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are regarded by them as convenient, don, observations on the camel's stobut not obligatory, and they hold mach, respecting the water it conthemselves at liberty to follow any tains, and the reservoirs in which other mode, or merely to muse in that fluid is enclosed. silence, provided the topics of their The camel, the subject of these meditation are those included in the observations, was a female brought Lord's prayer, and provided it be from Arabia ; it was 28 years old, done in secret. This method in- and said to have been 20 years in cluding their whole practical reli. England. The animal was worn gion, they, of course, reject all festi- out, and in a state of great debility, vals,solemn days, consecrated places, before it came into the hands of the and all rites, including baptism and college of surgeons, and they put an the eucharist. The latter they con- end to its miseries by means of a sider themselves as celebrating narrow double-edged poniard passed whenever they eat and drink with in between the skull and first verterecollections of Christ, this being, bræ of the neck : in this way the according to them, the true mean- medulla oblongata was divided, and ing of the command, Do this in re. the animal instantaneously deprived membrance of nie. In their dress, of sensibility. language, manners, and social con- In the common mode of pithing duct, they conform to the prevailing an animal, the medulla spinalis only customs of their country. Their is cut through, and the head resystem enjoins no forms of burial, mains alive, which renders it the marriage, &c., peculiar to them. most cruel mode of killing an animal selves. These are points indifferent that could be invented. in themselves, and duty prescribes The stomachs of this animal were to conform to custom, because it the first things examined, and, on is the custom, and because a de- measuring the capacities of these parture from it would only occasion different reservoirs in the dead body, trouble and suspicion. In their mo. the anterior cells of the first stomach ral and social conduct they are ge. were found capable of containing nerally distinguished by good sense, one quart of water, when poured in. industry, and benevolence. Their to them. The posterior cells, three belief on doctrinal points, such as quarts. One of the largest cells the nature of Christ, and the state held two ounces and a half, and the of souls after death, is not well un- second stomach four quarts. This derstood, but they represent these is much short of what those cavities points as disconnected with any can contain in the living animal, practical consequences : as mere since there are large muscles coverquestions in history and metaphy- ing the bottom of the cellular strucsics, about which a man is concern- ture, to force out the water, which ed to enquire for the sake of truth, must have been contracted imme. but not for the sake of any mode of diately after death, and by that external conduct to be engrafted on means had diminished the cavities. it. Good behaviour in private life, The camel, when it drinks, conducts and a sincere belief, whatever its the water in a pure state into the objects be, they deein sufficient to second stomach ; part of it is reinsure the approbation of the Deity. tained there, and the rest runs over
into the cellular structure of the
first, acquiring a yellow colour. For the Literary Magazine.
That the second stomach in the camel
contained water, had been generalON THE STOMACH OF THE ly asserted ; but by what means the CAMEL.
water was kept separate from the
food had never been explainel, nor MR. EVERARD HOME lately had any other part been discovered laid before the Royal Society of Lon- by which the common offices of a second stomach could be performed. shelf from which the food may be To this Mr. Hunter did not give regurgitated along the canal, con. credit, but considered the second tinued from the esophagus. There stomach of the camel to correspond is indeed no other mode by which in its use with that of other rumin this can be effected, since it is hardnants. This difference of opinion ly possible for the animal to sepaled Mr. Home to examine accurate- rate small portions from the surface ly the camel's stomach, and also the of the mass of dry food in the first stomachs of those ruminants which stomach, and force it up into the have horns, in order to determine mouth. It is also ascertained that the peculiar offices belonging to water is received into the second their different cavities.
stomach while the animal is drinke The best mode of conducting this ing, and is thus enabled to have its enquiry is to describe the different contents always in a proper state of stoinachs of the bullock, and then moisture to admit of its being reathose of the camel, and afterwards dily thrown up into the mouth for to point out the peculiarities by rumination, which seems to be the which this animal is enabled to go a true office of this stomach, and not longer time without drink than to receive the food after that proothers, and thereby fitted to live in cess has been gone through. those sandy deserts of which it is When the food is swallowed the the natural inhabitant.
second time, the orifice of the third When the first stomach of the stomach is brought forward by the bullock is laid open, and the solid muscular bands which terminate in contents removed, the cavity ap- it, so as to oppose the end of the pears to be made up of two large esophagus, and receive the morsel compartments, separated from each without the smallest risk of its dropother by two transverse bands of ping into the second stomach. The considerable thickness, and the se. third stomach of the bullock is a cacond stomach forms a pouch or les- vity, in the form of a crescent, conser compartment, on the anterior taining 24 septa, 7 inches broad; part of it, somewhat to the right of about 23, 4 inches broad; and about the esophagus, so that the first and 48 of 1 inch at their broadest part. second stomach are both included These are thus arranged: one in one general cavity, and lined broad one, with one of the narrowwith a cuticle. The cesophagus ap. est next it; then a narrow one, with pears to open into the first stomach, one of the narrowest next it ; then a but on each side of its termination broad one and so on. The septa there is a muscular ridge, projecting are thin membranes, and have their from the coats of the first stomach, origin in the orifice leading from so as to form a channel into the se. the cesophagus, so that whatever cond. These muscular bands are passes into the cavity must fall becontinued on to the orifice of the iween these septa, and describe third stomach, in which they are three-fourths of a circle, before it lost. The food can readily pass can arrive at the orifice leading to from the esophagus, either into the the true stomach, which is so near general cavity of the first stomach the other, that the distance between or into the second, which last is pe- them does not exceed three inches: culiarly fitted by its situation, and and therefore the direct line from the muscular power of its coats, both the termination of the @sophagus to throw up its contents into the to the orifice of the fourth stomach mouth, and to l'eceive a supply from is only of that length. While the the general cavity of the first sto. young calf is fed on milk, that liquor, mach, at the will of the animal. The which does not require to be rumisecond stomach contains the same nated, is conveyed directly to the food as the first, only more moist; fourth stomach, not passing through it must therefore be considered as a the plicæ of the third; and afterwards the solid food is directed into stomach, and that portion of it that cavity, by the plicæ separated which lies in the recess immediately from each other. The third sto. below the entrance of the esophagus mach opens into the fourth by a under which the cells are situated, projecting valvular orifice, and the is kept moist, and is readily returncuticular lining terminates exactly ed into the mouth, so that the celon the edge of this valve, covering lular portion of the first stomach in only that half of it which belongs to the camel performs the same office the third. The fourth or true di- as the second in the ruminants with gesting stomach is about 2 feet 9 horns. While the camel is drinking, inches long; its internal membrane the action of the muscular band has 18 plicæ, beginning at its orifice, opens the orifice of the second stoand continued down, increasing to a mach, at the same time that it di. great degree its internal surface: rects the water into it; and when beyond these the internal membrane the cells of that cavity are full, the is thrown into rugæ which follow a rest runs off into the cellular strucvery serpentine direction, and close ture of the first stomach immediate. to the pylorus there is a glandularly below, and afterwards into the projection, one end of which is op. general cavity : it seems that caposed to the orifice, and closes it up, mels, when accustomed to go long when in a collapsed state.
journeys, in which they are kept The camel's stomach anteriorly without water, acquire the power of forms one large bag, but when laid dilating the cells, so as to make open is forced to be divided into two make them contain a more than compartments on its posterior part, ordinary quantity as a supply for by a strong ridge which passes down their journey. When the cud has from the right side of the orifice of been chewed, it has to pass along the esophagus in a longitudinal di. the upper part of the second stomach rection. On the left side of the ter before it can reach the third ; which mination of the esophagus, a broad is thus managed: at the time that muscular band has its origin, from the cud is to pass from the mouth, the coats of the first stomach, and the muscular band contracts with passes down in the form of a solid so much force, that it not only opens parallel to the great ridge, till it the orifice of the second stomach, enters the orifice of the second sto. but acting on the mouth of the third, mach. This band on one side, and brings it forwards into the second, the great ridge on the other, form a by which means the muscular ridgcanal, which leads from the æsopha- es that separate the rows of cells gus down to the cellular structure in are brought close together, so as to the lower part of the first stomach. exclude these cavities from the ca. The orifice of the second stomach, nal, through which the end passes. when this muscle is not in action, is It is this beautiful and very curious nearly shut, and at right angles to mechanism which forms the pecuthe side of the first. Its cavity is a liar character of the stomach of the pendulous bag with rows of cells, camel, dromedary, and lama, fitting above which, between them and the them to live in the sandy deserts, muscle which passes along the up- where the supplies of water are so per part of the stomach, is a smooth precarious. surface extending from the orifice of In the bullock are three stomachs this stomach to the termination of for the preparation of food, and one the third. Hence it is evident that for digestion. In the camel there the second stomach neither receives is one stomach fitted to answer the the solid food in the first instance purposes of two of the bullock; a as the bullock, nor does it after second is employed as a reservoir wards pass into its cavity or cellular for water, having nothing to do with structure. The food first passes the preparation of the food ; a third into the general cavity of the first is so small and simple in its struc
ture, that it is not easy to ascertain Mr. Fulton, similar to that with its particular office.
which he lately made his curious The following are the gradations and interesting experiment, at Haof animals with ruminating sto- vre and Brest. machs: the ruminants with horns, The diving boat, in the conas the ox, sheep, &c., have two struction of which he is now employpreparatory stomachs for food pre. ed, will be capacious enough to conviously to rumination, and one for tain eight men, and provisions the food after rumination before it enough for twenty days, and will be is digested. The ruminants without of sufficient strength and power to horns, as the camel, dromedary, &c., enable him to plunge 100 feet under have one preparatory stomach be- water, if necessary. He has confore rumination, and one in which trived a reservoir for air, which the cud can be afterwards retained will enable eight men to remain unbefore it goes into the digesting sto. der water for eight hours. When mach. Those animals who eat the the boat is above water, it has two same kind of food with the rumi. sails, and looks just like a common nants, and yet do not ruminate, as boat. When she is to dive, the the horse and ass, have only one masts and sails are struck. stomach, but part of it is lined with In making his experiments at a cuticle, in which the food is first Havre, Mr. Fulton not only remaindeposited, and by remaining there ed a whole hour under water with some time is rendered more diges. three of his companions, but kept tible, when received into the digest his boat parallel to the horizon at ing portion.
any given depth. He proved that The ruminants with horns have the compass points as correctly unmolares in both jaws, and incisores der water as on the surface, and only in the lower jaw. The rumi. that, while under water, the boat nants without horns, have, in addi- made way at the rate of half a tion to these, what may be called league an hour, by means contrived fighting-teeth, or a substitute for for that purpose. horns. These are tusks in both It is not twenty years since all jaws, intermediate teeth between Europe was astonished at the first the molares and tusks, and in the ascension of men in balloons : perupper jaw two small teeth anterior haps in a few years they will not be to the tusks ; none of which can be less surprised to see a flotilla of div. of any use in eating. The camelo. ing boats, which, on a given signal, pardis forms an intermediate link shall, to avoid the pursuit of an in these respects. It las short enemy, plunge under water, and horns, and no tusks.
rise again several leagues from the place where they descended.
The invention of balloons has hi
therto been of no advantage, be. For the Literary Magazine. cause no means have been found to
direct their course. But if such ACCOUNT OF A DIVING BOAT. means could be discovered, what
would become of camps, cannon, CITIZEN St. Aubin, a man of fortresses, and the whole art of letters at Paris, and member of the war? tribunate, has given the following But if we have not succeeded in account of the bateau plongeur, a steering the balloon, and even were diving boat, lately discovered by it impossible to attain that object, Mr. Robert Fulton, the inventor of the case is different with the diving the torpedo and steam boat.
boat, which can be conducted under I have, says he, just been to water in the same manner as upon inspect the plan and section of a the surface. It has the advantage nautilus, or diving boat, invented by of sailing like a common boat, and
also of diving when it is pursued. of the pretended shower of blood at
perfectly similar to that on the bote .
nounce, that all those blood-coloured For the Literary Magazine. stains, wherever they appeared, pro
ceeded from the same cause. The SHOWERS OF BLOOD. prodigious number of butterflies
which he, at the same time, saw · AMONG many other prodigies flying in the air, confirmed his oriwhich have terrified nations, show. ginal idea. He likewise observed, ers of blood have been enumerated that the drops of the miraculous by historians. These showers of rain were never found in the middle blood were supposed to portend of the city; that they appeared only great and calamitous events, as in places bordering upon the counwars, the destruction of cities, and try; and that they never fell upon the overthrow of empires. About the tops of houses, or upon walls the beginning of July, in the year more elevated than the height to 1608, one of these pretended show. which butterflies generally rise. ers of blood fell in the suburbs of What M. de Peiresc saw himself, Aix, and for several miles round. he showed to many persons of This supposed shower of blood knowledge, or of curiosity, and es. would probably have been trans- tablished it as an incontestible fact, mitted to us as a great and real that the pretended drops of blood prodigy, if Aix had not then been were, in reality, drops of a red lipossessed of a philosopher, who, quor deposited by butterflies.' amidst other species of knowledge, To the same cause M. de Peiresc did not neglect the operations and attributes some other showers of economy of insects. This philoso. blood related by historians; and it pher was M. de Peiresc, whose life is worthy of remark, that all of is written by Gassendi. This life them happened in the warm sea. contains a number of curious facts sons of the year, when butterflies and observations. Among others, are most numerous. Among others, M. de Peiresc discovered the cause Gregory of Tours mentions a show
VOL. VIII. NO. XLVIII.