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ver and gold; while every day's ex. The important services rendered to perience unfolds to us the excellen- mankind by larger animals, are too cies of less valuable though more well known to require any notice ; useful metals. It may be said, that but much remains to be done as to discoveries of the greatest impor. the investigation of evils, caused by tance have generally been found out numerous insects, which, though by chance, and that we are not in- small, and seemingly innoxious, car. debted to the actual researches of ry devastation and ruin wherever the naturalist for them. For in- they go. The remedy of this misstance, we know not to whom our chief can only come from the ento. thanks are due for the discovery of mologist. The “ close connections, the unerring magnet, nor by what nice dependencies,” of the three means it was detected; but we kingdoms of nature upon each other know that if experiments, resulting are very apparent: plants and anifrom a desire of becoming acquaint- mals, for the most part, flourish ed with the productions of nature, from the nutriment afforded by the had not been practised upon it, we earth; and man, in return, is noushould at this day have remained rished by plants and animals. totally ignorant of its use,
The objects which excite the acThe vegetable kingdom more im. tention of the naturalist are dispersmediately assists our animal enjoy. ed all over the habitable world, and ments. Healing and nutritive plants act alike upon his feelings, whether are for the most part distinguished he contemplates them on his native from poisonous and noxious weeds, plains, or by the place which they hold in the system of botany. A botanist tra
« At the farthest verge velling in an unknown region, and of the green earth, in distant barba. surrounded by plants quite new to
rous climes, him, would be able to tell the virtues Rivers unknown to song, where first of any herb he might meet with,
the sun and apply it accordingly, from the Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting analogy which it bears to a salurary
beams or hurtful department, and thus pro- Flame on th’ Atlantic isles."
a comfortable subsistence; while the unskilful collector might Such are the uses, and such the be poisoned amidst a copious selec- pleasures, which result from the tion of salubrious plants, froin not study of Nature ; her beauties will being able to judge of their qualities ever afford delight, while every and analogies. The fruits of the fresh inspection of her charms must earth supply us with grateful food, more strongly convince us of the afford sensual delight, and at the wisdom and power of Him who same time they raise our ideas to “ formed, sustains, and animates the the contemplation of infinite wisdom whole." and goodness. The fast-drooping flower, sad emblem of our short du. ration, gives us the comfortable as. surance of “ another and a better For the Literary Magazine. world.”
THE LESSON OF FRUGALITY.
“ Shall I be left abandon'd to the
dust, When fate relenting bids the flower
revive ; Shall Nature's voice, to man alone
unjust, Bid him, tho’ doom'd to perish, hope
to live? VOL. VIII. NO, L.
ABOUT the middle of the last century, a venerable old Dutch gentleman, who had passed through all the offices in one of the principal towns in Holland with honour and
reputation, and had gained great taste, and renew the appetite of riches without reproach, resolved the whole company. To this were to retire for the remainder of his added generous burgundy: sparkling days to his country-seat. In order champaign, in short, a choice of the to take leave of his friends and ac best wines commerce can procure quaintance in a handsome manner, in a trading country, and, that nohe invited the young and the old of thing might be wanting that could both sexes (persons of the first please the senses, as soon as a sumpfashion in the place) to an enter iuous dessert was bought in, a melotainment at his own house. They dious concert of a variety of instru. assembled with great expectations; ments of music was heard in the but, to their no small surprise, saw next room. Healths went round, a long oak table, hardly covered with mirth increased, and the old gentlea scanty blue cloth, on which were man, seeing that nothing but the alternately placed platters of butter. departure of him and the gravest milk, sour-crout, pickled herrings, of the company was waited for to and cheese. The rest of the cheer give a loose to joy and pleasure, was made up with butter and rye. rose up, and thus addressd his bread, and cans of small-beer were guests : at hand for those who chose to 6 Ladies and gentlemen, I thank drink. Trenchers served instead you for the favour you have done me of plates, and not a single servant by honouring me with your compaattended. The company secretly ny. It is time for one of my age to cursed the old man's humour ; but, withdraw; but I hope those who on account of his great age and still are disposed for dancing will accept greater merit, they restrained their of a ball which I have ordered to resentment, and appeared contented be prepared for you. Before the with their homely fare. The old fiddles strike up, give me leave to gentleman, seeing the joke take, make a short reflection on this enwas unwilling to carry it too far; tertainment, which otherwise might and, at a signal given, two clean appear whimsical, and even foolcountry maids, in their rustic garb, ish. It may serve to give you an cleared the table, and brought in idea of the source of our wealth the second course. The blue cloth and prosperity. By living after the was changed for white linen, the penurious manner exhibited in the trenchers for pewter, the rye-bread first course, our ancestors raised to houshold brown, the small-beer their infant state, and acquired to strong ale, and the mean food in- liberty, wealth, and power. These to good salted beef and boiled fish. were preserved by our fathers, who The guests now grew better please lived in that handsome but plain ed, and the master of the feast more way exemplified in the second pressing in his invitations. After
But if an old man may be he had given them time to taste the permitted, before he leaves you, second course, a third was served. whom he dearly loves, to speak up by a maître d'hótel in form, fol. freely, I am really afraid that the lowed by half a dozen powdered profusion which you have witnessed se ants in gaudy liveries. The in the last course will, if we conmost beautiful flowered damask was tinue it, deprive us of those advanspread on a suinptuous mahogany tages which our ancestors earned
the richest plate, and most cu. by the sweat of their brows, and rious china, adorned the side-board; which our fathers, by their industry whilst a profusion of soups, olios, and good management, have transtame and wild fowl, fricassees, ra mitted to us. Young people, I adgouts, in a word, all that the art of vise you to be merry this evening, a modern French cook could pro- but to think seriously to-morrow on duce, ranged in a well-disposed ju the lesson I have given you to-day. dicious order, seemed to court the Good night.”.
For the Literary Magazine. from Elsineur or the sound is
about 21 English miles. The city DENMARK
was founded in the 12th century,
and was originally a place of reTHE awful circumstances in sort for fishermen only. The har. which this kingdom is placed induce bour is circular, and the entrance us to hope that the following brief into it from the sea is a channel or account of that monarchy may not gut, the middle of which only is be unacceptable to our readers : navigable. The water on each side
Denmark consists of several is. is very shallow, and defended by a lands in the Baltic ; and of Jutland, peculiar kind of military work callSleswick, Holstein, and Norway, ed naval horns, the nature and upon the continent of Europe ; Ice- strength of which merit a more deland and the Ferrol isles, in the tailed explanation. They are made North sea. The following is the of large beams, from 60 to 50 feet present state of its naval and mili. long, shod with iron, and put totary force :
gether like chevaux de frize. They
are then put on Aat-bottomed vesLine of battle ships,
27 sels, and sunk, three, four, and Frigates,
five feet below the surface of the Flat bottomed boats, mount.
water. In the belts, and other pasing 2 cannons,
300 sages, particularly in the narrow Seamen,
20,000 channels, where the water has neiMen in the dock-yards, 3,100 ther tide nor current, they are ea
sily laid down and taken up. The The land force of Denmark is as Swedes were the first who made follows:
use of these works, and they have
subsequently been adopted both at In Denmark and Hoistein, Cronstadt and Copenhagen.
Elsineur was a small village till
24,000 1446, when it was made a staple Cavalry,
6,000 town by Eric of Pomerania, who Militia,
17,000 conferred several immunities upon Fencibles,
11,000 it. From that period it has gra
dually increased in size and In Norway.
wealth ; and is now the most comInfantry, - 14,000 mercial town in Denmark, except Cavalry,
3,000 Copenhagen, from which it is disMilitia,
tant two miles. It contains about Fencibles,
5,000 6000 inhabitants.
The passage of the Sound is Grand total". 95,000 guarded by the fortress of Cron
berg, which is situated on the edge The entire population of the of a peninsular promontory, the kingdom of Denmark may be esti. nearest point of land to Sweden mated at upwards of 3,300,000. Its distant about three miles. is revenue exceeds 2,000,0001. sterling, strongly fortified towards the land and the whole kingdom contains by ditches, bastions, and entrench163,041 square miles. Her troops ments, and, towards the sea, by se. are brave, and her seamen well veral batteries, mounted with sixty skilled in nautical affairs.
pieces of cannon, the largest fortyCopenhagen, which is the capi. one pounders. Every vessel, as it tal, is situated in a bay or haven in passes, lowers her top-sails and pays the island of Zealand, and contains a tollat Elsineur. It is generany about 100,000 inhabitants, and more asserted that this fort guards the than 180 streets, with remarkably Sound, and that all vessels must, well built houses. Its distance on account of the shoalness of the
water and currents, steer so close spective merits of different countries, to the batteries, as to be exposed to and the happiness we enjoy, or the their fire. This, however, is a mis- misery we suffer in our own, and taken notion. On account, indeed, adjudge the superiority to the one of the numerous and opposite cur. or the other, as a sense of justice rents in the Sound, the safest pas seems to direct us; but when we sage lies near the fort ; but the wa. have experienced the vicissitudes ter in any place is of sufficient of life, and find ourselves cast upon depth for vessels to keep at a dis- a foreign shore, it is then, and then tance, and the largest ships can only, that we feel the full force of even sail close to the coast of Swe. that noble sentiment, principle, call den. The kings of Sweden claimed it what you will, which we feel toan exemption from toll, but by a wards the country which gave us treaty in 1720, they agreed to be. birth ; it is then we recal with regret come subject. All vessels, besides the recollection of those almost una small duty, are rated at 1) per definable pleasures we have there cent. of their cargoes, except the enjoyed, the little sports of our child, English, French, Danish, and Swed- hood, the mansion, whether great ish, which only pay one per cent. or small, which was once our dwelland, in return, the crown takes the ing, the trees which shaded it, the charge of light-houses, signals, &c. school in which we were taught our
The palace of Cronberg, which earliest lessons, and a hundred other is in the fort, is a square Gothic subjects of remembrance, at which building. In it was confined the the calm and frigid philosopher unfortunate Matilda, sister to the would laugh, and esteem as nothing, English king. Elsineur is also re. but which the man of feeling regards markable for being the scene of with peculiar satisfaction. We cons Shakspeare's Hamlet, and there is trast them with the cares, the ina garden half a mile from Cron. conveniences, and anxieties which berg, which is said by tradition to are our portion at the present mo. be the very garden where the mur. ment; these then assume a more der of his father was perpetrated. melancholy hue; or, if a portion of The garden occupies the side of the happiness be allotted to us in a fohill, and is laid out in terraces ris, reign country, that we have once ing one above the other.
experienced in our own is supposed to outweigh it as a mountain would the dust of the balance,
But when we are banished from For the Literary Magazine. our native country by despotic pow.
er, or carried into captivity by a THE REFLECTOR. nation more powerful than our own,
the remembrance of it excites sensations still more pleasing, as they
relate to the one we have left, and HOWEVER high the land of our more painful with respect to that in ne vity may stand in our estima. which we are doomed to inhabit. tion, however warm our attachment Lewis, in his “ Exile,” describes to it, and the pleasures we have en the emotions of a person thụs situjoyed in it may be, while we are ated. He places the hero of the permitted to reside there, we then poem on board the vessel which is are apt to think we fully understand about to convey him from Spain, the nature of that principle which , viewing his native shores for the attaches us to our country, and the last time, and lamenting that his extent and weight of its influence. 6 banished eyes” should no more We sit down calmly, and in a cool behold them, as being delighted philosophical manirer weigh the re. with hearing,
** From yonder craggy point, the gale “ By the rivers of Babylon, there
we sat down, yea, we wept when Wafting his native accents to his ear." we remembered Zion. We hange He describes the fisher's bliss, and
our harps on the willows, in the laments his own calamity; gives midst thereof; for there they that an account of the country to which
carried us a way captive required of he is bound, one “ where snakes and us a song ; and they that wasted us tygers breed,” &c.; and then pro. required of us mirth, saying, Sing ceeds in the following animated and
us one of the songs of Zion. How pathetic manner. He says, not all shall we sing the Lord's song in a the distresses I am likely to suffer strange land?" affect me so much
VALVERDI. Philadelphia, Nov. 11th, " As thus to sever,
1807. With many a bitter sigh, dear land,
from thee; To think that I must doat on thee
for ever; To feel that all thy joys are torn from For the Literary Magazine.
ANTIQUITIES OF INTERIOR AMEAnd again he laments his unfortų. nate destiny in the following words : “! Ah, me! how oft shall Fancy's pois and Wabash countries, which
BESIDES those ruins in the Illidreams in slumber Recal my native country to my mind! have often been mentioned, there How oft regret shall bid me sadly
are others no less remarkable, many number
hundred miles further west, particuEach lost delight and dear friend left larly in the country about the great behind."
falls of the Missisippi. As we ap:
proach these falls, commonly called The reader will pardon me, I St. Anthony's, we frequently meet trust, for quoting so considerable a with pyramids of earth from thirty part of this affecting poem, on ac to seventy and even eighty feet in count of its beauty. But to proceed: height. These are, most probably, The relator of captain Cook's voy- the tombs of the ancient kings and ages says, that, while dining at a chieftains of this part of America, town in Kamtschatka, it is impossi. though there are others which I ble to describe the emotion which am inclined to believe were erected was produced on their minds by in consequence of some signal victoseeing the stamp of London on one ry, and possibly to cover the bones. of the spoons they were using. They and carcasses of the slain. In digwere in a distant and inhospitable ging horizontally into several of clime, far from every thing on which these pyramids a little above the they had placed their affections. base, we generally found a stratim Under such circumstances, seeing, of white substance, somewhat like when least expected, the name of moist lime, and glutinous withal, that city which had given many of extending in all probability several them birth, and which recalled to yards within, or perhaps nearly the all the most delightful scenes of for whole length of the diametrical line, mer pleasures, it is not surprising I had every reason to believe this that this circumstance should excite consolidated chalky substance to be the most tender and interesting the remains of skeletons buried peremotions.
haps two hundred centuries ago, But nowhere is this sentiment de and converted by time and the opescribed with more force and beauty rations of the elements into their than in the 137th psalm :
present state. Many tokens re