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treated as an officer in the very or. For the Literary Magazine. der of the commander-in-chief; and what confirmed her in this flatter. THOUGHTS ON THE APPROACH OF ing idea was, that next day being
WINTER. at dinner with general baron de Gottsheim, commanding the divi. IN a short time the warmth which sion of the imperial army in this has so long invigorated the air, and neighbourhood, she was always ad. the splendour which has cheered dressed by the title of lieutenant, the human heart, and made the and nothing occurred that gave her fields laugh and sing, to use the the smallest suspicion that her sex emphatical language of scripture, was known.
shall yield to the gloom of winter, Amidst these reflections she re. and the smile of nature be sucsolved, on the 3d of June, 1800, to ceeded by her frown. Nature will proceed on her journey towards her in this country wear an aspect as paternal mansion, but on the 8th of different from what it has done for the same month, having learnt at some months past, as perhaps it Bologna that the enemy had just wears in different parts of the unientered the Milanese, she thought verse. It does not appear probable it advisable to direct her route to that were we indulged with the pow. Verona, to which the staff of the er of travelling from travelling from Austrian army was then transfer planet to planet, nay, could we con. red. She there applied for and ob- tinue our voyage even to the comets
tained a new route for Venice, themselves, we should meet with where her father then was, and greater opposites, than the congeal. where she remained, tired of an in- ing cold of winter, and summer's sulactive life, till the peace of Lune. try heat. Yet it would be presumpville permitted her to return with tion in us, who are confined to so safety to her country. And it was small a part of the creation, to conwith no small regret that she left clude that heat and cold are the only off a uniform obtained through the principles of nature. In other most signal merit, and supported in parts of the universe the air may be the most honourable and exemplary endowed with the power of operating manner.
in a quite different manner, a power To attest the truth of which, and which would, in all probability, dethe well-merited opinion of her zea. stroy such brittle frames as ours, if lous and faithful services, the com- our senses were not altered. But such mander-in-chief, general baron Me- philosophical speculations are not so las, in a rescript of the 23d of May, naturally suggested by this vicissi. 1801, announced to the supreme tude of seasons, as those moral re. council of war, that on the 11th of flections calculated to amuse the July, 1800, he had conferred her gloom of melancholy, check the sallieutenancy on her brother, who lies of levity, and open to the soul was then a cadet in the regiment the exhilarating prospects of hope. of Belgiojoso.
That a time, to outward appearance, It is only necessary to add, that so dismal as winter, should be a this adventurous young lady, having season of pleasure, ought to encouresumed her sex, in the bosom of rage those who consider the world her family is no less a pattern now in a bad light, as an abode of misery of female merit, than she had for- and a vale of tears; for if the inclemerly been of military conduct, ful. mency of the weather only changes filling with unexampled sweetness or increases our pleasures, how can and equanimity of temper, the of- it be looked upon as an evil? yet the fice of governess to her younger sis. pleasures enjoyed during the winter ters, and otherwise assisting her ve- season in populous cities by far exnerable mother in the details of ceed those of a country life, the hurfamily management.
ry of dissipation being more to the
general taste of mankind than the man, to accompany him in his pain. tranquillity of retirement. None ful career, to sweeten his labours, but minds of a philosophic turn and charm away his cares. This are touched with the beauties of was its first employment. It was nature, but the gaiety of London or afterwards consecrated to divine Paris strike the minds even of the service; and having thus risen in most superficial. Yet whilst the dignity, it became of principal acyoung and fashionable enjoy the count among the people, in accompleasurable season, the vicissitude panying the traditional narratives, by which it is produced should put relative to the characters and exthem in mind that youth itself will ploits of their ancestors. Hence it have an end ; and that when they came to be the first science wherein are declined into the vale of years, their children were instructed. Mu. they will be so far from having a sic, and poetry its ally, accompanied stronger relish for pleasure, that all all their studies. They even deified their enjoyments will grow tasteless those who were first distinguished and insipid. But no reflection sug- in it. Apollo was of this number. gested by this variation appears Orpheus, Amphion, and Linus, for more useful, or more proper to be their eminent talents in this art, inculcated, than that, from this mu. were accounted more than men. tability of nature, it is natural to in. Philosophers applied themselves to fer that man is a progressive being, it. Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato and that his existence is to be con- recommended it as worthy of being tinued through an infinite variety of cultivated, not only by their disciscenes and changes, every one of ples, but by the best regulated states. which will add to his perfection and The Grecians, and particularly increase his felicity. This Mr. the Arcadians, enacted the study of Thomson has finely expressed in it by law; regarding it as indispenhis philosophical poem on the sea. sably necessary to the common welsons :
fare. A science so generally cultiThis infancy of Nature cannot be vated should have arrived at perGod's final purpose.
fection very early ; yet did it conFrom hence likewise an argu
tinue in a state of imbecility, and ment may be drawn to silence those without principles, till the times of who cavil at the dispensations of di
Pythagoras. vine Providence. Since our present
Till the time of this philosopher, state is so transitory, it would be un
music was so vague and uncertain, reasonable to wish that its enjoy.
that it required an extraordinary ments should be of so exquisite a'na. effort of genius to reduce it to method ture as to attach us to it too strong
and order. He precisely determined ly, and so make the prospect oflosing
the proportions which sounds bear itunsupportable. The mixture ofevil to each other, and regulated harmo. which we see in this world may ny upon mathematical principles. then be properly compared to the But he let the precision of his mind cold of winter, which by the coun
carry him too far, in subjecting muterbalancing its pleasures, makes
sic to the judgment of reason alone, people more ready to resign them,
and admitting no pauses or rests, but and retire into the country without
such as had an arithmetical or geoa repining.
metric proportion in them. Aristoxenes, the disciple of Aristotle,
thought, on the contrary, that this For the Literary Magazine subject came entirely within the
verge of hearing, and that the ear ON THE MUSIC OF THE ANCIENTS. was the only judge of sounds. He
therefore regulated the order, uniMUSIC is as ancient as the world. son, and break in tones, solely by It seems to have been born with the judgment of the ear, and his sys
en prevailed for some time, in of entire letters, either contracted Freece., Olympus, a Phrygian, or reversed, placed on a line paralcame sdon atter to Athens : he in- lel to the words, and serving for Ved a stringed instrument, which the direction, the one of the voice, gave the, sepaintones, whereby he in- and the other of the instrument; troduced so many new graces into and the scale itself, of which Guy music, as gave it entirely another Aretin is the supposed inventor, is air. He joined Aristoxenes, appeal. no other than the ancient one of the ing for the merit of his system to Greeks a little enlarged, and what the decision of the ear. At length, he may have taken from a Greek the famous Ptolemy appeared, and, manuscript, above 800 years old, with superior spirit, equally dis. which Kircher says he saw at Mesclaimed the partiality of both sides. sina, in the library of the Jesuits, He took a middle course ; asserting and in which he found the hymns that sense and reason had a joint noted in the very manner of Aretin. right to judge of sounds. He accus. With respect to the manner of ed the Pythagoreans of fallacy in performing music among the antheir speculations, with respect to, cients, it has been alleged that proportions; as well as of folly, in their instruments were not so comso disregarding the decisions of the' plete as ours, and that they were ear, as to refuse it that kind of har. unacquainted with those divisions of mony which was agreeable. to it, harmony that enter into our conmerely because the proportions did certs; but this seems to be a groundnot correspond with their arbitrary less objection. The lyre, for inrules. And he charged the parti. stance, was certainly a very harmozans of Aristoxenes with an absurd nious instrument; and, in the time neglect of reasoning, in that, though of Plato, it was so constructed, and they were convinced of the differ. so full of variety, that he regarded ence of grave and acute tones, and it as dangerous, and too apt to relax of the proportions subsisting between the mind. When Anacreon flouthem, and that those proportions in- rished, it had already obtained forty variably depended upon the several strings. Ptolemy and Porphyry delengths of the musical chords; yet scribe instruments resembling the they never took the trouble of con- lute and theorbo, having a handle sidering this, so as to enter into the with keys belonging to it, and the reason of it. He determined, there. strings extended from the handle fore, in deciding upon the princi. over a concave body of wood. At ples of harmony, to make use, not Rome is an ancient statue of Oronly of reason, but also of the ear, pheus, with a musical bow in his as being of assistance to each other; right hand, and a kind of violin in and, in consequence of this, he laid his left. And there is a passage in down a certain method of finding Tertullian, which deserves particu. the proportions of sounds. Had the lar consideration : · What an astoancients proceeded no farther, mu- nishing hydraulic organ,' says he, sic must be infinitely more indebted was that of Archimedes ; compose to them than it possibly could be to ed of such a number of pieces, contheir successors. The ancients have sisting each of so many different the sole merit of having laid down parts, connected by such a quantity the first exact principles of music; of joints, and containing such a va. and the writings of the Pythagore. riety of pipes for the imitation of ans, Aristoxenes, Euclid, Aristides, voices, conveyed in such a multitude Nicomachus, Plutarch, and many of sounds, modulated into such a diothers, even such of them as still versity of tones, breathed from such remain, contain every theory of mu- an immense combination of Autes ; sic hitherto known). They knew, as and yet, all taken together, constiwell as the moderns, the art of not- tuting but one single instrument ! ing their tones, performed by means in this passage, it is apparent, that
the fute was carried to such a high hindered it from being heard. Yet degree of perfection among the an- the same author, in another place, cients, that there were various kinds expressly says, that music, by the of them, and so different in sound, combination of the base and higher as to be wonder fully adapted to ex tones, and of notes long and short, press all manner of subjects.
and of a variety of voices, arises in With respect to harmony, it has perfect harmony. And in the folbeen cursorily treated of by many lowing chapter, speaking of the rerespectable ancients. Macrobius volutions of the several planets, as speaks of five notes, among which perfectly harmonizing with one the base bears such a symphony another, they being all of them conwith those above it, that, however ducted by the same principle, he different, they altogether composed draws a comparison from music to one sound. Ptolemy, speaking of illustrate his sentiments; just as in the monochord, calls it a mighty a chorus, says he, of men and wo. simple instrument, as having ne- men, where all the variety of voices ther unison, accompaniment, variety, through all the different tones, from nor complication of sounds. Seneca, the base to the higher notes, being in one of his letters, says to his under the guidance and direction of friend, • Do not you observe how a musician, perfectly correspond many different voices a band of mu- with one another, and form a full sic is composed of? There you harmony. Aurelius Cassidorus dehave the base, the higher notes, and fines symphony to be the art of so the intermediate, the soft accents of adjusting the base to the higher women, and the tones of men inter notes, and them to it, through all mingled with the sounds of flutes, the voices and instruments, whether which, however separately distinct, they be wind or stringed instruform altogether but one harmony of ments, that thence an agreeable sound, in which each bears a share.' harmony may result. And HoPlato sufficiently makes it appear, race speaks expressly of the base that he knew what harmony was, and higher tones, and the harwhen he says that music is a proper mony resulting from their concurstudy for youth, and should employ rence. All these testimonies, therethree years of their time; but that fore, uniting in favour of the harit was improper to put them upon mony of the ancients, ought not playing alternately in concert, it be- to leave us the least doubt respecting enough for them, if they could ing this branch of their knowledge. accompany their voice with the We have seen the reason why they lyre. And the reason he gives for did not much use harmony in conit is, that the accompaniment of va- cert. One fine voice alone, accomrious instruments, the base with panied with one instrument, reguthose of a higher key, and the va. lated entirely by it, pleased them riety, and even opposition of sym- better than mere music, without phonies, where music is played in voices, and made a more lively imdivisions, can only embarrass the pression on their feeling minds. minds of youth. True it is, the an. And this is what even we ourselves cients did not much practise com- every day experience. pound music; but that proceeded only from their not liking it. For Aristotle, after asking why one instrument accompanied only by a For the Literary Magazine. single voice gave more delight than that very voice would do with a FACTS RELATIVE TO THE PREgreater number, replies, that the SENT STATE OF THE CITY OF multitude of instruments only ob TRIPOLI; BY JONATHAN cowstructed the sound of the song, and DERY, SURGEON OF THE LATE AMERICAN FRIGATE PHILA. holds audience with foreign ambas. DELPHIA.
sadors and consuls; holds his divan,
which he often imperiously overJuly 10, 1805. rules; and gives his mandates, THE city of Tripoli stands on which are often enforced by the the north coast of Africa, in north most cruel torture and death. Here latitude 32° 54', and longitude east are a great number of smaller from London 13° 11'; and is built on apartments ; a large open court and the ruins of the ancient Oca, on a spacious gallery, for the accommoda. sandy soil. It contains about 40.000 tion and residence of the bashaw, Turks, 5000 Jews, and 1000 Ro- his wives, children, and attendants : man catholics and Greeks. It has here is also a bomb-proof room, to eight mosques and one christian which the bashaw flies in times of church; some of the mosques are danger. The apartments in the very large.
east end of the castle are stables for The baths are places of conside. the bashaw's horses, and prisons rable resort, on account of the in- where our officers and myself were junctions of Mahomet, which direct confined, and where the bashaw the keeping the body clean : but I confines his hostages and criminals; have seen many deviate from this, and in the midst of which is the and rub their bodies with dry sand magazine of gunpowder. These instead of water. This custom, I gloomy mansions of horror are in am informed, originated from the bad repair, full of vermin, and is pilgrims and travellers not being the filthiest place in all Tripoli. able to find water while travelling The city, including the castle, is over the desert. The Bedouins, a three miles and a half in circumfekind of sojourning Arabs, and peo- rence. The country about Tripoli, ple from the interior of Africa, of. nearly to the foot of mount Allas, ten prefer this imperfect method of which is two days' journey from purification, even when water is at Tripoli, is all, except the gardens hand.
and orchards near the city, a sandy Many of the buildings have the and barren desert. The houses, appearance of great antiquity, of the ramparts, and batteries which which the Turks can give no ac- surround it, are built of the ruins of count. Among them is a Roman the ancient cities of Oca, Leptis, palace and a triumphal arch. The and Sabrata, which are chiefly of castle stands on the water's edge, in marble, and a variety of other cal. the north-easternmost corner of the careous stones, and columns of gracity. Its ramparts are of different nite, many of which are very large, heights ; on the land side they are put together with a cement of lime from forty to eighty, and on the wa. and sand; but without the regulari. ter side they are from thirty-five to ty of square, plumb-line, or level. forty feet in height. Twenty-five The walls are generally whitepieces of brass ordnance, of different washed with new-slacked lime, at sizes, are mounted on different the commencement of the ramidan parts of the castle, to command the or carnival. The tops of the houscity, adjoining country, and har- es are flat, and covered with a bour. Several of the apartments in composition chiefly of lime, which, the west end of the castle are large, when dry, forms a very firm tercommodious, and airy, ornamented race. To ward against the venwith a variety of fine marble, mosa. geance of their enemies, the whole ic and stucco work, and richly fur. city is fire-proof. nished in the Turkish style.
The fresh water used in Tripoli, Here the bashaw receives and except in time of scarcity, or the
fear of a siege, when it is brought * This substitute, in cases of neces. from the wells in the desert on sity, is allowed by Mahomet.-Ed. mules, asses, and christian slaves, is