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years since.

For the Literary Magazine. that is perpetually arising from them.

We afterwards found that the whole DESCRIPTION OF THE FALLS OF phenomenon is never viewed to so

much advantage, from the Canada

side, as in a clear evening. The Extracted from the Journal of a vast fog ascending from the grand Gentleman who visited them a few cataract, being in constant agitation,

appears like the steam of an immense boiling cauldron.

In sumTHE falls are formed by a gene mer it moistens the neighbouring ral descent of the country between meadows, and in winter', failing Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, of upon the trees, it congeals, and proabout 300 feet, the slope of which is duces a most beautiful crystaline generally very steep, and in many appearance. The view of this fog places almost perpendicular. This at a distance, which, when the cause general descent of the country is ob of it is known, is in itself a singular servable for 100 miles to the east, phenomenon, fills the mind with awand above 200 miles to the west, or ful expectation, which, on a nearer rather north-west of the falls. approach, can never end in disap

The slope is formed by horizontal pointment. strata of stone, great part of which The first sight of the falls arrests is lime-stone. At fort Erie, which the senses in silent admiration. is twenty miles above the cataract, Their various hues, arising from the current is sometimes so strong, the depth, the descent, and the agithat it is impossible to cross the ri tation of the water, and the reflecver in the ferry-boat. Proceeding tion of the sun-beams upon them; downwards, the rapidity of the their great height; their position stream increases, It may, how. between lofty rocks, and their roarever, generally be crossed by hard ing noise, altogether render them rowing in a boat, opposite to the an unparalleled display of nature's mouth of Chippewa creek. As we grandeur. But what chiefly distinrode along the St. Lawrence (viz., guishes them, and gives them a mafrom fort Erie, on the Canada side), jesty incomparably superior to any we heard the sound of the falls, at thing of the kind in the known the distance of ten miles. The wind world, is the vast body of water was north-east, and the air clear: which they precipitate into an imhad it been north-west, we should mense abyss. have heard it at a much greater

The St. Lawrence is one of the distance. In heavy weather, and greatest rivers of America. It is with a fair wind, the sound is some. very deep, and about 742 yards times heard forty or fifty miles. wide at the falls.

The perpendiThe rapids, or first falls, begin cular descent there is about 140 about half a mile above the great feet, down to the level of the water cataract In one instance has a below. How far the water rushes man been saved, who had been car. downwards, still further within the ried down to them. His canoe was chasm underneath, is uncertain. It overturned: he retained fast hold falls fifty-eight feet within the last of it, and it very providentially fast. half mile above the falls, which ened itself to the uppermost rock. adds to the force and velocity of the Some people on shore, seeing this, cataract. The sound occasioned by ventured to his assistance, and sav. the great and precipitate fall of such ed his life, at the risk of their own. a vast body of water has the most

As we approached the falls the grand effect that can be conceived, first time, the sun was low in the It far exceeds in solemnity any other west, which gave us an opportunity sound produced by the operations of of viewing the beautiful rainbow, nature. It is only at the Niagara which is occasioned by the refraç. falls that the force of that figure tion of his rays on the cloud or fog made use of in the book of Revela

tions can be fully felt : “ I heard a last was the case when we were voice as the voice of many waters.” there. In many places, the impend. And what did that voice say? It ing masses of stone seemed ready to proclaimed aloud, as if all Heaven fall upon us. spoke, “ Hallelujah ; for the Lord It is known that the falls are di. God Omnipotent reigneth.” This vided into the great and lesser is the language that has been thun. falls, by means of a lofty island bedered, for ages, from the falls of tween them. At the place of de:cent, Niagara.

we were nearly opposite to the lesser Every hour of the day, and every falls, the waters of which rush down change of the weather, varies the in a direction nearly parallel with scenery of this romantic, this mag. the beach we walked along. They nificent display of the wonders of are again divided into two very unnature, compared with which, every equal falls, the least of which proattempt of art to produce the sub bably discharges more water than lime sinks into utter insignificance. the great fall of the Rhine in Swit. The first day we spent there, the zerland, which is the most famous weather was clear. The next day water-fall in Europe. it became cloudy, and rained a little. We now approached the great As we were desirous to enjoy the fall, which discharges at least four prospect before us from every pos times as much water as the two sible point of view, we went down lesser ones together. It is nearly the high bank, below the cataract,

in the form of a horse-shoe. We into the immense chasm below, and observed below what is imperceptifrom thence walked, or rather ble above, that this fall has not climbed, along the rocks so near throughout the same pitch. In the the cataract till it appeared ready hollow of it, where the greatest body to overwhelm us.

of water descends, the rocks seem The descent, though steep, is not to be considerably worn away. We dangerous. General Simcoe, the cannot, however, subscribe to the late governor of the province, caused opinion, that the cataract was fora ladder to be fixed in the most per merly at the northern side of the pendicular part of it, which is so slope, near the landing; and that safe, that his lady ventured to go from the great length of time, the down it. Below, the air is, in some quantity of water, and the distance places, strongly tainted with the which it falls, the solid stone is worn smell of dead fish, which lie in great away, for about nine miles up the numbers on the beach. Every crea- river, towards lake Erie. ture that swims down the rapids is This notion seems extravagant, instantly hurried to destruction. We The island which separates the falls had seen a loon a little above them, is a solid rock, and so high, that the which was, unknowingly, approach river can never have run over it. ing swiftly to its ruin. Even birds, Its bank towards the falls runs in which fly above them, are frequent- the same direction with them, and ly impelled downwards by the strong at the same time does not project current of the air, as their shattered beyond them, which would surely be fragments among the rocks do ate the case, if the whole body of rocks, test*.

from which the water descends, was When the river is low, it is easy fast wearing away. The situation to walk up to the foot of the falls : and appearance of the falls is ex. but, when high, one has to climb actly the same as described and deover rocks and piles of large loose lineated by the French artists, 160 stones, for near half a mile. This years ago. Besides, according to

to the laws of motion, the principal Perhaps these were the fragments pressure of the water here must be of water fowl, in which case the above

in the direction in which it moves, remark is incorrect.

and consequently not against the

rocks it merely flows over, and considerable distance. People who where it meets with no opposition. live near the spot have daily to conThere is less probability of the bot- tradict these fables. They have tom wearing away here than in any themselves' been repeatedly as far other river of equal depth, where as possible under the falls, and are there are no such falls : for where in the habit of conducting strangers the current is so very strong, the there. Their information is, therepressure downwards must thereby fore, to be relied on be very considerably diminished. Under the Table-Rock (as it is And, for the same reason, the water called), from a part of which the being ejected far beyond the precie water descends, there is, it is true, pice, acts with little force against space sufficient to contain a great its edge. How then can it wear or number of people, in perfect safety. bear it away for miles, even in the But how should they get there? greatest length of time? If the so Were they to attempt to enter the lid stone at the falls had been car- cavity, behind the fall, the

very ried away at so monstrous a rate as current of the air (as the guides is supposed by some, it might be ex- say), even were the stream of wa. pected that the rapids would, in ter not to touch them, would delength of time, become smooth, or prive them of life. The truth is, vary their appearance, which has it is possible to go under, that is, not been observed to be the case. below the falls, as we did, but not

That the perpendicular descent to go behind them. of such a vast body of water has The motion of the water below produced an immense chasm below the cataract is, as may be supposed, is more than probable; and that, extremely wild and irregular; and where the greatest quantity of it it remains so down to the landing. falls, the surface of the rocks may, As far as the fog extends, it is imin great length of time, have become possible to judge of the state of the more hollow, is very credible. But atmosphere with respect to heat and it appears difficult for us to con cold : in summer it cools it, and in ceive, that, in any known period, an winter renders it milder. The surimmense bed of recks should have rounding country, on the Canada been so completely worn away, for side, is very delightful, affording nine miles, that no vestige should be charming stations for pleasureleft of them, and the falls exhibit, grounds, from whence the falis might at length, their present appearance. be viewed to advantage. On this An old Indian told us, that many account, as well as for the sake of years since, a grey-headed Chippe- trade, the land here will probably, wa had said to him, “ the white at some future period, sell for a people believe that the falls were very high price.

It is at present once down at the landing. It is not (1798) valued at £10 an acre. true. They were always where The banks around the falls are they are now. So we have heard lined with white pine (Pinus strofrom our forefathers.” We are led, bus) and cedar (thuya occidentatherefore, to conclude, that the Ni- lis). agara falls received their present singular position at **** ****

It is generally supposed, because For the Literary Magazine. the assertion has frequently appeared in print, that it is possible to go THE HONEST WOMAN. behind the descending column of water at the talls, and to remain

From the French. there in perfect safety. Conversation, it has been said, may be held A MARRIED man, who had a luthere, without interruption from the crative place under government, noise, which is less there than at a kept a mistress. His wife, who was

young and beautiful, with concern For the Literary Magazine. perceived him withdraw himself from home, and treat his children

JULIA OF GAZUOLO. with indifference ; but having found out the cause, she resolved to have A Tale from Bandello. a private interview with her rival. “ Madam (said she to her, amongst

NEAR the castle of Gazuoloj other remarks), I am the wife of in Lombardy, on the bank of the M***, your lover : seeing you pos. Oglio, there dwelt a young maid sessed of so many attractions, I am named Julia, daughter of a poor almost inclined to forgive him his labouring man, who, with his wife infidelity ; but as it is impossible for and family, inhabited a little thatchme to live happy without him, I am ed cottage. Julia was brought up to come to obtain your succour against labour in the fields, or to assist her yourself. All my husband's fortune mother in spinning and domestic proceeds from his place, which he' employments at home; but, notmay soon be deprived of. He has withstanding this rude and laborious no other property to leave his child. way of life, nature had bestowed up. ren, excepting a good education ; on her all the elegance of form and and if the little he has amassed by a grace of demeanour that distinguish prudent economy is spent from the most cultivated ranks in society. bome, his children can hope for Her face, shaded by her little hat, nothing from him ; and they must, received from the sun the high sooner or later, find themselves in tinge of health, without losing the indigent circumstances. With the delicacy of a fair complexion. Her beauty you possess, you may easily hands, though vever idle, were soft find a richer man than M*** Let and white. She expressed herself me then owe to you the return of a with a natural politeness that surhusband I dearly love : an honest prized from a peasant ; and all her family will owe their happiness to actions bespoke her superior to the you, and will be ever grateful for state in which fortune had placed it.” What answer, think you, did her. On holidays she led the dance the financier's mistress make to his on the green with her rural comwife? She addressed her in a jesting panions, with a sprightly ease and tone, and said, “ Madam, you have gracefulness that fixed the eyes of charms enough to tix the heart of all beholders; and happy was the your husband; but since fate will youth who could obtain her hand have you and I to be rivals, it is not as a partner. It chanced that the for me to constrain your husband's chamberlain of the bishop of Maninclinations." The lady retired, tua, the lord of the castle, was pregrievously concerned for acting as sent at one of these festival balls, she had done, and would not men and was so struck with the figure tion the circunstance to her hus- of Julia dancing, that he became enband, for fear of incurring his anger, tirely captivated with her charms. and making the breach wider be- He offered himself for her parttween them: but he was told of it ner, and took her out again and by his mistress with an air ot insult; again, scarcely being able to resign and this indecent raillery failed not her hand for a single dance. Preto open the eyes of the husband, and sentiy he began to talk of love to her, made him renounce from that day which discourse she received with so imperious and insensible a mis. modest humility, saying that such tress ; attach himself to his wife, fine speeches were not fit for the whose conduct he admired, as well daughier of a poor peasant. He as the first sentimients with which look every occasion to repeat his she had inspired him ; and bestow- addresses, and made her abundance ed on his children those caresses of flattering offers and inpassioned which were their due.

declarations, but all in vain. The

maid, perceiving his dishonest in- dishonest desires ; let me go, I beg tentions, would not listen to him, of you ; be contented with the cruel but earnestly desired him to cease injury you have already done me.” his importunities. The young man, The lover, upon this, suffered her to more and more inflamed with de depart. After bitterly weeping sire, employed an old procuress to some time longer,

put her hair carry her some presents, and endea- and clothes in order, wiped her vour to mollify her heart. Julia eyes, and went home. threw the presents into the street, When she came to her father's and threatened to inform the bishop house, she found no one there but a of the old woman's conduct, if ever little sister, about ten years of age. she should return. The chamber. She went to a small trunk in which lain, reduced to despair, but still she kept her little finery, and, stripresolving at all hazards to gratify' ping off the cloaths she wore, dresshis ardent passion, made a confi- ed herself entirely in her cleanest dant of a footman of the bishop's, and best apparel. She put on a and laid a plot to obtain with his as white jacket and petticoat, a worked sistance by force, what he could not handkerchief round her neck, white gain by consent. It was the end of silk stockings, and red shoes. She May, and the corn was high. Julia drest her hair in the most elegant often went by herself to the field, manner, and put on an amber neck. and it was determined to way-lay lace. All her other things she gave her at a distance from home. The to her little sister. Thus decorated chamberlain first approached her as if she was going to a dance, she alone, and seeing her alarmed, be went out with her sister in her hand, gan in a gentle tone to repeat his and called at the house of an aged suit. She prayed him not to molest woman, her friend, who lay in bed her, and with hasty steps turned sick and infirm. To this good wohomewards. He took her by the man she told everything that had hand, under pretence of conducting happened to her, concluding the sad her; and as soon as they had got story with saying, that after she into the path through the corn-field, had thus lost her honour, which was he threw his arms round her neck, the only thing for which she wished and offered to kiss her. She, strug- to live, she could not think of endurgling to escape, and calling for help, ing life ; that never should any one was stopt by the footinan who had point her out, and say, there is the lain concealed, and thrown down on girl that has become a wanton, and the ground. They put a gag into dishonoured her family ; that no her mouth to prevent her from cal. friend of hers should be reproached ling out; and, in that situation, with the tale that she had consented while the footman held her hands, to her ravisher's will, but that she the chamberlain brutally forced her would give a manifest proof, that The tears and moans of the poor although her body had been violated victim were so far from exciting his by force, her mind was unstained. pity, that he repeated his abuse. She begged her to inform her paHe then raised her, and took the rents of the whole transaction, and gag from her mouth, and with the bidding her a last farewel, she went most amorous expressions and pro- forth towards the river. The little mises endeavoured to pacify her. girl followed weeping, though she She made no other reply than to knew not why. As soon as Julia beg he would let her go home. He arrived at the bank, she threw herrenewed his entreaties and soothing self headlong into the depth of the speeches, while she all the while

Her sister's piercing wept inconsolably. At length, to shrieks drew together a number of put an end to his importunity, she people, but too late. Resolved upsaid, “ Youth, you have had your on death, she had instantly sunk to will of me, and have satisfied your the bottom, and never rose more.




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