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an incontestible truth, that the creatures as we are, we should not, faculties of the human mind are ea. however, implicitly adopt the opisily perverted by education, or false nion of the multitude. Such a comopinions. Yet such is the innate pliance is no less characteristic of a principle of the soul, we cannot but weak mind, than dangerous, because consider the credulity of some of our infatuation is generally the mistress species with astonishment. Even of popular opinions and actions. those who may be ranked amongst How then are we to extricate ourthe wisest of men have been ad. selves from the maze of surrounddicted to absurdities, and all are disc ing errors? How! by summoning up tinguished for certain peculiarities. a virtuous courage, a magnanimous
It is unnecessary to launch out resolution, a calm exertion of reainto metaphysical argumentation son, and a firm compliance with the on the cause of those contrarieties dictates of true religion ; not that which render man a curious com- religion which is embraced by this position.
or that sect, to the utter expulsion Indeed such a proceeding borders of others; but to the religion of on impiety; for why question the the gospel, which explictly says, immutable appointment of Him you cannot serve God and mamwhose wisdom formed, and whose mon.” Resting on this rock, will omnipotence rules the great stu. be to shun the sands of credulity. pendous whole ? On surveying the We, who are now acting our seve. harmony displayed in the works of ral parts on the stage of life, are creation, our minds are impressed hastening off apace ; it is therefore with sublime ideas, and the soul ex our duty not only to prepare for pands with awful love. Reflecting eternity, but endeavour to secure on our own nothingness, proud ima- wisdom, virtue, and religion, to the gination dies within us, and we rising generation! Our solicitude become of course all humility. Frail for the propagation of truth, unaVOL. VIII. NO, XLVIII.
dulterated with credulity, cannot
individuals ; for every man is a be better shown than in educating little kingdom, where, if the infeour children in such a
rior's powers and faculties are in as ultimately to establish them due subjection to the superior, he rein virtue and piety. Our Creator sembles a well governed state : evehath made us reasonable beings, ry part of the fabric is in peace and capable of attaining to a vast va- tranquillity, consequently happy ; if, riety of matter; yet the soul may on the contrary, his inferior powers be said to come into the world un rebel against the superior, there exfurnished with knowledge. The ists the same internal commotion in powers of our nature would be in the individual, as in a nation when struments of madness, and run into in a state of civil confusion. a thousand pernicious errors, if we The same history which shows had not the happiness of being pro- that the happiness of a nation des perly instructed. Hence the impor- pends on its virtue, informs us the tance of training up children in the happiness of individuals depends on path of virtue and knowledge ; in a the same principle; and that ruin steady adherence to the truths of will as certainly be the consequence the gospel, made so clear, the most of vice in an individual, as in the simple can understand. Abiding by community at large. these will lead to happiness in this life, to a peace of conscience which will counteract the enmity of the Fenelon, Archbishop of Chambray. world, and secure us a blest immortality
The person of Fenelon is thus described by one who was intimate
ly acquainted with him : History.
“ He was above the middle size,
elegantly formed, slender and pale. History acquaints us with the His nose was large and well shaped. transactions and characters of man- His eyes darted fire and vivacity. kind, from the remotest periods of His countenance was such, whoever antiquity to the present time ; and had seen it once could never forget it. gives us a knowledge of the most It contained every thing, and united distant nations, as well as our own. contrarieties, without their appear. It gives us a view of the powers of ing to be at variance. It contained man, by showing in what manner he gravity and sweetness, seriousness has improved, from the most bar- and cheerfulness. It exhibited barous and savage state of society, equally the man of learning, the to that in which we now behold the ecclesiastic, and nobleman; but most polished nations of the world. what universally pervaded it, as well What different pictures do the same as the whole of his person, were creatures exhibit, employed in hunt- finesse, understanding, decorum, the ing, fishing, and making war on graces, and particularly dignity; each other with the most unrelent- insomuch that it required an effort ing cruelty, and, as we now behold to remove the eye from him. There them, improving life with useful appeared something more than morarts, and embellishing it with orna. tal blended o'er the whole. All the ments and elegances, suited to a portraits of him appeared to speak; state of refinement. Nor does history yet no painter could ever reach the do only this; it displays, in its ac- proportions, the harmony, and delicount of all nations, how essential cacy of character, that were united morality and virtue are to the happi- in his countenance. He possessed a ness of a state, and how constantly natural, soft, and flowery eloquence, vice and irreligion terminates in a politeness insinuating but noble, national ruin. This is not only a an elocution easy, neat, and agreeauseful lesson to communities, but to ble, with a clearness and precision
o as to be understood at once, even Defend, good sir, the ground you when treating on the most abstract
take, ed and difficult matter.
While I the charge repeat. 6 With all this superiority, he never permitted himself to appear
You think, in citing thus from Pope, to possess more understanding than To show your taste and sense : those with whom he conversed. He To copy him you need not hope, put himself on a level with every
Save but in imprdence. one, without their perceiving he did so. To such a degree did he fasci. nate all to whom he spoke, that they
Self Knowledge. could not quit him for a moment, without desiring to return to him. There three characters This rare talent, which he possess, which every man sustains; and ed in so eminent a degree, attached these often extremely differ from his friends to him all his life, in de one another.
One which he pose fiance of his exile and disgrace, and sesses is his own opinion. Another the unhappy distance they were that which he carries in the estifrom him. It united them in the me mation of the world ; and a third lancholy pleasure of talking of him, which he bears in the judgment of regretting him, of sighing after of his maker: it is only the last his return, and expecting it with which ascertains what he really is. the ardour of desire."
Whether the character which the In the year 1709, a young sove. world forms of him be above or reign prince passed a few days with below the truth, it imports not Fenelon. Among other subjects, much to know. But it is of eterthey conversed on toleration. Ne- nal consequence, that the characver, sir, said the archbishop, oblige ter which a man possesses in his your subjects to change their reli.
own eyes, be formedupon that gion ; no human power can force the which he bears in the sight of impenetrable intrenchment of the God. freedom of thinking. Violence will never convince the heart ; it can only make men hypocrites.
Euqanimity. Grant to all men a civil toleration of religion ; not as if you approved I am no more raised or dejected, of every difference as a matter of said Politiano, by the flattery of indifference ; but as if you permit- my friends, or the accusations of ted every thing with patience which my enemies, than I am by the shaGod permitted. “ All forms of go- dow of my own body ; for although vernment,” said the good archbishop that shadow may be somewhat lonone day to the chevalier Ramsey, ger in the morning and evening than sare necessarily imperfect; for the in the middle of the day, it does not supreme power in this world must induce me to think myself a taller ever be entrusted to man, yet all man at those times than at noon. forms are good, when those who A good and wise man explores govern attend only to the great law the recesses of his own heart daily, of the public welfare.”
and enquires, when kept from vice, whether his innocence proceeded
from purity of principle, or from To Mr. who affirmed Pope worldly motives ; whether he has
to have been correct in asserting, been as solicitous to regulate his that woman is at heart a rake. heart, as to preserve his manners
from reproach. A heart bearing If woman is at heart a rake,
such a scrutiny, shrinks pot at the A pedant you complete ;
malignity of the world.
For the Literary Magazine. his head a degree longer than his
father ; but no beard or whiskers. ANECDOTES OF DRESS,
In 1104 (4, Henry I) Serlo bishop THE first clothes we read of of Seez, preaching at Carenton, bewere immediately after the fall, fore the king, against long hair,
nen 6 Adam and Eve sewed fige caused him and all his courtiers to leaves together, and made them- get their hair cropt as soon as they selves aprons.” A poor sort of co- left the church ; and accordingly vering ! but when God turned them Henry I, in his broad seal (as appears out of Paradise, he provided warm- in Sandford), has no hair, beard, or er clothes for them: "Unto Adam whiskers. Stephen observed the and also unto his wife did the Lord same fashions. Henry II brought God make coats of skin, and cloth in the short mantle, and therefore ed them.” After this, garments of had the name of Court-mantle. In knit work, then woven clothes came his time the use of silk was first into use.
At Cæsar's arrival, the brought out of Greece into SiciBritons in the south part of the ly, and other parts of christenisle were attired with skins; but as dom. Richard I, in his first and secivility grew under the Romans, cond broad seals, has longish hair, they assumed the Roman habit. no beard or whiskers. John, in The English or Saxons, at their his broad seal, has short hair, large first arrival there, wore long jack. whiskers, and short curled hair. ets, were shorn all over the head, The ladies, in the three last menexcepting about the crown, and un tioned reigns, wore long cloaks der that an iron ring. Afterwards from their shoulders to their heels, they wore loose and large white buttoned round the neck, and then garments, with broad borders of thrown over the shoulders, hanging divers colours, as the Lombards. down behind. Somewhat before the conquest they Henry III wore whiskers, and a were all gallant, with coats to the short round beard. The same king mid-knee, head shorn, beard shave returning out of France, in 1243, ed, face painted, and arms laden commanded it to be proclaimed all with bracelets. But totus homo in
over the kingdom, ut qualibet civivultu est, as the whole man is seen tate vel burgo quatuor cives vel by his face, it will not be amiss to burgenses honorabiliores et obviain observe, that Edward the confessor procederent in vestibus pretiosis et wore very short cropt hair, whis- desiderabilibus; his design in which kers and beard exceeding long was to obtain presents from them. William the conqueror wore short Edward I wore short hair, and no hair, large whiskers, and a short whiskers or beard. Edward II round beard. Robert, his eldest son, continued this fashion. Edward III, it is well known, used short hose, in his first and second broad seals, from thence called courthose, cour. has long hair, but no beard or whis. toise, curtis ; on his monument, kers ; in his third broad seal, shortyet extant at Gloucester, he is er hair, large whiskers, and a twopourtrayed with short stockings of pointed beard, and on his monumail, reaching scarce up to the ment in Westminster abbey a very place where some garter below long beard. The same king, in knee ; no breeches, but a coat, or our common prints of him, is generather shirt of mail, instead of rally pictured with a sort of hat on; them. However, breeches and but as hats are a deal more modern, stockings are new terms, and, in wherever I see him drawn with a the sense we now understand them, hat on, I conclude that picture to be different things, being at first one a counterfeit. And indeed it may and the same, all made of one piece be questioned, whether there are of cloth, and then called hose. any pictures of any of our kings
William Rufus wore the hair of painted before his time now extant,
Philippa, consort to thiş king, ac same: in this reign the shoes were cording to her monument at West- remarkably broad, which Camden minster, wore a pretty sort of net- speaking of, says, “ Not many years work cawl over her hair, with a after, it was proclaimed, that no long end of the same hanging down man should have his shoes broader each ear.
at the toes than six inches. And In this reign I conceive it was women trimmed themselves with that history says,
foxes' tails under their garments, as were besotted in excess of apparel, they do now with French farthingoing some in wide surcoats reach- gals; and men with absurd short ing to their loins ; some in a gar- garments. Henry VI, Edward IV, ment reaching to their heels, close Richard III, and Henry VII, wore before, and strutting out on both their hair moderately long, no sides, so that on the back they make whiskers or beard. Henry VIII men seem women, and this they had short cropt hair, large whiskers, call by a ridiculous name, gown. and a short curled beard, his gown
Their hoods are little, tied under the furred, the upper parts of his sleeves chin, and buttoned like the women's, bowed out with whalebone, and open but set with gold, silver, and precious from his shoulders to his wrists, and stones. Their lerripipes reach to there buttoned with diamonds; their heels, all jagged. They have about his neck and wrists short another weed of silk, which they call ruffles. Queen Mary wore a close paltocks, without any breeches.- head dress, with a broad flat long Their girdles are of gold and silver; end or train hanging down behind; their shoes and pattens snouted, and strait sleeves down to her wrist; piked above a finger long, crooking there and on her neck a narrow upwards, and fastened to the knees ruffle. On the 27th of May, 1555 with chains of gold or silver.". (2, Queen Mary), sir William Cecil,
“ In 1369, they began to use caps being then at Calais, bought, as apof divers colours, especially red, pears by his MS. Diary, three hats with costly linings; and in 1372, for his children. These are the they first began to wanton it in a first hats I have yet read of; and it new round curtail weed called a should seem, at their first coming cloak, in latin armclausa (9. ar. in, they were more worn by children mi-clausa), as only covering the that men, who yet kept to caps. shoulders."
Queen Elizabeth wore no head But this cloak, as I take it, was dress, but her own or false hair in no more than a monk's hood, or great plenty, extravagantly frizzled cowl. Richard II, in his picture and curled ; a bob or jewel dropt on in Westminster Abbey, is drawn her forehead; a huge laced doublet with short curling hair, and a small ruff, long piked stays, a hoop petticurling two-pointed beard. Queen coat extended like a go.cart, her pecAnne, Richard Ild's consort (who ticoat prodigously full; her sleeves first taught the English women to barrelled and hooped from the ride on side-saddles, who heretofore shoulders to the elbows, and again rid astride), brought in high head from the elbows to the wrists. In attire, piked with horns, and long one picture of her she is drawn as trained gowns. Their high heads above, with five bobs, one on her had sometimes one point, sometimes forehead, one above each ear, and two, shaped like sugar-loaves; to one at each ear. This queen is which they had a sort of streamers said to have been the first person in fastened, which wantoned and hung England who wore stockings : bedown behind, and, turning up again, fore her time both men and women were tied to their girdles. Henry wore hose, that is breeches, or IV wore long hair, whiskers, and a drawers, and stockings all of one double-pointed beard ; in his time piece of cloth. Sir Philip Sidney, the long pocketed sleeve was much one of her favourites, wore a huge in vogue. Henry V wore much the high collar, stiffened with whale.