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caress ;


His:eeth in Bluff's long ear a rassage Struck on each nerve, and anchor'd in found ;

the heart : Bluff lifts his paw, and pins him to the His master's hand with that of death's ground;

was mix'd, He then displays an arsenal of teeth, His dying eyes were on his master's Which, generously, he still forbears fix'd. to sheath

The hour of anguish, soften'd by my In Crab's most pervious, though un

care, daunted heart.

“ Yields some, though small, relief, Alarm’d, I fly the combatants to part.

his loss to bear." The well-known voice of master and “ Hail to thy shade, my dear, my faithof friend

ful dog!" Suspends their rage—the combat's at

an end. Crab's shagged bristly neck I quick Bluff's richly gilt and silver'd coat I

For the Literary Magazine. pre The terrier silent crouches at my feet; NATURAL HISTORY OF THE RAWhile Bluff, loquacious, tries my lips


to meet. Haughty, though mild--if accents of THE raven is a bird found in alreproof

most every region of the world ; it Through anxious fondness made him is scattered from the polar circle to stand aloof,

the Cape of Good Hope, and the Conscious he meant not ever to of- island of Madagascar.

It somefend,

times migrates from the coast of His piercing eyes he fasten’d on his Barbary to the island of Teneriffe. friend,

It is found in Mexico, St. Domingo, But fawn'd not, stirr'd not, till th' ex.

and Canada; and no doubt in the tended arm,

other parts of the continent, and in Sure sign of peace, produc'd the

the adjacent islands. He is strong wanted charm.

and hardy, Upbraidings and revenge did ne'er

uninfluenced by the take place,

changes of the weather, and, when But joy diffus'd itself through all his other birds seem benumbed with face ;

cold, or pining with hunger, he In various tones he then would tell is active and healthy, busily emhis tale ;

ployed in prowling for prey, or This done, he lick'd my hand, and sporting in the coldest atmosphere. wagg’d his tail.

He has a considerable degree of doSome wbims he bad, congenial to all; cility, and may be trained up to Or gravity, or wisdom, snall I call fowling like a hawk. His pensive mein ? it savour'd of them

Pliny mentions one Craterus, who both,

was noted for his skill in teaching By frolic soften'd, as one call'd it

ravens to fly at other birds, and who forth.

could make even the wild ravens To birds of prey longevity is giv'n,

follow him. Scaliger relates, that And more rapacious man, who talks Louis, king of France (probably

of heav'n : • Whatever is is right,” the murd'rer with a raven that had been trained

Louis XII), used to chase partridges cries,

to sport; and Albertus, according Then steals your purse, and blows out both your eyes :

to Aldrovandus, saw one at Naples On this wise plan the dog's fine frame

which caught partridges and phea

sants, and when urged by the falcons At twelve years life, then wreck'd by would even fly at other ravens. ruthless fate.

When domesticated, he will become Bluff told carce seven, when Death's extremely tame and familiar, may tremendous dart,

be taught to fetch and carry like a

we rate

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dog, and will play a variety of amus. for he can subsist on fruits, seeds
ing tricks. He may be taught to of all kinds, and, indeed, will eat al-
speak like a parrot, and even to most any thing. This voracity has
sing like a man. “ I have," says procured the raven a different
Dr. Goldsmith, “ heard a raven treatment in different countries;
sing the Black Joke, with great dis. for in those which are poor, or thin-
tinctness, truth, and humour." These ly peopled, he may prove burthen-
speaking ravens were highly valued some and expensive ; while in those
at Rome, and Pliny has given us a which are wealthy and populous, he
somewhat curious history of one of may be found of use to devour vari-
them. This bird had been kept in ous kinds of filth produced in them.
the temple of Castor, and flew down Hence it was, perhaps, that in Eng-
into the shop of a shoemaker, who land formerly, accordingly to Belon,
took much delight in the visits of who wrote in 1550, it was forbid len
his new acquaintance, and taught to hurt this bird'; while in the
him to pronounce the names of the small islands of Ferro and Malta a
emperor, and other personages of reward was given for every one
the royal family. This raven would that was killed.
fly every morning to the rostra, and Among the ancients, when the
salute Tiberius, then the two Cæ. pretended science of augury made a
sars, Germanicus, and Drusus; and part of religion, the raven, though
afterwards the Roman people, as always, no doubt from his above-
they passed by. The shoemaker mentioned habits, his gloomy colour,
was beginning to turn rich by those and his hoarse cry, accounted á
who came to see this wonderful ra- bird of ill omen, was a particular
ven, when an envious neighbour, object of superstitious attention.
displeased at the shoemaker's suc. All his various motions, and every
cess, killed the bird, and deprived circumstance of his flight, were
the shoe vaker of his future hopes carefully observed and studied; and
of fortune. The injured shoema. no less than sixty-four different in-
ker laid his case before the people, flections of his voice were distin-
who espoused his cause, punished guished by the priests, to each of
the man who had done him the in-

which was assigned a determinate jury, and gave the raven all the signification. Some, it is said, even honours of a magnificent interment. carried their creciulity and extra

This bird, however, at least in vagant folly so far as to eat the his wild state, has always lavoured heart and entrails of these birds, under the reputation of the worst of with the hope of acquiring, like qualities. He is accused of a most them, the power of foretelling future gross and indelicate voracity, which is allured by every putrid exhalation, In the wild state, the raven is a and gratified by the foulest carrion. very active and greedy plunderer: He is represented as the most cow whether his prey be yet living or ardly, ignoble, and disgusting of all has been long dead makes no differapacious birds. His ordinary vic. rence to himn ; he falls to with the tims are the most feeble and inno same voracious appetite, and, when cent and defenceless animals, such he has gorged himself, flies to call as the lamb and the leveret ; though his fellows, that they may share in he will sometimes attack with suc. the spoil. If the carcase be alrea. ces, those of larger size ; for it is dy in the possession of some more said he will pluck out the eyes of powerful animal, as a wolf, a fox, buffaloes, and, fixing on the back, or a dog, the raven sits at a little tear off the flesh deliberately. His distance, content to continue a hum. ferocity is the more odious since it ble spectator till they have done. is not incited by the cravings of hun. If in his flights he perceives no inger, but seems to arise from an in. dicaiion of carrion, and his scent, it nate delight in blood and carnage; is said, is so exquisite that he can VOL, VIII. NO, L.



smell it at a vast distance, he satis. ance, with loud cries, and great vifies himself with food which it is olence. According to Hebert, howsupposed he relishes less, such as ever, who, as was said above, fruits, insects, and whatever a made, for so long a time, so many dunghill may present. Buffon, how- observations on the nature and haever, tells us that Hebert, who was bits of ravens, these birds are parfor a long course of years an atten. ticularly attentive to their young tive observer of ravens, never saw during the whole summer after them tear or mangle dead carcass. they are hatched, and protract the es, or even settle on them : he was education of their brood beyond the therefore of opinion that they pre period when they are able to profer insects, and especially earth. vide for themselves. worms, to every other kind of food. The age at which the young ra

The ravens build their nests on vens have acquired their full growth high trees, or old towers; and lay is not determined ; nor is it known five or six eggs, of a pale green co how long they will live. Hesiod aslour, marked with small brownish serts, that a raven will live nine spots. They usually build about times as long as a man; and though the beginning of March, and some this is certainly poetical fiction, it is times sooner, according as

the said to be well ascertained that they spring is more or less advanced for will live a hundred years or more. the season. The female sits about Buffon says, “ they have been twenty days, during which the male known to attain to that age in seve. supplies her with food, of which he ral parts of France; and, in all cominonly provides a very large countries and all ages, they have quantity : for the peasants some- been reckoned as birds extremely times find in the ravens' nests, or long lived." near them, great heaps of grain, nuts, and fruits. It has been indeed conjectured, that these hoards are collected not merely for the female For the Literary Magazine. during incubation, but for the support of both through the winter. THE ORIGIN OF VILLA VICIOSA Whatever may be their motives, it is certain that ravens, as well as AT the distance of about fifty jackdaws and other birds of the miles from Madrid, is a little town, same tribe, are much addicted to pleasantly situated and neatly built, hoarding and concealing, not only but distinguished by the reproachprovisions, but other things which ful appellation of Villa Viciosa. attract their notice, especially bits Various reasons have been assigned of metal, small pieces of money, for its receiving this name ; and the or any glittering substance.

celebrated father Feijoo, whose esThey often avoid towns, and seek says, published under the title of unfrequented places for their nests, Teatro Critico (The Theatre of from the vicinity of which they drivé Criticism), reflect so much honour away all other birds. They will not, on himself and Spain, seldom hoaccording to some accounts, even noured by literary productions, has permit their young to remain in written a small tract on this subthe same district, but drive them ject, entitled, “ The Complaint and from it as soon as they are able to Vindication of Villa Viciosa.” In shift for themselves. Martin, in this tract the town is introduced his Description of the Western complaining of the topographers and Isles, avers that there are three writers of tours, for falsely depresmall islands among the number, in ciating its air, its water, and its each of which were a pair of ra. soil; and seeking even in the bowvens, who drove off all other birds els of the earth on which it stands as soon as they made their appear. for the cause of an opprobrious

name, with the real origin of which her station in life been more exalt. they appear to have been unac ed. She saw him freely, and he quainted.

flattered himself that success was In other countries, says father certain. When he poured forth all Feijoo, vice alone is branded with his passion, she owned that she did the stigma of infamy; but in Spain not view him with indifference. the same reproach attends on what. He was in extasies at his conquest : ever is esteemed meannesi. Glory but it was a short-lived glory; for is the passion of the country, and a when he spoke of love, she talked name and long line of ancestry are of marriage. Having owned her af. respected more than any laws di- fection for him, she explained the vine or human. All errors are delicate and exalted nature of it ; treated with severity, and those es and when he hinted at dishonourable pecially which appear disgraceful terms, she rejected them with a in their consequences. When, there. dignified disdain. He offered her fore, a person of noble and illustrious immense sums ; but she told him birth marries one who is greatly in the value of virtue was a thousand ferior to him in rank, he forfeits times greater. He swore eternal the esteem of all his equals, and is constancy; but she ridiculed his treated by them with the utmost vows, and answered him that there contempt. That which in more li- could be no truth in an engagement beral and enlightened countries is the foundation of which was in vice. often an effect of prudence, and at He urged the impossibility of marthe worst a departure from propri- riage : she told him death was easy. ety, which may claim forgiveness, “ If you are insincere, my lord," is there a more lasting infamy even said she, “ I ought only to despise than depriving a fellow-creature of you : yet when you leave me, my life.

life must end ; and if you love me In the days when the extrava as you have declared, still less can gant punctilios of high birth were I consent to live if the irremoveable scrupulously attended to, and long barrier which rank has placed bebefore Cervantes had laughed them tween us must eternally separate and some others out of fashion, a me from you and your love, howeSpanish nobleman of the first class, ver ardent and sincere, except on whose name the author has sup- terms which must render all my pressed, to avoid giving offence to future life dishonourable and conhis family, discovered captivating temptible, not only in my own eyes, charms, and the most estimable but, on reflection, even in yours. virtues, in a person greatly his infe. No: death is unavoidable, and infirior. The Spaniards of those days nitely preferable to either of these held gallantry to be honourable, dreadful evils.” Thus saying, she while they treated a disproportion- drew a dagger, exhibiting it as her ate marriage as the worst of determined resource. crimes. The nobleman attacked The nobleman paused, for love the fair, of whom he had become reigned absolute in his heart ; and enamoured. He rode before ber he cast down his eyes that he might window; he procured music to se not too evidently betray his feel. renade her ; he displayed before. ings. He entreated her to desist her all the splendour of dress and from, at least to delay the execuequipage, which was suitable to his tion of her stern purpose ; and she distinguished rank and fortune ; and granted him all the time he asked. invoked her in amorous songs, as « My life and death,” said she, the inspiring genius by whose influ are yours; and yesterday, to-day, ence he became superior in every to-morrow, or hereafter, are all manly and liberal exercise.

equal. What matters it whether I The lady was less reserved, than, begin this week or the next to be perhaps, she would have been, had forgotten?"

They parted, and, in despite of considerable extent in 1620 : it concustom and prejudice, the Spaniard sists of the vacancies left by the found that his countrymen were parts of a stratum of coals five feet focis; that virtue, always, and in thick, which have been removed, all ranks of life, is and must be ho- and of which there remain pillars nour; and that there could be no 18 feet in diameter, to support the just infamy but in forsaking one roof; the dip is just sufficient to whose soul disdained the meanness keep the cavity dry, the coal is now of its birih, and who to the Roman taken up from thirty fathoms depth, spirit, which could brave death, and it lies at all depths from that to added the christian reverence for the surface. Just over this immense virtue. He married her. Long he cavity, and forming its roof, lies a pleaded in vain with his family and stratum of aluminous schistus, ten friends for a pardon of what they inches thick, that is found over the considered as a crime; and when whole of the bed of coal, which behe found that pride had banished ing exposed thus to the atmospheric reason and virtue from their hearts, air, is in a gradual state of decomhe retired for ever from them, and, position. This process is so slow fixing on the delightful spot where that, in the long period mentioned, this town now stands, built the first the whole of the ten inches thickhouse, the remains of which are,

it ness of the roof is in no other place is said, still to be seen.


It flakes off by oxigenation Example can effect much, though and falls down, in which situation it cannot hastily wean a whole na the oxigenation continues on the dry tion from its habitual opinions and foor, and swells up in a fine spicular deep rooted errors. While the efflorescence to the height of three, grave folly of the nation maintained four, and sometimes even the whole the spirit of contempt against this five feet of the excavation. A innovator, any one whom love re greater number than usual of the duced to his condition, when he pits are left open, which occasions a could not prevail on terms of infamy, circulation of the air, that much consented to retire. The first erecto promotes the oxigenation and effioed edifice had soon its similar com rescence. In one part of these panions, and there arose an elegant works is found an efflorescence of town on the ruins of what the Spa. sulphate of magnesia in spicula, of niards call glory. It hence receiv. about a foot in length, covering a ed the ill-merited name by which it space of about 50 yards square. A has ever since been called ; and bed of lime-stone lies over the schise when any person was observed to tus, about three feet thick. Among show attention to a female beneath the decomposed schiştus beautiful him, it was proverbially said, “Such effloresced pyrites are found, and a one is going to settle at Villa Vi. are worked with the other pyrites ciosa."

for copperas. The schistus, in its first stage of decomposition, is of a

dirty light brown colour, and gradu. For the Literary Magazine. ally becomes whiter as it advances

to the last stage, in which it is a light white, or very pale greenish

white mass, with much silky or fine The following an account of a fibrous effloresced salt interspersed. singular and extensive aluin mine This alum work is the largest in near Glasgow :

Great Britain, and probably in the At Hurlett, near Glasgow, a world ; it is the property of Messrs. spacious excavation remains of Mackintosh, Knox, & Co. The nearly a mile in length and breadth, alum is equal in quality to that of and about five feet in height, in an Italy, and large quantities of it are ancient coal work, which was of now exported.


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