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bone; a very broad stiff laced ruff; to so great a height by stuffing them
his doublet (body and sleeves) bom- out, that they might more properly
basted or barrelled, and pinked and have been called the farthingal
slashed all over, small oblong but breeches,
tops, and a loose long cloak. The Charles I wore long hair, parti-
custom of men sitting uncovered in cularly one lock longer than the
the church is certainly very decent, rest, hanging on the left side, large
but not very ancient. Dr. Cox, whiskers, a piked beard, a ruff, shoe
bishop of Ely, died 1581, whose fu- roses, and a falling band. His queen
neral procession I have seen an ad. wore a ruff standing on each side
mirable old drawing of; as likewise and_behind, but her bosom open.
of the assembly sitting in the choir Sir Francis Bacon, who died in 1626,
to hear the funeral sermon, all co in his fine monument at St. Alban's,
vered, and having their bonnets on. is represented with monstrous shoe
John Fox, the martyrologist, who roses, and great bombast paned hose,
died in 1587, when an old man (as reaching to the knees. About 1641,
appears by his picture), wore a the forked shoes came into fashion,
strait cap covering his head and almost as long again as the feet, not
ears, and over that a deepish-crown- less an impediment to the action of
ed shallow-brimmed slouched hat. the foot than to reverential devotion,
This is the first hat I have yet ob- for our boots and shoes were so long
served in any picture. Hats being snouted, we could hardly kneel.
thus come in, men began then to sit But as a short foot was soon thought
uncovered in the church, as I take to be more fashionable, full as much
it ; for as hats look not so well on art became necessary to give it as
men's heads in places of public wor short an appearance as possible.
ship as hoods or bonnets (the former About 1650, both men and women
wear), this might probably be the had the whim of bringing down the
first occasion of their doing so.

hair of their heads to cover their James I wore short hair, large forehead, so as to meet their eyewhiskers, and a short beard;

also a

brows. In 1652, John Owen, dean ruff and ruff ruffles. In 1612 (10, of Christ church and vice chancel. Jac. I), Mr. Hawley, of Gray's Inn, lor of Oxford, went in querpo, like coming to court one day, Maxwell

, a young scholar, with powdered a Scotsman, led him out of the hair, his band strings with very room by a black string which he large tassels, a large set of ribands wore in his ear, a fashion then at his knees, with tags at the ends of much in use; but this had like to them; Spanish leather boots with have caused warm blood, had not large lawn tops, and his hat mostly the king made up the quarrel. cocked. After the close-stool-pan Prince Henry, eldest son to James sort of hat, which had now been mathe first, wore short hair filletted and ny years in wear, came in the sucombed upward, short barrelled gar-loaf or high crowned hat; these, breeches, and silk thistles or carna- though mightily affected by both tions at the tie of his shoes. The sexes, were so very incommodious, young lord Harrington, this prince's as that, every puff of wind blowing contemporary, is painted in the them off, they required the almost same manner, with the addition of constant employment of one hand to ear-drops, a double ruff, and barrel. secure them. Charles II, in 1660, led doublet.

appears to have worn a large thick The great tub farthingal was cravat with tassels, a short doublet, much worn in this reign ; the fa. large ruffles, short boots with great mous countess of Essex is pictured tops, a very short cloak, and long in a monstrous hoop of this sort. In hair (one lock on the right side conformity to the ladies of that age, longer than ordinary), all pulled forthe gentlemen fell into the ridicu- ward, and divided like a long wig lous fashion of trunk hose, an affec- on each side of his face : soon after tation of the same kind, and carried he wore a periwig.

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There is no end of the whims, pressions are so difficult to be eravagaries, and fancies in dress which dicated, and frequently form leading men and women have run into features of their characters ever Whole volumes might be wrote on afterwards, we cannot be too carethe subject. However, these rude ful what ideas we inculcate into notes may serve as a sketch of the their minds. The nursery-maid 'former times.

does as much towards forming the Old fables tell us of one Epimi. character of a child as the schoolnides, who after a sleep of fifty master. years awaked with amazement, Nurses and mothers hardly ever finding a new world every where, talk sense to them. They sing both of men and fashion. Let this them to sleep with stories that sleep go (as it well may) for a fabu. would astonish even the inhabitants lous invention, the effects of it, his of Bedlam, and, in the day, tell them amazement, I am sure might have tales of giants and fairies, whose been credible enough, though the tremendous actions alarm their sleep had been shorter by many fears, and are frequently used as years. In some countries, if men threats to terrify them when disobe. should but put on those clothes dient; and, when taught their letwhich they left off but four or five ters, almost the only books given years before, and use those fashions them to read are histories of Cock which were then in use, they would Robin, Jack the Giant-Killer, and a seem even to themselves ridiculous, parcel of rubbish ; every line of and unto many little less than mon which serves only to render their strous.

little understanding less. Hence the generality of children have good

memories, a credulity that will For the Literary Magazine. swallow every thing, abundance of

superstition, and reason inferior to ON EDUCATION.

that of the brute creation.

But how can this be remedied?

By not intrusting them to the care To the Editor, &c. of persons from whom they can only SIR,

learn what they must afterwards WHEN the infant comes into the unlearn. Let parents superintend world, its mind is devoid of ideas, their education during infancy them. excepting those very few it has re- selves. To a feeling heart no gratificeived in the womb, but in the cation can be so exquisite. It is the course even of a few days it acquires first of all duties. It is far better to several. Children are capable of give them a good education with a combining and comparing ideas, little money, than a bad one with and forming judgments, much soon ever so large an estate. When the er than is generally imagined ; and child begins to read, some books as their minds possess but a small should be given it, containing, in number of ideas, and almost every short sentences, its duties towards object is new to them, every thing God, its neighbour, and itself; little strikes them with much greater histories, relating nothing extraorforce than it does a person of riper dinary or miraculous : the histories years, and fixes itself much stronger of children engage their attention in their memories. A man whose above all others, because they are faculties are impaired by age for. exactly suited to their capacities, gets the occurrences of the middle and they can easily comprehend years of life, but hardly ever those them* ; and whatever they read of childhood; he often remembers them much more perfectly than the * I have seen some excellent little transactions of yesterday. As, then, books of this description, printed by children are so susceptible of im. Jacob Johnson, of this city, a gentlepressions, and as these early im- man who emulates the “philanthropic

LETTER II.

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should be fully explained to them; chastised for another fault, it will and as soon as they are able they justify itself by some other precept, should be made, in an hour or two directly opposite to the former. If afterwards, to repeat the substance it cannot remember a precept that of their lesson, with its explanation. will bear it out, it will soon seek, by

Children generally have a deal of some trifling alteration, to convert curiosity ; every thing is new to one into an excuse; and by a natural them, and therefore excites their gradation, in a little time, excuse attention. This curiosity should be itself by an entire falsehood. In encouraged and increased by every this part of education example is at possible means. If they do not ask least as important as verbal instrucfor an explanation of every thing, tions, and is what very few parents we should give it them; and, by attend to. They correct the child constantly keeping their minds oc- for ill-humour, and perhaps directcupied on things of importance, their ly afterwards put themselves into understandings will enlarge, and soon a passion. Here are contradictory outgrow trifles. To refuse to grati- instructions, and the example comfy their curiosity is to forbid them to ing last eradicates all that the prelearn, and damps their thirst after cept and correction have taught. knowledge. But there is a still Those who are intrusted with the more abominable practice some care of children cannot be too attenparents are guilty of than merely tive to their own behaviour and conletting their children remain in ig- versation, for they frequently learn

norance, which is, the instructing as much from the conversation their ( them in error, in answering their parents hold with third persons, as

questions falsely. They think that, from the instructions which are as the child will not know whether given immediately to themselves. they tell it truth or falsehood, it is Many parents, from a mistaken immaterial which they tell it. The tenderness, indulge their children in asking for an explanation proves every thing that they desire; and, that its attention is strongly engag- from a fear of rendering them uned; the answer therefore will be happy, never contradict them. Of deeply engraven on its memory. all children, none is so unhappy as This practice will inevitably make one that is spoilt. It wants things it believe wrong. The explanation which it is impossible for it to ob. will in all probability contradict its tain ; and is as miserable, because reason, or some previous instruction it cannot procure them, as if it was it has received ; its little mind will deprived of some absolute necessary be filled with doubts which it cannot of life. It renders itself disagreeasolve; by receiving contradictory ble to every body but its misguided solutions it will discover that the parents. When sent to school, it is truth is not always told it, and im- obnoxious to its schoolfellows, who bibe a sceptical disposition, and be will not submit to its caprices, and forward to disbelieve instructions the harshness of the treatment it rethat are really valuable.

ceives both from them and from And this leads me to the third the master or mistress is generally point, That our instructions should in proportion to the inordinate inbe always uniform. In addition to dulgence it has received at home. the inconveniences just stated, con But of all bad practices, none is tradictory instructions will lead the equal to that of partiality. Even if child to lying. When chastised for parents feel a greater degree of af. a fault, it will justify itself by some fection for one child than another, precept it has received ; when they ought not to show it. The fa

vourite is always spoilt : and seeds bookseller in St. Paul's Church Yard, of dissension are sown between the the friend of children, the friend of children, which sometimes can never mankind."

be eradicated.

Though I am a strong advocate miscuously into the river, in a line for gentleness, I can by no means across, to form a base, with such agree with M. Rousseau, “ That declivity'on each side as the stones children should never be correct shall rest at, and of such width, as ed, even when they do amiss.” will make a ridge levelled to 35 As little can I subscribe to Dr. feet wide at low-water mark. On Johnson's opinion, " That they this base, a causeway to be raised should not be rewarded when they 5 feet above high-water mark, and do well.” They will not be at the to be 31 feet wide on the top for the trouble of learning without some in- passage way; the walls of which to ducement; there are but two in- be built with large flat stones, the ducements in nature, the hope of space between to be filled with stone, pleasure and the fear of pain, and the top levelled with gravel. There must be a particular motive On each side to be erected a subfor every action ; if therefore we stantial fence or wall, for the safety dispense rewards alone, we must of passengers. The whole to be gratify them with something for filled up and built in this manner, every lesson they learn; and be. except a passage of 66 feet near the sides, by never being contradicted, centre of the river, over which a they will grow self-willed and over- drawbridge is to be thrown. bearing. On the other hand, if This great and novel work was they are governed entirely by fear, undertaken the last summer, and the they will acquire a servile disposi- following is the present state of it: tion, the energy of their minds will From the east end of the bridge to be damped ; and, though they may the draw, a distance of 757 feet is be beat into great scholars, they nearly completed; a drawbridge, on will never become great philoso- a very simple and good model, is phers or legislators.

thrown over the passage left in the To become truly great, a strong river, to open 30 feet for vessels to spirit of emulation is necessary ; but pass, which is worked with great as this is the most important and ease and dispatch by one man ; the most difficult part of education, from the draw westward, 184 feet I shall reserve my sentiments upon is filled up to low-water mark; it for another letter.

on the west end, 140 feet is nearly w. w. complete ; and 228 feet further

eastward is filled up to low-water

mark; the remaining space, about For the Literary Magazine. 150 feet, is filled up, on an average,

within 5 feet of low-water. DESCRIPTION OF RHODE ISLAND It is expected, that the bridge BRIDGE.

may be passed on foot, at low-water,

on the first of September: and proTHIS bridge connects the north- bably carriages may pass in October east end of the island with the next. The time requisite for the main land, in Tiverton, at a place stones thrown in loosely to settle, called Howland's ferry, about 11 and form a natural or secure angle, miles from Newport. It is 1524 before the side walls can be be built feet in length, from the west end on up where it has lately been filled in, the island, to the east end on the will delay the completion of the main ; and 864 feet between the work till next summer; but it is former abutments of the old (wood. expected the bridge can be passed en) bridge, where the average depth by horses and catile (if not by carof water is 39 to 40 feet, and the riages) without difficulty, after Ocgreatest depth 59 to 60 feet at high- tober. water. This bridge is building on To raise the money requisite for the following plan: a sufficient building this bridge, a subscription quantity of stone to be thrown pro. was opened, under the act of incor

VOL. VIII. NO, XLVIII.

AND

poration, for 800 shares of 100 dol. For the Literary Magazine.
lars each, which has been subscrib-
ed, and it is expected will complete ACCOUNT OF THE PROFIT
this work.

LOSS UPON A FLOCK OF SHEEP This undertaking, though not so WINTERED AT CLERMONT, IN expensive as many, may be consi THE STATE OF NEW YORK, IN dered as the most enterprizing, 1806-7. considering the rapidity of the cur. rent and the very great depth of Published, by order of the Agricul. water ; and that it was impossible tural Society of Dutchess county, to make a bridge that would stand, N. Y., by the proprietor, Robert unless by filling up a passage across R. Livingston. the river, in the manner which has been done. The quantity of stone THE flock consisted of six full already used, and which will be re bred Merino sheep, twenty-four quired, is immense. The success three-fourths bred, thirty half bred, of the undertaking, and durability and seventeen common sheep of of the bridge, cannot be questioned, good quality. They were kept in by any who examine it.

one flock, and treated alike in every There are few works of greater respect. The full bred were two public utility : it establishes a per- rams and four ewes, one of the ewes manent corcmunication with the died in February a lambing. She main land; is the most direct, and was eight years old. Two ewes shortest way to Boston, and the on lambed in March, the other was a ly way to New Bedford. To travel yearling and had not taken a ram. from hence to Boston, via Provi. On May 28 the five sheep were shorn, dence, requires two days; but a and gave 283lbs. of wool. They line of stages will run, on this new had not been washed, but as they route, across the bridge, to and were well littered in the fold, and from Boston, with great ease, in one kept out except at night, the wool day. It will form an essential secu. was not so foul as common. rity to this island, in case of war 283lbs. of wool sold to with any European power, as it will Mr. Booth at 108. £14 76 keep open a communication from the 1 ram lamb sold at $100 40 00 main, wnich cannot be destroyed: 1 ewe do. not sold, as I and, by stopping up the passage, pre have not yet my comvent ships of war from sailing round

plement

40 00 the island.

Wool from the ewe that The country, where this cause died 42lbs. at 108.

2 5 way bridge is erected, has a delightful climatė, affords a diversi

96 12 6 fied and interesting perspective.- Deduct for the old In the season, there are plenty of ewe that died, which curlews, plovers, and other game. cost at 2 years old The river abounds with almost

18 12 0

$80 £15 00 every kind of fish that is brought to Keeping 6 market ; particularly the sheep's sheepat 12s. 12 head, striped bass, blue fish, and totague, of the largest size: and for

£78 06 sea bathing, no place on the conti- Account of 24 three-quarter bred nent can be preferred it. It is

sheep. expected, in a few years, that it will 24 sheep, among which there was become a fashionable place of great but one yearling wether, resort, where invalids, bon vivants, Gave 106lbs. of wool, and parties of pleasure, may bene sold at 58.

£26 10 0 fit their healths, or agreeably pass Keeping at 128. deduct 14 8 0 the summer months. Newport, Aug. 16.

Clear profit on the wool £12 2 0

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