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And, by the bye, among ladies It must also be remarked, that this is a favourite and elegant ma. salutations must be varied, not only næuvre; a toss of the head, accom- according to the person addressed, panied with a turn up of the nose, but regard must be paid to those is highly expressive and interesting. you may be walking with. Thus, The sentimental shake, too, has a if you meet a friend rather under great deal of beauty.

your own station in life, if you be Before a gentleman, however, alone, you may salute him with performs in public, he ought to prac. great cordiality; but if you be iise well at home. He should have walking with one who is rather a mirror, in which he may see his above it, the highest notice he can figure complete, and before it he expect is a nod en passant, which should practise every shade of salu. will at once inform him of your tation, from the distant half wink to companion's importance, and of the broad friendly grin ; and from your own. the respectful bow to the familiar nod. I had intended in this essay to have given different angles of the different bows, and had made several important discoveries; but the mathematician to whom I gave

For the Literary Magazine. the diagrams to be corrected, was so struck and delighted with the originality of the design, that he

MR. B AND HIS DOG, carried them along with him to the country, and I much doubt SOME little time since died, at whether they may ever be recover. Knightsbridge, England, Bed. I like digressions, but now to Esq. at the advanced age of 72, at our subject. If a gentleman sup- which place he resided for upwards pose that any person wishes to ask of twenty years previous to his a favour of him, he should take care death. Mr. B. was a very singular that his salutation be as distant as character, and, from his eccentriciposssible: a deliberate calm mo- ties, was generally thought to be a tion of the head will show that little deranged. In such opinion, you have understood the other's in- however, the writer of this article tention, and may possibly save you can by no means concur, unless the trouble of giving a refusal. strong passions, an irritable disposiShould you intend granting a favour, tion, a lively imagination, great you may assume a little more famili- classical learning, and an exten. arity, but still preserving the dignified sive reading and observation, be conair, which will show that you have sidered as the constituent parts of a not too low an opinion of the service madman. He was principally re. you intend doing him ; when it is markable for an inordinate love of done, i. e., when the favour is grant. the canine species ; but even this ed, the same mode of salutation was not without some reason, as it ought to be preserved; which will appears he was saved from assassiremind the person of the favour nation, in his travels through France you have done hiin, in case he and Italy, by a dog. He was never, should appear to have forgotten it. till lately, without four or five very

Suppose a great man (whom you large ones of the setter kind, all lihave accidentally met at the play neally descended from the very dog or an assembly), the mode of salu. that saved his life. Lately, the old tation should be as familiar as pos- stock was reduced to one ; and the sible: this will give your compan, others, in part, supplied by a small ions a high opinion of your acquain- terrier, and an enormous dog of the tance.

Albany breed. They were fed and lodged in, I may say, a sumptuous and unfortunate object will have to style ; beef-steaks, buttered rolls, deplore his death. gingerbread, and pastry, were no

The Elegy. uncommon diet for them; and, as to lodging, one or two slept in the room Shall biped brutes and monsters shine with himself; the others were pro

in verse, vided with mattresses in other And merit lack the tomb-stone and apartments of his house. He kept the hearse? two lads to wait on them; and, at Sublimest quadruped, my friend, my stated hours, however bad the

Bluff, weather, and in spite of every other Language were poor, nor painting

rich enough consideration, he, himself, took them out for air and exercise : the last of

Thy glowing tints, thy instinct to dis

play: those hours was between one and

Nature seem'd Art, while Art con. two in the morning, which necessa

fess'd her sway! rily kept him up almost all night. Stately his form, and beauteous was In addition to the dogs he kept, he his face, had, as he termed them, a great A full-eyed setter of the finest race; many pensioners, that regularly His pendant trowsers, and his fea. came, some from a great distance,

ther'd tail, to be fed daily at his door; and, fre. Appear'd to 'waft him as with silken quently, when he met a half-starved

sail. dog in his walks, he would take These seem'd to lighten and increase him to a confectioner's, and treat his pace, him with a shilling's-worth of tarts, Gave wings to speed, and gave to moor (if a hawker of dog's meat

tion grace: chanced to be near) to a more sub.

His striking figure fix'd each curious stantial meal of horse-flesh. When

eye, any one of his dogs died, it was Th' admiring sportsmen prais'd him placed in a kind of coffin ; laid in

to the sky;

Commanding beauty sav'd him from state, for a day or two, with wax

the stroke candles burning around, and Mr. B.

Of savages, who torture out of joke ; sitting in a disconsolate mood beside

The fierce assailants of the bull and it; after which, it was interred

bear with great solemnity ; on which oc

Nor chang'd his course, nor gave him casion Mr. B. generally wrote an

cause of fear ! elegy, descriptive of the beauty and His nerves appear'd so admirably qualities of his departed friend, the

strung, dog ; one of which, as a specimen, With all the world to be in unison. is subjoined. By his last will, it ap. A wire-hair'd terrier, with an eye of pears, he hath bequeathed 251. a

fire, year to each of the dogs that were Sharp and resentful, quickly prone to living at the time of his decease. ire, His whole family consisted of his ca

Attach'd to one, hostile to all beside, nine friends, the two boys already

With Bluff liv'd quiet, sleeping side mentioned, and an old woman. He

by side. had an utter aversion to physic;

One day, the meal was here, the fewould, consequently, admit of no as

male there ; sistance from the sons of medicine ;

Crab would have each, and watch'd nor suffer any person to approach

them both with care : him in his last moments. Notwith

Bluf yields the trencher, but lays

claim to Blithe ; standing his whole aff ction seemed

Like anger'd cat, Crab doth his body to be settled on his dogs, and there

writhe : appears an evident spirit of misan- Bluff steraly fix'd him with his fine thropy in the following elegy, yet large eyes, he was not devoid of feeling for the Swearing with look oblique --Crab human kind, and many an indigent Bluff defics!

His teeth in Bluff's long ear a passage Struck on each nerve, and anchord in found ;

the heart : Bluff lifts his paw, and pins him to the His master's hand with that of death's ground;

was mix'd, He then displays an arsenal of teeth, His dying eyes were on his master's Which, generously, he still forbears

fix'd. to sheath

The hour of anguish, soften'd by my In Crab's most pervious, though un- care, daunted heart.

“ Yields some, though small, relief, Alarm’d, 1 Ay the combatants to part. his loss to bear”. The well-known voice of master and “Hail to thy shade, my dear, my faithof friend

ful dog !" Suspends their rage-the combat’s at

an end. Crab's shagged bristly neck I quick

caress; Bluff's richly gilt and silver'd coat I For the Literary Magazine.

press : The terrier silent crouches at my feet; NATURAL HISTORY OF THE RAWhile Bluff, loquacious, tries my lips

VEN. to meet. Haughty, though mild--if accents of THE raven is a bird found in alreproof

most every region of the world ; it Through anxious fondness made him is scattered from the polar circle to stand aloof,

the Cape of Good Hope, and the Conscious he meant not ever to of- island of Madagascar. It somefend,

times migrates from the coast of His piercing eyes he fasten'd on his Barbary to the island of Teneriffe. friend,

It is found in Mexico, St. Domingo, But fawn'd not, stirr'd not, till th' ex

and Canada ; and no doubt in the tended arm,

other parts of the continent, and in Sure sign of peace, produc'd the

the adjacent islands. He is strong wanted charm. Upbraidings and revenge did ne'er

and hardv, uninfluenced by the take place,

changes of the weather, and, when But joy diffus'd itself through all his

other birds seem benumbed with face ;

cold, or pining with hunger, he * In various tones he then would tell is active and healthy, busily emhis tale ;

ployed in prowling for prey, or This done, be lick'd my hand, and sporting in the coldest atmosphere. wagg'd his tail.

He has a considerable degree of doSome wbims he bad, congenial to all ; cility, and may be trained up to Or gravity, or wisdom, shall I call fowling like a hawk. His pensive mein? it savour'd of them Pliny mentions one Craterus, who both,

was noted for his skill in teaching By frolic soften'd, as one call'd it ravens to fly at other birds, and who forth.

could make even the wild ravens To birds of prey longevity is giv'n, follow him. Scaliger relates, that And more rapacious man, who talks Louis, king of France (probably of heav'n :

Louis XII), used to chase partridges “Whatever is is right,” the murd'rer

with a raven that had been trained cries, Then steals your purse, and blows out

to sport; and Albertus, according both your eyes :

to Aldrovandus, saw one at Naples On this wise plan the dog's fine frame

which caught partridges and phea. we rate

sants, and when urged by the falcons At twelve years life, then wreck'd by would even fly at other ravens. ruthless fate.

When domesticated, he will become Bluf told scarce seven, when Death's extremely tame and familiar, may tremendous dart,

be taught to fetch and carry like a

dog, and will play a variety of amus, for he can subsist on fruits, seeds ing tricks. He may be taught to of all kinds, and, indeed, will eat alspeak like a parrot, and even to most any thing. This voracity has sing like a man. “I have," says procured the raven a different Dr. Goldsmith, 6 heard a raven treatment in different countries; sing the Black Joke, with great dis. for in those which are poor, or thintinctness, truth, and humour.” These ly peopled, he may prove burthenspeaking ravens were highly valued some and expensive; while in those at Rome, and Pliny has given us a which are wealthy and populous, he somewhat curious history of one of may be found of use to devour varithem. This bird had been kept in ous kinds of filth produced in them. the temple of Castor, and flew down Hence it was, perhaps, that in Enginto the shop of a shoemaker, who land formerly, accordingly to Belon, took much delight in the visits of who wrote in 1550, it was forbidden his new acquaintance, and taught to hurt this bird; while in the him to pronounce the names of the small islands of Ferro and Malta a emperor, and other personages of reward was given for everyone the royal family. This raven would that was killed. fly every morning to the rostra, and Among the ancients, when the salute Tiberius, then the two Cæ. pretended science of augury made a sars, Germanicus, and Drusus ; and part of religion, the raven, though afterwards the Roman people, as always, no doubt from his above. they passed by. The shoemaker mentioned habits, his gloomy colour, was beginning to turn rich by those and his hoarse cry, accounted a who came to see this wonderful ra- bird of ill omen, was a particular ven, when an envious neighbour, object of superstitious attention, displeased at the shoemaker's suc. All his various motions, and every cess, killed the bird, and deprived circumstance of his flight, were the shoemaker of his future hopes carefully observed and studied; and of fortune. The injured shoema. no less than sixty-four different inker laid his case before the people, flections of his voice were distinwho espoused his cause, punished guished by the priests, to each of the man who had done him the in- which was assigned a deterininate jury, and gave the raven all the signification. Some, it is said, even honours of a magnificent interment. carried their creciulity and extra

This bird, however, at least in vagant folly so far as to eat the his wild state, has always laboured heart and entrails of these birds, under the reputation of the worst of with the hope of acquiring, like qualities. He is accused of a most them, the power of foretelling future gross and indelicate voracity, which events. is allured by every putrid exhalation, In the wild state, the raven is a and gratified by the toulest carrion. very active and greedy plunderer : He is represented as the most cow. whether his prey be yet living or ardly, ignoble, and disgusting of all has been long dead makes no diffe. rapacious birds. His ordinary vic. rence to him ; he falls to with the tims are the most feeble and inno- same voracious appetite, and, when cent and defenceless animals, such he has gorged himself, flies to call as the lamb and the leveret ; though his tellows, that they may share in he will sometimes attack with suce the spoil. If the carcase be alrea. cesthose of larger size ; for it is dy in the possession of some more said he will pluck out the eyes of powerful animal, as a wolf, a fox, buffaloes, and, fixing on the back, or a dog, the raven sits at a little tear off the flesh deliberately. His distance, content to continue a hum. ferocity is the more odious since it ble spectator till they have done. is not incited by the cravings of hun. If in his fights he perceives no inger, but seems to arise from an in. dicaiion of carrion, and his scent, it nate delight in blood and carnage; is said, is so exquisite that he can


smell it at a vast distance, he satis. ance, with loud cries, and great vi. fies himself with food which it is olence. According to Hebert, howsupposed he relishes less, such as ever, who, as was said above, fruits, insects, and whatever a made, for so long a time, so many dunghill may present. Buffon, how- observations on the nature and haever, tells us that Hebert, who was bits of ravens, these birds are parfor a long course of years an atten. ticularly attentive to their young tive observer of ravens, never saw during the whole summer after them tear or mangle dead carcass. they are hatched, and protract the es, or even settle on them : he was education of their brood beyond the therefore of opinion that they pre period when they are able to profer insects, and especially earth. vide for themselves. worms, to every other kind of food. The age at which the young ra.

The ravens build their nests on vens have acquired their full growth high trees, or old towers; and lay is not determined ; nor is it known five or six eggs, of a pale green co. how long they will live. Hesiod aslour, marked with small brownish serts, that a raven will live nine spots. They usually build about times as long as a man; and though the beginning of March, and some. this is certainly poetical fiction, it is times sooner, according as the said to be well ascertained that they spring is more or less advanced for will live a hundred years or more. the season. The female sits about Buffon says, they have been twenty days, during which the male known to attain to that age in seve. supplies her with food, of which he ral parts of France; and, in all commonly provides a very large countries and all ages, they have quantity : for the peasants some. been reckoned as birds extremely times find in the ravens' nests, or long lived." near them, great heaps of grain, nuts, and fruits. It has been indeed conjectured, that these hoards are collected not merely for the female For the Literary Magazine. during incubation, but for the support of both through the winter. THE ORIGIN OF VILLA VICIOSA. Whatever may be their motives, it is certain that ravens, as well as AT the distance of about fifty jackdaws and other birds of the miles from Madrid, is a little town, same tribe, are much addicted to pleasantly situated and neatly built, hoarding and concealing, not only but distinguished by the reproachprovisions, but other things which ful appellation of Villa Viciosa. attract their notice, especially bits Various reasons have been assigned of metal, small pieces of money, for its receiving this name ; and the or any glittering substance.

celebrated father Feijoo, whose esThey often avoid towns, and seek says, published under the title of unfrequented places for their nests, Teatro Critico (The Theatre of from the vicinity of which they drivé Criticism), reflect so much honour away all other birds. They will not, on himself and Spain, seldom hoaccording to some accounts, even noured by literary productions, has permit their young to remain in written a small tract on this subthe same district, but drive them ject, entitled, “ The Complaint and from it as soon as they are able to Vindication of Villa Viciosa." In shift for themselves. Martin, in this tract the town is introduced his Description of the Western complaining of the topographers and Isles, avers that there are three writers of tours, for falsely depre. small islands among the number, in ciating its air, its water, and its each of which were a pair of ra. soil; and seeking even in the bowvens, who drove off all other birds els of the earth on which it stands as soon as they made their appear. for the cause of an opprobrious

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