord's business, board wages work!

are allowed him, eight-pence a day

for his journey in winter, five-pence The duke of Northumberland has in summer : when he stays in any lately printed a household book of an place, two-pence a day are allowed old earl of that family, who lived in him, beside the maintenance of his

horse. Somewhat above a quarter once a month. Only forty shillings of wheat is allowed for every mouth are allowed for washing throughthroughout the year; and the wheat out the whole year; and most of it is estimated at five shillings and seems expended on the linen beeight-pence a quarter. Two hun- longing to the chapel. The drinkdred and fifty quarters of malt are ing, however, was tolerable ; nameallowed, at four shillings a quarter: ly, ten tuns and two hogsheads of two hogsheads are to be made of a Gascogny wine, at the rate of 4 quarter; which amounts to about a pounds 13 shillings and 4 pence a bottle and a third of beer a day to tun, p. 6. Only ninety-one dozen each person, p. 4, and the beer will of candles for the whole year, p. 14. not be very strong. One hundred The family rose. at six in the and nine fat beeves are to be bought morning, dined at ten, and supped at Allhallow-tide, at thirteen shil. at four in the afternoon: the gates lings and four-pence a piece : and were all shut at nine, and no fartwenty-four lean beeves to be ther ingress or egress permitted, p. bought at St. Helen's at eight shil- 314, 318. My lord and lady have lings a piece : these are to be put set on their table for breakfast at into the pastures to feed ; and are seven o'clock in the morning a to serve from midsummer to Mi- quart of beer; as much wine ; two chaelmas; which is consequently pieces of salt fish, six red-herrings, the only time that the family cats four white ones, or a dish of sprats. fresh beef : during all the rest of In flesh days half a chine of mutthe year they live on salted meat, ton, or a chine of beef boiled, p. p. 5. One hundred and sixty gal- 73, 75. Mass is ordered to be said lons of mustard are allowed in a at six o'clock, in order, says the year; which seems indeed requi. household-book, that all my lord's site for the salt beef, p. 18. Six servants may rise early, p. 170. hundred and forty-seven sheep are Only twenty-four fires are allowed, allowed, at twenty-pence a piece ; beside the kitchen and hall, and and these seem also to be all eat most of these have only a peck of salted, except between Lammas coals a-day allowed them, p. 99. Afand Michaelmas, p. 5. Only twena ter Lady-day, no fires permitted in ty-five hogs are allowed, at two the rooms, except half-fires in my shillings a piece ; twenty-eight lord's and lady's, and lord Piercy's veals at twenty-pence ; forty lambs and the nursery, p. 101. It is to be at ten-pence or a shilling, p. 7. observed that my lord kept house These seem to be reserved for my in Yorkshire, where there is cerlord's table, or that of the upper tainly much cold weather after servants, called the knights’-table. Lady-day. Eighty chalders of coals The other servants, as they eat at four shillings and two-pence a salted meat, almost through the chalder, suffices throughout the whole year, and with few or no ve whole year; and because coal will getables, had a very bad and un not burn without wood, says the healthy diet : so that there cannot household-book, sixty-four loads of be anything more erroneous, than great wood are also allowed, at the magnificent ideas formed of the twelve-pence a load, p. 22. This roast beef of old England. We is a proof that grates were not then must entertain as mean an idea of used. Here is an article. It is deits cleanliness : only seventy ells of vised that from henceforth no calinen, at eight-pence an ell, are an- pons to be bought but only for my nually allowed for this great fami- lord's own mess, and that the said ca. ly: no sheets were used : this linen pons shall be bought for two-pence was made into eight table-cloths a piece, lean, and fed in the pouliry; for my lord's table; and one table- and master chamberlain and the cloth for the knights, p. 16. This stewards be fed with capons, if there last, I suppose, was washed only be strangers sitting with them, p.

p. 325*

102. Pigs are to be bought at yet seventeen carts and one waggon three-pence or a groat a piece : suffices for the whole, p. 391 One geese at the same price : chickens cart suffices for all his kitchen utenat a half-penny : hens at two-pence, sils, cooks' beds, &c., p. 388. One and only for the above-mentioned ta. remarkable circumstance is, that bles. Here is another article. he has eleven priests in his house, Item, i' is thought good that no plo. besides seventeen persons, chanvers be bought at no season but only in ters, musicians, &c., belonging to Christmas and principal feasts, his chapel : yet he has only two and my lord to be served there with cooks for a family of 223 persons, and his board-end, and none other,

Their meals were cer. and to be bought for a penny a tainly dressed in the slovenly manpiece, or a prenny half-penny at ner of a ship's company. It is most, p. 103. Woodcocks are to amusing to observe the pompous be bought at the same price. Par. and even royal style assumed by tridges at two-pence, p. 104, 105. this Tartar chief: he does not give Pheasants a shilling ; peacocks the any orders, though only for the same, p. 106. My lord keeps only right making of mustard, but it is twenty-seven horses in his stable at introduced with this preamble, It his own charge : his upper servants seemeth good to us and our council. have allowance for maintaining If we consider the magnificent and their own horses, p. 126. These elegant manner in which the Vene. horses are, six gentle horses, as

tian and other Italian noblemen they are called, at hay and hard then lived, with the progress made meat throughout the whole year, by the Italians in literature and four palfreys, three hobbies and the fine arts, we shall not wonder nags, three sumpter horses, six hor. that they considered the ultramonses for those servants to whom my tane nations as barbarous. The Fle. lord furnishes a horse, two sumpter mish also seem to have much excellhorses more, and three mill horses, ed the English, and even the French. two for carrying the corn, and one

Yet the earl is sometimes not defi. for grinding it; whence we may in- cient in generosity : he pays for infer that mills, either water stance an annual pension of a groat wind-mills, were then unknown, at a year to my lady of Walsingham, least very rare : besides these, there for her interest in heaven; the are seven great trotting horses for the

to the holy blood at chariot or waggon.

He allows a Hales, p. 337. No mention is any peck of oats a day, besides loaves where made of plate ; but only of made of beans for his principal the hiring of pewter vessels. The horses; the oats at twenty pence,

servants seem all to have bought the beans at two shillings a quar- their own clothes from their wages. ter. The load of hay is at two shillings and eight-pence. When my lord is on a journey, he carries

Indolence. thirty-six horsemen along with him ; together with bed and other accom If industry is no more than habit, modation, p. 157. The inns, it it is, at least, an excellent one. If seems, could afford nothing tolera. you ask me which is the real here. ble. My lord passes the year in ditary sin of human nature, do you three country-seats, all in' York. imagine I shall answer pride, or shire, Wrysel, Leckenfield, and luxury, or ambition, or egotism? Topclyffe ; but he has furniture on

In another place, mention is ly for one : he carries every thing made of four cooks, p. 388.

But I along with him, beds, tables, chairs, suppose, that the two servants, called kitchen utensils, all which, we may in p. 325 groom of the larder and child conclude, were so coarse, that they of the scullery, are, in p. 388, comprecould not be spoilt by the carriage : hended in the number of cooks.






No; I shall say, indolence. Who trifling injuries, and look down with
conquers indolence will conquer all proud contempt on the malice of
the rest. Indeed, all good princi. their enemies, and the infidelity of
ples must stagnate without mental their friends.


It is the power of attention All the performances of human which in a great measure distinart, at which we look with praise guishes the wise and the great from or wonder, are instances of the re the vulgar and trifling herd of men. sistless force of perseverance ; it is The latter are accustomed to think, by this that the quarry becomes a or rather to dream, without knowpyramid, and that distant countries ing the subject of their thoughts. are united by Canals. If a In their unconnected rovings, they was to compare the effect of a sin- pursue no end, they follow no track; gle stroke with the pick-axe, or of every thing floats loose and disjointone impression of a spade, with the ed on the surface of their minds, general design and last result, he like leaves scattered and blown would be overwhelmed with the about on the face of the waters. sense of their disproportion ; yet those petty operations, incessantly continued, in time surmount the A late writer, speaking of the greatest difficulties; and moun- inflections of the ancient languages, tains are levelled, and oceans compared with the use of auxiliabounded, by the slender force of hu- ries and particles among the moman beings. It is, therefore, of the derns, expresses himself to the folutmost importance, that those who lowing effect : have any intention of deviating

Our modern languages may, in from the beaten roads of life, and this respect, be compared to the art. acquiring a reputation superior to of carpentry in its rudest state, names hourly swept away by time when the union of the materials emamong the refuse of fame, should ployed by the artisan, could be efadd to their reason, and their spi- fected only by the help of these exsit, the power of persisting in their ternal coarse implements, pins, purposes ; acquire the art of sap, nails, and cramps. The ancient ping what they cannot batter; and languages resemble the same art in the habit of vanquishing obstinate its mosi improved state, after the resistance by obstinate attacks. invention of dovetail, joints, grooves,

and mortises, when all the principal

functions are effected by adapting Characters 'enervated by Prospe- properly the extremities of the rity feel the smallest inconvenience pieces to one another. as a serious calamity ; and, unable to bear the touch of rude and vio. lent hunds, require to be treated, like young and tender flowers, with For the Literary Magazine. delicacy and attention ; while those who have been educated in the rough school of Adversity walk over the thorns of life with a firm and intrepid step, and kick them

From the French. from the path with indifference and contempt. Superior to the false IN a very large hall of the vica. opinions and prejudices of the world, ria, or justice-court, at Naples, are they bear with patient fortitude the assembled sundry persons dressed blow of misfortune, disregard all in black, their heads covered with



immense full bottomed perukes; gether. On a second floor every these are gentlemen, very well paid, kind of nastiness was permitted and for coming once a fortnight, and en. practised. When a number was during a quarter of an hour's weari. drawn, it was announced through a ness, in a convenient situation. The window, to an agent placed in the boy who, as usual in other countries, street, for the purpose, who prodraws the nuinbers, is loaded with ceeded instantly to inform the adimages of saints : he is blessed and ministration of the lottery, and, as drenched with holy water before he he went, communicated his intellicommences his labours. Nearly gence to the curious. Directly as two thousand persons are squeezed the people perceived from a distogether in this hall; and although tance the approach of one of these every window and door is open, yet agents, a general exclamation enthe air is so loaded with mephitic sued, and thousands of hands waved vapours, that, I incline to think, no in the air, for the Neapolitans do candle would burn in it. The hoot. nothing without action. All spoke ings and hisses of the mad-head- together, during half a minute, to ed populace are yet more intolera. communicate their deep reflections ble, if possible, than the offensive among their neighbours : after exhalations. Often might a specta. which they waited till another mes. tor ask himself, whether he were senger appeared. The fury of lotnot in a mad-house ? If one of the tery gaming is more excessive here commissioners comes rather late, than in other places, because here he is received with reproaches and superstition finds most room for its hisses enough to turn the head of exercise : and the Neapolitaus are the most sagacious counsellor. determined in the choice of their When the wheel goes round, the numbers by the most despicable shout of the spectators is horrible. artifices, such as calculation to pre

The first drawn ticket, being giv. dict their success, &c. The folly en by the boy who drew it to one of of this infernal game has infected the commissioners, he gave it to a the whole population, and even the lazzaroni who stood behind him. beggars commit to chance the very Instantly the hall resounded with alms they have received. shouts of applause and screams of joy; the second number, on the contrary, was received with expressions of chagrin. I went out at this For the Literary Magazine. instant, to escape the crowd. On the stair-case, I met another personage, whose attentions were directed to the purse : it was a pious, From Acerbi's Travels. good soul, who, speculating on the numerous assembly, took this oppor A LADY of the province of Up. tunity of soliciting donations on be- sala, who had never been beyond its half of the souls in purgatory. The boundaries, applied to a friend of idea was a good one, especially was Linnæus for a letter of recommenit applicable before the drawing be- dation, that she might have an opgun to those who were interested in portunity of making the acquaintthe event, because, at that time, ance of this eminent character, and, every one would hope his good at the same time, see his collection. works might be rewarded by the The philosopher received her with favours of fortune. The stair-case much politeness, and, as he was was moreover filled with lame beg- showing her the museum, the good gars; and in order to comprize lady was so filled with astonishment every characteristic of the Neapo- at the sight of an assemblage of such litans, superstition, gambling, po- a number of different objects, upon verty, and filth were huddled to each of which Linnæus had always


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