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wards the solid food is directed into stomach, and that portion of it that cavity, by the plicæ separated which lies in the recess immediately from each other. The third sto below the entrance of the esophagus mach opens into the fourth by a under which the cells are situated, projecting valvular orifice, and the is kept moist, and is readily returncuticular lining terminates exactly ed into the mouth, so that the celon the edge of this valve, covering lular portion of the first stomach in only that half of it which belongs to the camel performs the same office the third. The fourth or true di. as the second in the ruminants with gesting stomach is about 2 feet 9 horns. While the camel is drinking, inches long; its internal membrane the action of the muscular band has 18 plicæ, beginning at its orifice, opens the orifice of the second stoand continued down, increasing to a mach, at the same time that it digreat degree its internal surface: rects the water into it; and when beyond these the internal membrane the cells of that cavity are full, the is thrown into rugæ which follow a rest runs off into the cellular struc. very serpentine direction, and close ture of the first stomach immediateto the pylorus there is a glandular ly below, and afterwards into the projection, one end of which is op. general cavity : it seems that caposed to the orifice, and closes it up, mels, when accustomed to go long when in a collapsed state.
journeys, in which they are kept The camel's stomach anteriorly without water, acquire the power of forms one large bag, but when laid dilating the cells, so as to make open is forced to be divided into two make them contain a more than compartments on its posterior part, ordinary quantity as a supply for by a strong ridge which passes down their journey. When the cud has from the right side of the orifice of been chewed, it has to pass along the oesophagus in a longitudinal di. the upper part of the second stomach rection. On the left side of the ter- before it can reach the third ; which mination of the esophagus, a broad is thus managed : at the time that muscular band has its origin, from the cud is to pass from the mouth, the coats of the first stomach, and the muscular band contracts with passes down in the form of a solid so much force, that it not only opens parallel to the great ridge, till it the orifice of the second stomach, enters the orifice of the second sto but acting on the mouth of the third, mach. This band on one side, and brings it forwards into the second, the great ridge on the other, form a by which means the muscular ridgcanal, which leads from the æsopha es that separate the rows of cells gus down to the cellular structure in are brought close together, so as to the lower part of the first stomach. exclude these cavities from the ca. The orifice of the second stomach, nal, through which the end passes. when this muscle is not in action, is It is this beautiful and very curious nearly shut, and at right angles to mechanism which forms the pecuthe side of the first. Its cavity is a liar character of the stomach of the pendulous bag with rows of cells, camel, dromedary, and lama, fitting above which, between them and the them to live in the sandy deserts, muscle which passes along the up where the supplies of water are so per part of the stomach, is a smooth precarious. surface extending from the orifice of In the bullock are three stomachs this stomach to the termination of for the preparation of food, and one the third. Hence it is evident that for digestion. In the camel there the second stomach neither receives is one stomach fitted to answer the the solid food in the first instance purposes of two of the bullock; a as the bullock, nor does it after second is employed as a reservoir wards pass into its cavity or cellular for water, having nothing to do with structure, The food first passes the preparation of the food ; a third into the general cavity of the first is so small and simple in its struc.
ture, that it is not easy to ascertain Mr. Fulton, similar to that with its particular office.
which he lately made his curious The following are the gradations and interesting experiment, at Haof animals with ruminating sto vre and Brest. machs: the ruminants with horns, The diving boat, in the conas the ox, sheep, &c., have two struction of which he is now employpreparatory stomachs for food pre- ed, will be capacious enough to conviously to rumination, and one for tain eight men, and provisions the food after rumination before it enough for twenty days, and will be is digested. The ruminants without of sufficient strength and power to horns, as the camel, dromedary, &c., enable him to plunge 100 feet under have one preparatory stomach be- water, if necessary. He has confore rumination, and one in which trived a reservoir for air, which the cud can be afterwards retained will enable eight men to remain unbefore it goes into the digesting sto der water for eight hours. When mach. Those animals who eat the the boat is above water, it has two same kind of food with the rumi. sails, and looks just like a commor nants, and yet do not ruminate, as boat. When she is to dive, the the horse and ass, have only one masts and sails are struck. stomach, but part of it is lined with In making his experiments at a cuticle, in which the food is first Havre, Mr. Fulton not only remaindeposited, and by remaining there ed a whole hour under water with some time is rendered more diges. three of his companions, but kept tible, when received into the digest. his boat parallel to the horizon at ing portion.
any given depth. He proved that The ruminants with horns have the compass points as correctly unmolares in both jaws, and incisores der water as on the surface, and only in the lower jaw. The rumi. that, while under water, the boat nants without horns, have, in addi- made way at the rate of half a tion to these, what may be called league an hour, by means contrived fighting-teeth, or a substitute for for that purpose. horns. These are tusks in both It is not twenty years since all jaws, intermediate teeth between Europe was astonished at the first the molares and tusks, and in the ascension of men in balloons : perupper jaw two small teeth anterior haps in a few years they will not be to the tusks; none of which can be less surprised to see a flotilla of divof any use in eating. The camelo- ing boats, which, on a given signal, pardis forms an intermediate link shall, to avoid the pursuit of an in these respects.
It has short enemy, plunge under water, and horns, and no tusks.
rise again several leagues from the place where they descended.
The invention of balloons has hi
therto been of no advantage, beFor the Literary Magazine. cause no means have been found to
direct their course. But if such ACCOUNT OF A DIVING BOAT. means could be discovered, what
would become of camps, cannon, CITIZEN St. Aubin, a man of fortresses, and the whole art of letters at Paris, and member of the war? tribunate, has given the following But if we have not succeeded in account of the bateau plongeur, a steering the balloon, and even were diving boat, lately discovered by it impossible to attain that object, Mr. Robert Fulton, the inventor of the case is different with the diving the torpedo and steam boat.
boat, which can be conducted under I have, says he, just been to water in the same manner as upon inspect the plan and section of a the surface. It has the advantage nautilus, or diving boat, invented by of sailing like a common boat, and
also of diving when it is pursued. of the pretended shower of blood at With these qualities it is fit for Aix, which had created so general carrying secret orders, to succour a an alarm. About the beginning of blockaded port, and to examine the July, the walls of a church-yard ad. force and position of an enemy in jacent to the city, and particularly their own harbours. These are the walls of the small villages in sure and evident benefits, which the the neighbourhood, were observed diving boat at present promises. to be spotted with large drops of a But who can see all the conse- blood-coloured liquid. The people, quences of this discovery, or the im. as well as some theologians, consi. provements of which it susceptible? dered those drops as the operation Mr. Fulton has already added to his of sorcerers, or of the devil himself. boat a machine, by means of which M. de Peiresc, about that time, had he blew up a large boat in the port picked up a large and beautiful of Brest; and if, by future experi. chrysalis, which he laid in a box. ments, the same effect could be pro- Immediately after its transformaduced on frigates or ships of the tion into the butterfly state, M. de line, what will become of maritime Pieresc remarked, that it had left a wars, and where will sailors be drop of blood-coloured liquor on the found to man ships of war, when it bottom of the box, and that this is a physical certainty, that they drop, or stain, was as large as a may every moment be blown into French sou. The red stains on the the air by means of a diving boat, walls, on stones near the highways, against which no human foresight and in the fields, were found to be can guard them?
perfectly similar to that on the bottom of M. de Peiresc's box. He now no longer hesitated to pro
nounce, that all those blood-coloured For the Literary Magazine. stains, wherever they appeared, pro
ceeded from the same cause. The prodigious number of butterflies
which he, at the same time, saw AMONG many other prodigies flying in the air, confirmed his oriwhich have terrified nations, show. ginal idea. He likewise observed, ers of blood have been enumerated that the drops of the miraculous by historians. These showers of rain were never found in the middle blood were supposed to portend of the city ; that they appeared only great and calainitous events, as in places bordering upon the counwars, the destruction of cities, and try; and that they never fell upon the overthrow of empires. About the tops of houses, or upon walls the beginning of July, in the year more elevated than the height to 1608, one of these pretended show which butterflies generally rise. ers of blood fell in the suburbs of What M. de Peiresc saw himself, Aix, and for several miles round. he showed to many persons of This supposed shower of blood knowledge, or of curiosity, and es. would probably have been trans- tablished it as an incontestible fact, mitted to us as a great and real that the pretended drops of blood prodigy, if Aix had not then been were, in reality, drops of a red li. possessed of a philosopher, who, quor deposited by butterflies. amidst other species of knowledge, To the same cause M. de Peiresc did not neglect the operations and attributes some other showers of economy of insects. This philoso. blood related by historians; and it pher was M. de Peiresc, whose life is worthy of remark, that all of is written by Gassendi. This life them happened in the warm sea. contains a number of curious facts sons of the year, when butterflies and observations. Among others, are most numerous. Among others, M. de Peiresc discovered the cause Gregory of Tours mentions a show
SHOWERS OF BLOOD.
VOL. VIII. NO. XLVIII.
er of blood which fell, in the time ally with blood instead of water. of Childebert, in different parts of Sir David Dalrymple, one of the Paris, and upon a certain house in senators of the college of justice ia the territory of Senlis ; and, about Scotland, a gentleman not more disthe end of the month of June, ano. tinguished by his learning and deep ther likewise fell, under the reign research, than by his scrupulous inof King Robert.
tegrity and propriety of conduct, reIt has been remarked, that al- lates, in his Annals of Scotland*, most all the butterflies which pro upon the authority of Hoveden and ceed from certain species of hairy Benedictus Abbas, that in the year caterpillars void large drops of ex. 1184, " a fountain near Kilwinningt, crement, which have the colour of in the shire of Air, ran blood for blood. The hairy caterpillar that eight days and eight nights without feeds upon the leaves of the elm- intermission. This portent had fretree, after its transformation, emits quently appeared, but never for so drops, the colour of which is of a long a space. In the opinion of the more deep red than that of blood ; people of the country, it prognostiand, after being dried, their colour cated the effusion of blood. Beneapproaches to that of carmine. dictus Abbas, and R. Hoveden, reFrom another caterpillar of the late the story of this portent with elm, which is much larger, and perfect credulity. Benedictus Abmuch more common than the for. bas improves a little upon his bromer, proceeds a butterfly, that, im- ther; for he is positive that the mediately after its transformation, fountain flowed with pure blood.” emits a great quantity of red excre If Kilwinning, like Aix, had possessment. This species of caterpillar, ed such a philosopher as Peiresc, the in particular years, is so numerous, redness of the water, if ever it did that it lays bare the whole trees in appear, would have received a most certain districts. Myriads of them satisfactory explanation. are transformed into chrysalids about the end of May or beginning of June. When about to undergo their metamorphosis, they often at For the Literary Magazine. tach themselves to the walls, and even enter into the country houses. THE LIFE OF DR. ARMSTRONG. If these butterflies were all brought forth at the same time, and flew in JOHN ARMSTRONG, M. D., a the same direction, their number poet and physician, was born, about would be sufficient to form small 1709, at Castleton, in Roxburghclouds, to cover the stones, &c., of shire, Scotland, where his father was particular districts with blood-co- minister. In his principal poem he loured spots, and to convince those has verypleasingly celebrated his who wish to fright themselves, and native place, and the rivulet witke to see prodigies, that a shower of which it is beautified. blood had fallen during the night. Some of those hairy caterpillars
Such the stream which live in society upon nettles, On whose Arcadian banks I first drew ' likewise emit an excrementitious air,
matter of a red colour. A thou. Liddal ; till now, except in Doric sand examples of the same kind lays, might be enumerated. Hence the Tun'd to her murmurs by her lovenotion of miraculous or portentous Unknown in song; though not a pur
sick swains, showers of blood should be for ever banished from the minds of men.
er stream, We not only read of showers, but, what seems to be more unaccounta. * Vol. I. page 298. ble, of fountains running occasion † A Scottish village.
Through meads more flow'ry, or Subjects," under the name of Launmore romantic groves,
celot Temple, Esq., in 1758, was Rolls towards the western main, &c. better received by the public, who ART OF HEALTH, BOOK III, admired the humour and knowledge
of the world which it displayed. He was designed for the medical The celebrated Mr. Wilkes, then profession, and studied for that pur. his intimate acquaintance, was pose in the university of Edinburgh, supposed to have contributed a where he took his degree with re share to this volume. putation, in 1732. The subject of Dr. Armstrong had professional his inaugural thesis, was, De Tabe interest enough in 1760 to obtain Purulenta. He settled in London, the appointment of physician to the where he appeared in the double army in Germany. From that capacity of author and physician; country he wrote, “ Day: an episbut his success in the former, as has tle to John Wilkes, Esq." A re, frequently been the case, seems to flection upon Churchils in this latter have impeded his progress in the piece drew upon him a severe retalatter. His first publication, in liation from that irritable bard in 1735, was a humorous attack upon his “ Journey.” Party now ran so empirics, in the manner of Lucian, high, especially that of the worst entitled “ An Essay for abridging kind, national animosity, that a na. the Study of Physic; to which is tive of Scotland could scarcely keep added, a Dialogue between Hygeia, up a friendly intercourse with an Mercury, and Pluto, relating to the English oppositionist : accordingly, practice of Physic, as it is managed we find that the intimacy between by a certain illustrious Society; and Dr. Armstrong and Mr. Wilkes an Epistle from Usbeck the Persian was dissolved about this time. At to Joshua Ward, Esq." In 1737 he the peace of 1763, Armstrong republished a serious professional turned to London, and resumed the piece “ On the Venereal Disease;" practice of physic; but his habits and soon after it, a poem, entitled and manners opposed an insur, “The Economy of Love,” which met mountable bar against popular sucwith a success which was, probably, cess. Iis mind was too lofty to in the end, a source neither of sa- stoop to intrigue ; his manner was tisfaction nor advantage to the stiff and reserved ; and his dispoauthor. It is an elegant and vigo- sition was indolent. He continued rous performance; but so warm in occasionally rather to amuse than some of its descriptions, as to have exert himself in literary produc: incurred the general censure of li- tions, serious and humorous; somecentiousness, which has excluded it times, in the latter, mistaking oddity from the most reputable collections for wit, and indulging an unpleas, of poetry. The author himself con ant veil of vulgarity in expression siderably pruned its luxuriances, in and misanthropy in sentiment. an edition printed in 1768.
These latter effusions are scarcely In 1744, his capital work, the di- worth particularizing. In 1771, he dactic poem on " the Art of Pre, made a journey to France and Italy, serving Health,” appeared, and accompanied by the celebrated pain. raised his literary reputation to a ter, Mr. Fuseli, who warmly atheight which his after-performan. tests the benevolence of his characces scarcely sustained.
ter. On this tour he took a last fare. “ On Benevolence," in 1751, and well, in Italy, of his friend Smol. another entitled "Taste, an Epis- lett, to whom he was much attached. tle to a young Critic,” in 1753, show- He published a short account of this ed that he continued to cultivate ramble, under the name of Launce. the muses, though with no extraor- lot Temple. His last publication, dinary success. A volume, in prose, a pamphlet, in 1773, entitled, of " Sketches or Essays on various Medical Essays,” accounts, in a