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men. By this means they acquire surety of their friends. Though a celerity and adroitness far sur the commodities here are as good passing the dexterity of those in their kind and as cheap as at whose attention is divided by a other places of sale, the resort of multiplicity of objects; and, as the the dependants is entirely a matter workmen are paid by the piece, of choice. The institution seems to this power of execution is always have been calculated to preserve preserved in activity. A boy, those who were destitute of ready whom we saw fabricating a chain, money from the fraud of the pawnmade a link from a bar of iron, and broker and the extortion of the added it to the rest, in less than shopkeeper. It is, probably, the one minute ; for even boys here are knowledge of this circumstance, urged to sedulity by an equitable which induces the more substantial recompence for their labours. artificers to buy in other markets,
Corporation tyranny has not yet and which made our host solicitous taught the successors of Crowley to to inform us that he never frequenta exact from a man the labour of his ed the shop. As no one, however, youth, for teaching him an art that is excluded from the advantage, may be learnt in his infancy. no account can be passed at the Here boys work for some time be- pay-office till signed by the agent at fore they are bound to an appren the shop. ticeship; but when engaged, either We were enabled to form some to the company or an individual, idea of the importance of this exthey receive a regular stipend, and tensive manufacture, when we were at the end of their term either iiformed that not less than five and commence business themselves, or sometimes 6001. are issued from engage as journey men with others. this office every week. Within the Indeed, what they call apprentices, limits of our informant's recollecseem to be only journeymen, engaga tion, which comprised a period of ed for a particular term : thus our at least forty years, the price of arinformant had a man about 25 ticles to the workmen had neither years of age, whom he had instructo increased nor diminished, except in ed in his business of hammer-mak. a very few particulars. The numing, and had afterwards engaged, ber of manufacturers too was not under the name of an apprentice, to supposed to have altered, though serve him for seven years, at a sa. the demand for the goods of the faclary of 10s. 6d. per week. He em tory had increased. That the de. ployed several others at the same mand for labour should increase, salary, he discharging to the com whilst the number of hands remainpany their poors’-farthings, and the ed the same, and the prices unaugcompany paying him for their work mented, was a paradox that apby the piece.
peared to subvert every principle Our informant, like many other of economics, till we reflected, that mastermen, frequently suffered his the equilibrium might have been account with the company to re- preserved by the increase of immain unsettled for some months, provement of machinery, and the only depositing his work in a gene. skill acquired by subdivisions of la. ral warehouse, where a regular ac bour. A tilt hammer, in particu. count is kept, and an order on the lar, we were told, had been lately pay-office is given according to the erected at Winlaton Mills, of which claims of each. But this order is the strokes were 520 in one minute. not the only certificate which is re The machinery at this place, as quisite to the passing an account at well as at the forging hammers that office. A shop is kept by the and slitting mill at Swalwell, are company, where workmen may be amply supplied with water by the supplied with common necessaries river Derwent; nor are they but on the credit of their labour and the very rarely impeded by the tide,
which conducts to the doors of the be apprehended from the accidents factory the materials of their work. of package and conveyance. This navigation, however, extends Among these, the singular forme not beyond Swalwell: where, there- of the logwood axes attracted our fore, is the foundery, the anchor notice. They were made (except manufactory, and others of a heavy in the aperture for the handle) exkind, whilst the lighter articles are actly to resemble a wedge, of which fabricated at Winlaton and Winla- the edge and the back were equally ton Mills. They have no furnaces tempered to that if one stuck in the here to separate the iron from the wood, it was employed as a wedge, ore, and they cannot even forge suf. and, as they always work with two, ficient from what is called pig-iron a second was applied as a mallet. to supply the artificers, but import Cannon does not form an article of very large quantities in bars from their stores or manufacture, except the Baltic. The very sand employ- being employed as old metal, to be ed to form the moulds at the foun- refluxed and converted into the more dery is brought from no less a dis- harmless implements of agriculture tance than Highgate.
or culinary arts. Old anchors, too, From viewing the works we went we saw collected in great numbers, to visit the warehouse, where was but these are more easily renewable quantity suffcient to astonish, and into their old form (being entirely variety to amusemand inform. Here made by the hand and the hammer) we were shown..many instruments, than converted to any other purpose. of which we before knew not the The business of an anchor-smith existence; and, among the rest, one seems to be one of the most importwhich suggested to our minds a ant in the factory; we saw one, of striking contrast with the benevo- which the number was marked lence we had just witnessed in the 8,241, and the weight 8 cwt 2 qrs. institutions of Crowley. This was 20 hd., but learned that some were the head of a hoe, weighing four manufactured to the weight of 70 or pounds, and intended for the use of 80 cwt., which might be easily crethe negroes in the sultry climate of dited from the specimens that lay the West Indies; and this, too, we around us. were told, was not the largest of its Great as were the works which kind.
we had seen, we were yet surprised It is not very probable that they that we did not see more ; for the who thus impose on their fellow- quantity of waste iron must be so creatures the yoke of real wretch- great, and the expence of its reedness, should show themselves in. moval so considerable, that the erecdulgent to their imaginary scruples; tion of copperas-works seemed a or that they, who appear to have measure of obvious emolument. The stified the voice of conscience in company, however, are contented their own bosoms, should attentively to dispose of the materials, and listen to its most fanciful dictates in leave to others the profit of the work. another; yet were we assured, that the lamp-black and hard pitch with which we saw the old men employ
For the Literary Magazine. ed, in besmearing the tools of the Europeans, to preserve them from
IN BOOKS, WITH REMARKS ON rust, was never applied to those of
LOVE OF READING, IN the negroes, who would work only with polished instruments. Grindstones, we found, accompanied the From the “ Messenger of Euimplements exported to either In rope :" published at Moscow. dies, for the tools were left unfinish TWENTY years ago, there were ed in the edge, that less injury might but twobookseller's shops in Moscow,
PRESENT STATE OF COMMERCE
whose returns did not amount to ten that there are still many gentlethousand roubles a year. At pre men, in good circumstances, who do sent, the number of shops is aug. not take in the news papers; but mented to twenty, and their yearly then a number of merchants and return, altogether, is about 200,000 tradesmen delight in perusing them roubles. This striking increase of The poorest among the people subreaders, in Russia, cannot fail of scribe to à reading ; and even gratifying all who value the progress those who can neither read nor of human understanding ; and, who write are desirous of knowing how know that a disposition for literary matters go in foreign countries. An research is pre-eminently efficacious acquaintance of mine, seeing several in facilitating that progress:
pastry-cooks assembled together, Mr. Novikow has been the prin- and listening with great attention to cipal promoter of the trade and cir- the description of an engagement culation of books in Moscow. Have between the French and the Austriing rented the printing-office of the ans, found, on enquiry, that five of university of that city, he augment- them joined in subscribing for the ed the mechanical means of printing, paper, and that, four not being able procured translations of foreign to read, the remaining one made out books, established libraries in other the intelligence as well as he could, towns, and endeavoured, to the ut and the rest listened to him. most of his power, to make reading The Russian trade in books is an object of desire to the public, by certainly not equal to that of Gerstudying and anticipating the gene- many, France, or England ; but ral, as well as the individual taste. what may not time produce, if its He traded in books, as a rich Eng- progressive increase continues unlish or Dutch merchant does in the impeded? In most provincial towns produce of all countries : with intel- there are now libraries established; ligence, speculation, and foresight. every fair exhibits with other goods Formerly, not above 600 copies of the riches of literature ; and on Moscow newspapers were sold: Mr these occasions the Russian women Novikow enriched their contents ; generally furnish themselves with a to their political information he good stock of books. Traders or added several other departments, pedlars formerly travelled from and, at length, accompanied them, place to place with rings and ribgratis, with a work, which he deno. bons ; now they take an assortment minated the Juvenile Seminary of literature; and, though few of (Dietskoe Utchilishtze): the novel. them can read, they relate, by way ty of subjects, and variety of mat- of recommendation, the contents of ters comprized in this appendage, their romances and comedies, in a notwithstanding, the boyish trans manner peculiar to themselves: simlation of some pieces, greatly pleas- ple, eccentric, and amusing. I know ed the public. The number of sub- several country gentlemen whose inscribers increased yearly, and, in comes may not exceed 500 roubles ten years, amounted to 4000. Since per annum, who collect their little the year 1797, the gazettes be. libraries, as they call them; and, came important to Russia, by con while the luxurious carelessly throw taining the imperial decrees and aside, at random, the costly editions political intelligence; at present of Voltaire or Buffon, they suffer the sale of Moscow papers amounts not the least particle of dust to rest to 8000 copies, which, though incon on the adventures of Miramond* : siderable for so extensive a metropo * A romance by Emon, in the Gre. lis, is ample when compared to what cian hero style, which, notwithstandit was formerly. In fact there is ing the slight manner in which it is scarcely any country where the num mentioned here, as a romance, does ber of the inquisitive has increas. considerable credit to Russian lite. ed with such rapidity. It is true; rature.
they peruse their collections with work, he will, undoubtedly, lears avidity, and re-peruse them with something from them. new satisfaction.
Every pleasing lecture has more The reader may wish to know or less influence on the understand what sort of books are in the great- ing, because, without this, the heart est demand? I put this question to could not feel, nor imagination conmany of the booksellers, and they ceive. In the very worst romances, replied, without hesitation," or novels (morals apart), there is a mances :" this, however, need not certain degree of logic and rhetoric: excite our wonder. Romance is a he who has read them will be able species of composition, that is com to speak better, and with more conmonly interesting to the greater nection, than an illiterate boor who part of the public ; it occupies the never opened a book in his life. mind, and engages the heart, by ex. Besides, modern romances abound hibiting a picture of the world, and in various kinds of knowledge. An of men, like ourselves, in critical author, to fill up several volumes, and interesting situations, and by is obliged to have recourse to all describing the most common, but methods, and almost all sciences : the most powerful passion of love, now he describes some American in its various effects. Not every one island, exhausting Busching ; now can fancy himself the hero of histo- he explains the nature of plants and ry; but every one has loved, or vegetables, consulting Bomare; so wishes to love, and, therefore, in that a reader forms some acquainta the hero of a romance, speaking ance, not only with geography, but the language of his own heart, he with natural history. I am pertraces himself. One tale possesses suaded that in certain German nosomething to direct a reader's hope; vels, the new planet, Piazzi, will another excites pleasing recollec- be more circumstantially described tion. In this species of literature, than in the Petersburgh newspaper. we have more translations than ori. They do not altogether judge rightginal productions; consequently, ly, who think romances have a naforeign authors engross all the glory. tural tendency to corrupt morals: Kotzebue is in great vogue ! and, many of them lead to some moral as the booksellers of Paris demand- result. True, the characters are ed, at one time, Persian letters from often vicious, even while attractive; all writers, so the Russians, from but in what consists that attraction? every translator, and even authors, in some good qualities, with which demand Kotzebue ! nothing but the author endeavours to colour or Kotzebue ! Romance, fable, tale, abate the blackness of others. What good or bad, it matters not, pro. is the kind of romance that pleases vided the title bears the name of most? not excess of guilt, or outthe great Kotzebue.
rageous violation of moral feeling; I do not know what others think, but, in general, affecting appeals to but, as for myself, I am glad, if the sensibility. Tears shed by readers people do but read. Romances usually flow from sympathy with above mediocrity, or below it, even the good, and tend to nourish that if destitute of talent, tend, in some sympathy. The rugged and stubmeasure, to promote civilization. born soul receives not the gentle He who is charmed with Nicanor, impression of affection ; nor can ic the Unforiunaie Gentleman*, is one feel interested in the fate of tenderdegree lower than the author, on
Bad men will not read rothe scale of liberal and mental im. mances. Can an egotist, or the base provement, and, whatever may be slave of avarice, fancy himself to ihe ideas and expressions of such a be the generous captivating hero of
romance? No; he cares not for * A Russian original romance of no others. Undoubtedly, romances great merit.
tend to render the heart and imagi.
nation romantic ; but what harm the studied manners of the most ensues ? so much the better for the finished courtier. inhabitants of the icy iron-north. The Attacked by great injuries, the causes of those evils, of which we man of mild and gentle spirit will hear general complaints, certainly, feel what human nature feels, and are not romantic hearts; but those will defend and resent, as his duty hardened ones which are directly allows him. But to slight provocaopposite. A romantic heart afflicts tions, and offences from frivolous itself more than others ; doats on persons, which are the most comits own afflictions, and will not aban. mon causes of disquiet, he is happidon them for all the sottish enjoy. ly superior. Inspired with higher ments of an egotist. On the whole, sentiments ; taught to regard with it is well that our public reads; an indulgent eye the frailties of men, although the subjects which it prefers the omissions of the careless, the be romances.
follies of the imprudent, and the levity of the greater number, he retreats into the calmness of his spirit,
as into an undisturbed sanctuary ; For the Literary Magazine, and quietly allows the usual current
of life to hold its course. THE OLIO.
The Obstructions of Learning. Gentleness of Manners.
many hindrances may obstruct
the acquisition of knowledge, that GENTLENESS corrects what there is little reason for wondering ever is offensive in our manners; it remains possessed by so few. To and, by a constant train of humane the greater part of mankind, the attentions, studies to allevịate the duties of life are inconsistent with burden of common misery. Its of much study, and the hours they fice, therefore, is extensive. It is would give to letters must be stolen not, like some other virtues, called from their occupations and families. forth only on particular occasions Yet, it is the great excellence of or emergencies, but is continually learning, that it borrows very little in action, when we are engaged in from time or place; for it is not intercourse with men.
confined to season or climate, to It will be well, however, not to cities or the country, but may be confound this gentle wisdom, which cultivated and enjoyed where no is from above, with that artificial other pleasure can be obtained. But courtesy, that studied sinoothness this quality, which constitutes much of manners, which is taught by the of its value, is one occasion of its world. Such accomplishments, the neglect; what may be done at all most empty and frivolous may pose times with equal propriety, is de
That gentleness which is the ferred from day to day, till the mind characteristic of every good man is gradually reconciled to the omishas, like every other virtue, its seat sion, and the attention is turned to in the heart : and, it may be added, other objects. Thus habitual idlenothing except what flows from the ness gains too much power to be heart can render even external conquered ; and the mind shrinks manners truly pleasing ; for no as from the idea of intellectual labour sumed behaviour can at all times and intenseness of meditation. hide the real character. In that Let not the youthful imagine that unaffected civility which springs the time and valuable opportunities from a gentle mind, there is a charm lost in youth can be easily recalled infinitely more powerful than in all at will. The only sure way to make