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name, with the real origin of which her station in life been more exalt. they appear to have been unac. ed. She saw him freely, and he quainted.
flattered himself that success was In other countries, says father certain. When he poured forth all Feijoo, vice alone is branded with his passion, she owned that she did the stigma of infamy ; but in Spain not view him with indifference. the same reproach attends on what. He was in extasies at his conquest : ever is esteemed meanness. Glory but it was a short-lived glory ; for is the passion of the country, and a when he spoke of love, she talked name and long line of ancestry are of marriage. Having owned her af. respected more than any laws di- fection for him, she explained the vine or human. All errors are delicate and exalted nature of it ; treated with severity, and those es and when he hinted at dishonourable pecially which appear disgraceful terms, she rejected them with a in their consequences. When, there. dignified disdain. He offered her fore, a person of noble and illustrious immense sums; but she told him birth marries one who is greatly in the value of virtue was a thousand ferior to him in rank, he forfeits times greater. He swore eternal the esteem of all his equals, and is constancy; but she ridiculed his treated by them with the utmost vows, and answered him that there contempt. That which in more li- could be no truth in an engagement beral and enlightened countries is the foundation of which was in vice. often an effect of prudence, and at He urged the impossibility of mar. the worst a departure from propri. riage : she told him death was easy. ety, which may claim forgiveness, " If you are insincere, my lord," is there a more lasting infamy even said she, “ I ought only to despise than depriving a fellow-creature of you : yet when you leave me, my life.
life must end ; and if you love me In the days when the extravaas you have declared, still less can gant punctilios of high birth were I consent to live if the irremoveable scrupulously attended to, and long barrier which rank has placed bebefore Cervantes bad laughed them tween us must eternally separate and some others out of fashion, a me from you and your love, howeSpanish nobleman of the first class, ver ardent and sincere, except on whose name the author has sup- terms which must render all my pressed, to avoid giving offence to future life dishonourable and conhis family, discovered captivating temptible, not only in my own eyes, charms, and the most estimable but, on reflection, even in yours, virtues, in a person greatly his infe. No: death is unavoidable, and infirior. The Spaniards of those days nitely preferable to either of these held gallantry to be honourable, dreadful evils." Thus saying, she while they treated a disproportion- drew a dagger, exhibiting it as her ate marriage as the worst of determined resource. crimes. The nobleman attacked The nobleman paused, for love the fair, of whom he had become reigned absolute in his heart; and enamoured. He rode before her he cast down his eyes that he might window ; he procured music to se. not too evidently betray his feel. renade her ; he displayed before. ings. He entreated her to desist her all the splendour of dress and from, at least to delay the execu. equipage, which was suitable to his tion of her stern purpose ; and she distinguished rank and fortune ; and granted him all the time he asked. invoked her in amorous songs, as « My life and death,” said she, the inspiring genius by whose influ " are yours; and yesterday, to-day, ence he became superior in every to-morrow, or hereafter, are all manly and liberal exercise.
equal. What matters it whether I The lady was less reserved, than, begin this week or the next to be perhaps, she would have been, had forgotten?"
They parted, and, in despite of considerable extent in 1620 : it concustom and prejudice, the Spaniard sists of the vacancies left by the find that his countrymen were parts of a stratum of coals five feet forin; that virtue, always, and in thick, which have been removed, all ranks of life, is and must be ho and of which there remain pillars nour; and that there could be no 18 feet in diameter, to support the just infamy but in forsaking one roof; the dip is just sufficient to whose soul disdained the meanness keep the cavity dry, the coal is now of is birth, and who to the Roman taken up from thirty fathoms depth, spirit, which could brave death, and it lies at all depths from that to added the christian reverence for the surface. Just over this immense virtue. He married her. Long he cavity, and forming its roof, lies a pleaded in vain with his family and stratum of aluminous schistus, ten friends for a pardon of what they inches thick, that is found over the considered as a crime; and when whole of the bed of coal, which behe found that pride had banished ing exposed thus to the atmospheric reason and virtue from their hearts, air, is in a gradual state of decomhe retired for ever from them, and, position. This process is so slow fixing on the delightful spot where that, in the long period mentioned, this town now stands, built the first the whole of the ten inches thick house, the remains of which are, it ness of the roof is in no other place is said, still to be seen.
gone. It flakes off by oxigenation Example can effect much, though and falls down, in which situation it cannot hastily wean a whole na. the oxigenation continues on the dry tion from its habitual opinions and foor, and swells up in a fine spicular deep rooted errors. While the efflorescence to the height of three, grave folly of the nation maintained four, and sometimes even the whole the spirit of contempt against this five feet of the excavation. A innovator, any one whow love re- greater number than usual of the duced to his condition, when he pits are left open, which occasions a could not prevail on terms of infamy, circulation of the air, that much consented to retire. The first erect. promotes the oxigenation and effio. ed edifice had soon its similar com rescence. In one part of these panions, and there arose an elegant works is found an efflorescence of town on the ruins of what the Spa. sulphate of magnesia in spicula, of niards call glory. It hence receiv. about a foot in length, covering a ed the ill-merited name by which it space of about 50 yards square. A has ever since been called ; and bed of lime-stone lies over the schis. when any person was observed to tus, about three feet thick. Among show attention to a female beneath the decomposed schistus beautiful him, it was proverbially said, “Such effloresced pyrites are found, and a one is going to settle at Villa Vi. are worked with the other pyrites ciosa."
for copperas. The schistus, in its first stage of decomposition, is of a
dirty light brown colour, and graduFor the Literary Magazine. ally beconies whiter as it advances
to the last stage, in which it is a ALUM WORKS.
light white, or very pale greenish
white mass, with much silky or fine The following is an account of a fibrous effloresced salt interspersed. singular and extensive aluin mine This alum work is the largest in near Glasgow :
Great Britain, and probably in the At Hurlelt, near Glasgow, a world ; it is the property of Messrs. spacious excavation remains of Mackintosh, Knox, & Co. The nearly a mile in length and breadth, alum is equal in quality to that of and about five feet in height, in an Italy, and large quantities of it are ancient coal work, which was of now exported.
For the Literary Magazine that is perpetually arising from them.
We afterwards found that the whole DESCRIPTION OF THE FALLS OF phenomenon is never viewed to so NIAGARA.
much advantage, from the Canada
side, as in a clear evening. The Extracted from the Journal of a vast fog ascending from the grand Gentleman who visited them a few cataract, being in constant agitation, years since.
appears like the steam of an im
mense boiling cauldron. In sumTHE falls are formed by a gene. mer it moistens the neighbouring ral descent of the country between meadows, and in winter, failing Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, of upon the trees, it congeals, and proabout 300 feet, the slope of which is duces a most beautiful crystaline generally very steep, and in many appearance. The view of this fog places almost perpendicular. This at a distance, which, when the cause general descent of the country is ob. of it is known, is in itself a singular servable for 100 miles to the east, phenomenon, fills the mind with aw. and above 200 miles to the west, or ful expectation, which, on a nearer rather north-west of the falls. approach, can never end in disap
The slope is formed by horizontal pointment. strata of stone, great part of which The first sight of the falls arrests is lime-stone. At fort Erie, which the senses in silent admiration. is twenty miles above the cataract, Their various hues, arising from the current is sometimes so strong, the depth, the descent, and the agithat it is impossible to cross the ri. tation of the water, and the reflecver in the ferry-boat. Proceeding tion of he sun-beams upon them; downwards, the rapidity of the their great height; their position stream increases. It may, how. between lofty rocks, and their roarever, generally be crossed by hard ing noise, altogether render them rowing in a boat, opposite to the an unparalleled display of nature's mouth of Chippewa creek. As we grandeur. But winat chiefly distin. rode along the St. Lawrence (viz., guishes them, and gives them a'ma. from fort Erie, on the Canada side), jesty incomparably superior to any we heard the sound of the falls, at thing of the kind in the known the distance of ten miles. The wind world, is the vast body of water was north-east, and the air clear: which they precipitate into an imhad it been north-west, we should mense abyss. have heard it at a much greater The St. Lawrence is one of the distance. In heavy weather, and greatest rivers of America. It is with a fair wind, the sound is some very deep, and about 742 yards times heard forty or fifty miles. wide at the falls. The perpendi
The rapids, or first falls, begin cular descent there is about 140 about half a mile above the great feet, down to the level of the water cataract. In one instance has a below. How far the water rushes man been saved, who had been car. downwards, still further within the ried down to them. His canoe was chasm underneath, is uncertain. It overturned : he retained fast hold falls fifty-eight feet within the last of it, and it very providentially fast. half mile above the falls, which ened itself to the uppermost rock. adds to the force and velocity of the Some people on shore, seeing this, cataract. The sound occasioned by ventured to his assistance, and save the great and precipitate fall of such ed his life, at the risk of their own. a vast body of water has the most
As we approached the falls the grand effect that can be conceived, first time, the sun was low in the It far exceeds in solemnity any other west, which gave us an opportunity sound produced by the operations of of viewing the beautiful rainbow, nature. It is only at the Niagara, which is occasioned by the refrac. falls that the force of that figure tion of his rays on the cloud or fog made use of in the book of Revela. tions can be fully felt : “ I heard a last was the case when we were voice as the voice of many waters." there. In many places, the impend. And what did that voice say? It ing masses of stone seemed ready to proclaimed aloud, as if all Heaven fall upon us. spoke, “ Hallelujah ; for the Lord It is known that the falls are di. God Omnipotent reigneth.” This vided into the great and lesser is the language that has been thun. falls, by means of a lofty island bedered, for ages, from the falls of tweep them. At the place of de: cent, Niagara.
we were nearly opposite to the lesser Every hour of the day, and every falls, the waters of which rush down change of the weather, varies the in a direction nearly parallel with scenery of this romantic, this mag. the beach we walked along. They nificent display of the wonders of are again divided into two very unnature, compared with which, every equal falls, the least of which proattempt of art to produce the sub- bably discharges more water than lime sinks into utter insignificance. the great fall of the Rhine in SwitThe first day we spent there, the zerland, which is the most famous weather was clear. The next day water-fall in Europe. it became cloudy, and rained a little. We now approached the great As we were desirous to enjoy the fall, which discharges at least four prospect before us from every pos. times as much water as the two sible point of view, we went down lesser ones together. It is nearly the high bank, below the cataract, in the form of a horse-shoe. We into the immense chasm below, and observed below what is impercepti. from thence walked, or rather ble above, that this fall has not climbed, along the rocks so near throughout the same pitch. In the the cataract till it appeared ready hollow of it, where the greatest body to overwhelm us.
of water descends, the rocks seem The descent, though steep, is not to be considerably worn away. We dangerous. General Simcoe, the cannot, however, subscribe to the late governor of the province, caused opinion, that the cataract was fora ladder to be fixed in the most per. merly at the northern side of the pendicular part of it, which is so slope, near the landing; and that safe, that his lady ventured to go from the great length of time, the down it. Below, the air is, in some quantity of water, and the distance places, strongly tainted with the which it falls, the solid stone is worn smell of dead fish, which lie in great away, for about nine miles up the numbers on the beach. Every crea. river, towards lake Erie. : ture that swims down the rapids is This notion seems extravagant, instantly hurried to destruction. We The island which separates the falls had seen a loon a little above them, is a solid rock, and so high, that the which was, unknowingly, approach- river can never have run over it. ing swiftly to its ruin. Even birds, Its bank towards the falls runs in which fly above them, are frequent- the same direction with them, and ly impelled downwards by the strong at the same time does not project current of the air, as their shattered beyond them, which would surely be fragments among the rocks do ate the case, if the whole body of rocks,
from which the water descends, was When the river is low, it is easy fast wearing away. The situation to walk up to the foot of the falls: and appearance of the falls is ex. but, when high, one has to climb actly the same as described and deover rocks and piles of large loose lineated by the French artists, 160 stones, for near half a mile. This years ago. Besides, according to
to the laws of motion, the principal * Perhaps these were the fragments pressure of the water here must be of water fowl, in which case the above in the direction in which it moves, remark is incorrect.
and consequently not against the
rocks it merely flows over, and considerable distance. People who where it meets with no opposition. live near the spot have daily to conThere is less probability of the bot. tradict these fables. They have tom wearing away here than in any themselves been repeatedly as far other river of equal depth, where as possible under the falls, and are there are no such falls : for where in the habit of conducting strangers the current is so very strong, the there. Their information is, therepressure downwards must thereby fore, to be relied on be very considerably diminished. Under the Table-Rock (as it is And, for the same reason, the water called), from a part of which the being ejected far beyond the preci. water descends, there is, it is true, pice, acts with little force against space sufficient to contain a great its edge. How then can it wear or number of people, in perfect safety. bear it away for miles, even in the But how should they get there? greatest length of time? If the so- Were they to attempt to enter the lid stone at the falls had been car- cavity, behind the fall, the very ried away at so monstrous a rate as current of the air (as the guides is supposed by some, it might be ex. say), even were the stream of wa. pected that the rapids would, in ter not to touch them, would delength of time, become smooth, or prive them of life. The truth is, vary their appearance, which has it is possible to go under, that is, not been observed to be the case. below the falls, as we did, but not
That the perpendicular descent to go behind them. of such a vast body of water has The motion of the water below produced an immense chasm below the cataract is, as may be supposed, is more than probable; and that, extremely wild and irregular; and where the greatest quantity of it it remains so down to the landing. falls, the surface of the rocks may, As far as the fog extends, it is imin great length of time, have become possible to judge of the state of the more hollow, is very credible. But atmosphere with respect to heat and it appears difficult for us to con- cold : in summer it cools it, and in ceive, that, in any known period, an winter renders it milder. The surimmense bed of recks should have rounding country, on the Canada been so completely worn away, for side, is very delightful, affording nine miles, that no vestige should be charming stations for pleasureleft of them, and the falls exhibit, grounds, from whence the falis might at length, their present appearance. be viewed to advantage. On this An old Indian told us, that many account, as well as for the sake of years since, a grey-headed Chippe trade, the land here will probably, wa had said to him, " the white at some future period, sell for a people believe that the falls were very high price. It is at present once down at the landing. It is not (1798) valued at £10 an acre. true. They were always where The banks around the falls are they are now. So we have heard lined with white pine (Pinus strofrom our forefathers.” We are led, bus) and cedar (thuya occidentatherefore, to conclude, that the Ni. lis. agara falls received their present singular position at **** *** *
It is generally supposed, because For the Literary Magazine. the assertion has frequently appeared in print, that it is possible to go THE HONEST WOMAN. behind the descending column of water at the talls, and to remain
Prom the French. there in perfect safety. Conversa. tion, it has been said, may be held A MARRIED man, who had a luthere, without interruption from the crative place under government, noise, which is less there than at a kept a mistress. His wife, who was