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and the soil, the situation, and the season be dry, we recommend the following method: The requisite depth of the hole being ascertained, and its

bottom raised to a proper height, with some of the • finest of the mold, pour upon it fo much water as

to moisten the loose mold, without rendering it soft, and unable to sustain the weight of the plant; and th:n proceed as above directed. If the transplantation be done in autumn, it will require nothing farther at that time ; but if in the spring, more water will immediately be wanted. Therefore, at once, draw a ring, some inches deep, near the outside of the hole, and, in the bottom of its channel, make six, eight, or ten holes (by means of an iron crow, or of a spike and beetle), at equal

distances, and of a depth equal to that of the roots · of the plant. There holes will not only serve to convey water, but air also, to the immediate region in which they are both indispensably necessary to the health of the plant. We have been the fuller in our instructions relative to transplanting, as being a process little understood by professional men. Every nurseryman, and almost every kitchen gardener, can raise, train, and plant out seedling and nursery plants ; but the removal of trees seldom occurs in their practice; and we have met with very few men, indeed, who are equal to the task. The foregoing rules are the result of experience.


For farther experience in TRANSPLANTING, fee Minutes 12 and 15, in this Volume. And for farther remarks on Planting in general, fee The RURAL ECONOMY of the MIDLAND COUNTIES, VOL. II. MINUTES 146 and 168:







TIMBER is the great and primary object of

1 planting. Ornament, abstracted from utility, ought to be confined within narrow limits. Indeed, in matters of planting, especially in the taller plantations, it were difficult to separate, entirely, the idea of ornament from that of use. Trees, in general, are capable of producing an ornamental effect; and there is no tree which may not be said to be more or less useful. But their difference in point of value, when arrived at maturity, is incomparable ; and it would be the height of folly to plant a tree whose characteristic is principally ornamental, when another, which is more useful and equally ornamental, may be planted in its stead.


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THEREFORE, previous to our entering, at large, upon the businefs of planting; it will be proper to endeavour to specify the trees most useful to be planted. In attempting this, we must look forward, and endeavour to ascertain the species and proportional quantities of TIMBER which will hereafter be wanted, when the trees, now to be planted, shall have reached maturity. To do this with a degree of certainty, is impoflible : Customs and fashions alter, as caprice and necessity dictate. All that appears capable of being done, in a matter of this nature, is, to trace the great outlines, and; by observing what has been permanently useful for ages past, judge what may, in all human probability, be useful in ages to come.


BUILDINGS, UTENSILS, have been, are, and most probably will continue to be, the consumers of TIMBER, in this country. We will, therefore, endeavour to come at the principal materials made use of in the construction of these four great conveniences of life. Indeed, while mankind remain in their present state of civilization and refinement, they are necessaries of life, which cannot be dispensed with ; and are confequently objects which the planter ought not to lofe fight of, as they include, in effect, every thing that renders plantations useful; Fence wood and Fuel excepted.


1. SHIPS are built chiefly of Oak: the keels, however, are now pretty generally laid with Elm, or BEECH ; and part of the upper decks of men of war is of Deal: but these woods bear no proportion, in respect of the quantity used, to the Oak. The timbers of a ship are principally crooked, but the planking is cut out of straight pieces. In a seventy-four gun ship, the crooked and straighe pieces used are nearly equal, but the planking under water is of FOREIGN OAK: therefore, of ENGLISH OAK, the proportion of crooked to straight pieces is almost two to one. Mafts and yards are of Deal. The blockmakers use Elm, LignumVitæ, Box; and other hard woods. Upon the whole, it may be said, that, in the construction of a ship, Oak is the only ENGLISH Wood made use of; and that, of this English Oak, nearly two thirds are requisite to be more or less CROOKED.



II. BUILDINGS. In the metropolis, and towns in general, Deal is the prevailing wood made use of by the house carpenter : fome Oak is used for sashes, also for window and door frames, and some for wall plates; but in places situated within the reach of water carriage, Deal is becoming every day more and more prevalent: nevertheless, there are many inland parts of the country, where the house carpenters still continue to work up great quantities of Oak and Elm. The joiner VOLI.


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