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rain-water caught in winter, the ping on the coast, presents a beau. only time of rain in this country ; it tiful prospect. runs from the terraces, through The winds from the north, northwell constructed earthen tubes into east, and north-west, are general. large vaulted reservoirs, which are ly very salubrious ; those from the built of stone and lime, and well south, south-west, and south-east, coated with lime, and are in the come over the parched continent, earth below the influence of the and are very oppressive : they are sun; where it is preserved from called the Sirocco, and sometimes filth, and when drawn for use it is rise to that degree of heat and vioremarkably clear, cool, and plea. lence, that those who are not able sant. The wells in and about Tric to find shelter in houses, tents, &c., poli, for about two miles from the often perish ; it sometimes lasts sea-shore, produce brackish water, three days, but generally not longer which is used for scrubbing and than the first twelve of the twentydrenching the sinks, necessaries, four hours. The want of proper apsewers, &c., and for watering the paratus rendered me unable to learn gardens and orchards during the the different degrees of the tempe. dry season. Sinks lead from the rature of the climate. The nights houses through the bottoms of the and mornings are sometimes cool necessaries into very large common after rain ; but I never, while in sewers, which lead into the sea, all Tripoli, saw any frost or snow. of which are built of stone and lime. The principal market is held, The seamen and marines of the every Tuesday, on the sandy beach late frigate Philadelphia can attest about one mile easterly of the city, the vast quantity of lime used in where a variety of articles are sold, Tripoli; a number of whom were and the butchers kill and sell their driven, by unfeeling barbarians, to meat, chiefly to christians, Jews, work in it for nineteen months. and the higher order of Turks.
The streets, not being paved, are very little meat is killed in the naturally very dusty ; but every city. The common class of people, thing of the nature of manure is die and the bashaw's troops and sealigently sought for, gathered into men, eat but little meat; their diet large baskets, slung upon camels, is chiefly dates, olives, oil of olives, mules, and asses, and carried to the bread, and a variety of vegetables, gardens and orchards, to raise the which they cook in oil. The Turks soil from its natural state of barren- are, with a few exceptions, stranness. These little plantations are gers to luxury and dissipation. each enclosed with high walls ; they The prevailing disorders among contain from two to six acres each; the natives of Tripoli were, ophseveral of them are cultivated by thalmia in summer, and catarrh European gardeners, and are made and slight pneumonic affections in to produce all the useful roots, winter. The former I attributed plants, and fruits that are natural to a remarkably serene and brilliant to the torrid and temperate zones. sky, and the scorching winds from These enclosures are about 2000 in the continent; the latter to the number, all interspersed with tall want or neglect of proper clothing. date trees, and are laid out in such The dead, except those of the baa manner, that collectively they shaw's family, and a high order of form a semicircle, which extends marabuts, or priests, are buried out from shore to shore, at a little dis- of the city. On the beach, one catance from the city. This ever- ble length east of the castle, and green half zone, the sandy desert half a cable length above high wawhich it lies upon, and the proud ter mark, myself, with our boatAtlas which borders the prospect, swain and twelve of our crew, did when viewed from the top of the last summer, through the desire of castle-gate of the city, or the ship. captain Bainbridge, and permission
of the bashaw, bury our brave offi. L'Orient
22,318 cers and seamen, who were killed Besancon
25,328 in the explosions and in the engage Grenoble
20,019 ments off Tripoli, and who floated Versailles
30,093 on shore. In digging the graves, Rochefort
28,874 our men hove up vast quantities of Toulon
19,000 human bones. The Turks inform. Dijon
20,760 ed me, that they were bones of the Falaise
14,069 people who died of the plague ma Luneville
11,691 ny years ago ; they collected them Cherbourgh 10,081 into baskets, and carried them away Calais
6,549 as fast as possible, muttering and Arles
20,000 saying that they should not be pol. The population of each town inluted with christian bones.
cluded in the vast circumference of The calcareous substances of the French republic, is set down in which Tripoli is chiefly built, the a table which occupies several pa. well constructed drains, the killing ges; but it is evident, even from the meat and burying the dead at this abstract from it, that the popu. a distance from the city, the remov. lation in many of them is given by ing the offal and filth to the gar- guess, and not from actual enume. dens for manure, and the tempe- ration. It is supposed that the porate manner in which the Turks pulation of Paris is over-rated, and and Arabs live, have without doubt that the actual number of inhabi. been the cause of the late remarka- tants does not exceed 500,000 : but, ble continuance of health in Tri. be this as it may, we may assure
ourselves that as the French government has devoted its attention to this subject, each year will bring
this catalogue nearer the truth. For the Literary Magazine. Why may not our almanacs contain
an account of the population of each POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL city and town in the United States ?
TOWNS IN FRANCE.
For the Literary Magazine.
PRESENT STATE OF ATHENS.
By a late traveller.
THE following list is extracted from the catalogue of the French towns, given at the head of the Annuaires, published at Paris for the year 11 of the republic.
672,000 Marseilles 108,000 Lyons
102,000 Bourdeaux 104,000 Lisle
36,000 Montpellier 32,899 Caen
THOUGH numerous the inju. ries of time, of nature, of war, and of accidents, which Athens has suffered, its antiquities are still extant as monuments of its superior grandeur and beauty over all the cities that ever existed. High upon a rock, to which there is no possible access but by the western end, are the ruins of the Acropolis. Cecrops chose it as a place of retreat and defence for those inhabitants of At. tica whom he had collected from the surrounding villages, &c. I cannot possibly imagine any thing of the kind more magnificent than
its propylæa or vestibule. It was was sculptured the birth of Miners built by Pericles, who coated the va. It is lamentable to behold the front and steps with white polished ravages that travellers have made marble. Its five gates still remain, upon the inimitable relievi of this but the largest or central is the only and the other temples. With difone not filled up. Between them ficulty I discover what they repreare doric pilasters, which contri. sent, as not a figure is entire. The bute much to the beauty of their ap- noblest sculpture of Athens that has pearance. Indeed to behold this escaped the injuries of time, &c., is edifice without the liveliest sensations now scattered over Europe, and of admiration and pleasure, even as lodged in the cabinets of nations, it now is, seems to me impossible; whose barbarous ancestors were not conceive then what it must have known even by name to the polished been when embellished by the sculp: inhabitants of Greece. The Parture of Phidias, and unimpaired. thenon was the principal temple of The first object that meets the eye the Acropolis, and generally the on passing it is the temple of Mi. most admired; but I think with nerva, called Parthenon in honour little reason, as that of Neptune, of her virginity, and from its di- named Erectheus, is of far more mension of a hundred feet in width elegant, if of less noble architecture. Ecatompedon. It was held in the It is like the Apollo of the Belvedere, highest veneration by the Athenians, the unrivalled master-piece of its as the supposed habitation of their kind. When I had seen the Corintutelary deity, whose statue it con- thian temple at Nismes called La tained. In this celebrated image, Maison Quarree, I despaired of which was made of gold and ivory, ever again beholding a building 36 cubits in heighit, Phidias display. that would afford me such comfort ed all his art. When the Persians in the contemplation of it. In Italy took possession of this city, they and Sicily I found nothing comparaburnt the Parthenon with the other ble with it, but on turning from the temples, and I might say fortu. Parthenon, how great was my astonately, as it happened at a period nishment and delight to behold a but little antecedent to the time model of Ionic structure, than which when the polite arts had attained nothing could be more simple, and to perfection; when Pericles, with yet more sublime! It is impossible the aid of Phidias, Callicrates, and to mistake it, from the description Ictinus, rebuilt it. The emperor of Pausanias, who calls it diploun Hadrian, whose attachment to A. Oichema, a double building, the two thens was continually displayed in parts of it being joined together at his munificence, repaired it so ef. right angles. The one is dedicated fectually, that it continued almost to Neptune or Erecthous, and the entire from his reign to 1687, when other to Minerva Polias, protecunfortunately a bomb fired from the tress of the citadel. By their junccamp of Morosini, the Venetian ge- tion the Athenians symbolized the neral who besieged Athens, fell reconciliation of these deities after upon and destroyed the roof. Its their contest for naming Athens. decay since that accident has been in the former was the salt spring rapid, and its richest ornaments produced by a blow of Neptune's pillaged. It was raised on a base trident: in the latter the olive tree, of six steps : its peristyle had forty. Minerva's more profitable gift, and six columns, eight channelled in her image said to have fallen from each front, and fifteen plain at the heaven, which was guarded by a sides. They are forty-one feet and serpent of uncommon size called a half in height, and six in diameter. oicouros Ophis: the superstitious Its mutilated entablature represents Pausanias knew not whether to rebattles between the Athenians and ceive or reject this miraculous stoCentaurs, with religious ceremonies, ry. Adjoining to the Polias is a processions, &c. On the posticus small temple erected in honour of
VOL. VIII, NO. XLIX,
Pandrofos, the faithful daughter of Cecrops. To her and her two sis For the Literary Magazine. ters, Herse and Aglauros, Minerva entrusted a chest which contained
THE OLIO. the infant Erectheus guarded by a serpent, with strict and solemn in
NO. VI. junction not to examine its contents. The curiosity of the two elder pre- Advice to a young lady, who receit'. vailed over every other considera. ed the addresses of a gay and tion, and induced them to open it, profligate young man, in opposi. when they were immediately render.. tion to her friends : exemplified ed frantic, and threw themselves in the story of Almeria. over a precipice. Pandrofos was true to her charge, and therefore worship- My dear Serina, ped jointly with Minerva : so that YOU are now arrived at that pe. when a heifer was sacrificed to the riod when the unexperienced heart goddess, it was accompanied with a most requires a guide, to point out sheep to her. The order of archi- the many dangers that attend our tecture in this temple is (I believe) feeble sex through life: the smoothno where to be found but here; est path of which, however flatterits entablature being supported by ing it may appear to the youthful five female figures (originally six) eye, though adorned, as it were, called Cariatides instead of columns. with flowers perfumed with the As this building was constructed fragrance of Arabia, is too often about fifty years after the sack of strewed with thorns, which harass Athens by the Persians, it is conjec. the feet of those who step most cautured, and with all probability, that tiously, from the sceptred mothe order was designed as a satire narch on the throne, to the sorrow. upon Arthemisia queen of Halicar. worn object who begs for alms from nassus in Caria ; who, though in door to door: ways beset with origin a Greek, assisted the Persian snares and wiles unseen, in which with a fleet against her mother the unwary are too often precipitatcountry. The Cariatides are ad. ed, and, if a female, they “ fall to mirably finished, and their robes ex- rise no more.” How necessary, tremely graceful, as is also their then, for the gay and thoughtless, head-dress. These figures have as well as the daughter of sensibility, been spelled Caryatides from a sup- to listen to the dictates of Prudence ; position that they were intended to how necessary for you, my dear represent women of Carya in Pelo- girl, whose bosom glows with that ponnesus, a city in league with the painful and dangerous sensation, to Persians; but this is a weak conjec- grant her a conspicuous place in ture, as their Asiatic dress alone your bosom. She will guard, Seriwill prove the contrary. The Pan- na, each avenue there ; and prevent drosium contained Minerva's olive your deviating from rules long since tree, called Pagcophos from its prescribed for the sex, a deviation branches bending downwards when that would most assuredly bring on they had grown up to the roof. you the reproaches of your own These are the only remains of the heart ; a deviation which the too Acropolis, the foundations of the partial world makes a point never walls excepted. I visit the divine to forgive, Too partial I say, for Erectheum every day, and am only how often are the profligate, the fearful that the barbarian mussul. gay and fashionable libertines of the mans who garrison the citadel will age, encouraged and caressed by suspect me of some design against our sex, even perhaps at the moit, and, by exclusion, debar me of ment when their cowardly hearts the most exquisite pleasure I can may be flushed with a victory over receive at Athens.
some poor ruined female, who, for
saken by him in whom her soul why, when we were taught to reve. confided, is left to bemoan her own rence virtue, the love of which we credulity and his broken faith. equally alike imbibed in nourish
Woman, my dear Serina, is ne- ment from our mother's bosom, ver so lovely, never so resembling thus countenance the unprincipled what Milton, that first of poets, so Philario? Is he not infinitely more beautifully fancied our first mother, culpable than the poor desolate Maas when acting with a dignity be. tilda, who, forsaken by a partial and coming the sex: a dignity which ill-judging world, nourishes her inwhen wanting degrades us at once fant, the infant of her betrayer, at to a level with the vicious of the her hapless bosom, a bosom pure other. How greatly then do we as the unsullied snow, ere made a disparage ourselves, by not spurn- prey to his perfidious wiles. Nay, ing those destroyers of innocence smile not, Almeria, the comparison and associates of infamy from our was a just one. Did she not reprivate assemblies, by not convin- semble the lily of the valley, adorned cing them, by a frown of indignation, with her own innocence ? Have that our souls are of a texture too we not seen her cheerful as the pure to countenance those who even first dawn of May, while bestowing seek not to hide the enormity of her unwearied attention on a belove their conduct. Why it is that the ed, aged, and infirm parent? Have world has established such customs? we not seen his furrowed cheek customs that must inevitably encou. wet with her tears, while she sup. rage vice.
ported his venerable form? Behold Yet dare, Serina, to be singular, her now in her solitary retirement; dare to prefer the man of principle to your favourite jasmine is not more him who knows it not; so will you live pale than her once vermilion cheek, in the estimation of men possessing while her downcast eye has totally sense and integrity of heart, be lost its former brilliancy, and acquir. esteemed by the amiable of your ed the settled look of despair. own sex, and convince even the li. How can my sister think on her bertine that the innate principles of fall from virtue, and smile on her your heart are those of rectitude. destroyer, the perfidious Philario? Shun the vicious, as you wish for I confess, answered Almeria, Phi. happiness; you cannot love Virtue, lario to be somewhat dissipated at and at the same time smile appro- present, but a reformed rake, says bation on the contemners of her the proverb, makes the best hus. laws. Rely not on your own band; nor do I like him the worse strength; it may deceive, for, with for a trifling wildness. He dare no propensity to act unworthily, not insult one deserving his esteem; you may be drawn aside from pro rely upon it, Emily, it is the levity priety by countenancing, if not the of our sex that induces the other to votaries of vice, yet those who act, treat us indignantly. in respect to woman, with no prin. But, my dear Serina, mark the ciple. A melancholy example is sequel, and profit by the lost Almeengraved on my mind, written there ria's fate; for Almeria, the self-confias with a pen of adamant.
dent Almeria, hitherto admired for Almeria, the lovely Almeria, propriety of conduct, gay, yet mowas the sprightly daughter of viva dest in her demeanour, ere many city. The graces sported around months had flown, became a victim her beauteous form, while her ani. to the wretch Philario. Humbled, mated countenance charmed the degraded in her own estimation, eye of every beholder ; nor did even experiencing the bitter poignancy of the envious dare to intimate that self reflection, the very luminaries of her internal beauties were exceed- heaven became painful to her sight, ed by external charms. Why thus, every eye that met hers, she fanci. Almeria, said her sister Emily, ed, wore the lock of contempt, and