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* * hundred things more, so in this precious par** ticular they have dispensed with their votes: ** they have consum'd more treasure with pre"tence to purge one kingdom, than might have "served to have purchased two; more (as I am "credibly told) than all the Kings of England "spent of the public stock since the Saxon Con"quest. Thus they have not only* beggared "the whole Ifland, but they have hurl'd it into "the most fearful chaos of confusion that ever "poor country was in. They have torn to "pieces the reins of all Government, trampled "upon all Laws of Heaven and of Earth, and "violated the very dictates of Nature, by forcing ** mothers to betray their sons, and the sons "their fathers; but specially that Great Char"ter, which is the Pandect of all the laws "and liberties of the free-born subject, which "at their admission into the House of Parliament "they are solemnly sworn to maintain, is torn to "fritters: besides these several oaths they forged "themselves, as the Protestation and the Cove"nant, where they voluntarily swear to main"tain the King's honour and rights, together "with the established laws of the land. Now I

* A poor woman being asked by one of the Puritanical Leaders, if she did not think the Government of her country much better by the system of reform made by his party? her answer was, that she only perceived one effect from it, which was, that she paid double taxes.

o o 3 "am "am told, that all Acts of Parliament in Eng"land are Laws, and they carry that majesty "with them, that no power can suspend or re« "peal them but the same power that made them, "which is the King sitting in full Parliament; "but these mongrel Politicians have been so "notoriously impudent as to make an inferior "Ordonance of their's to do it, which is point"blank against the fundamentals of the Govern"ment of England and their own oaths; which "makes me think that there never was such a "pack of perjured wretches upon earth, such "monsters of mankind."

Howell seems to have been so weary of the oppression caused by the Republican Government of England, that though a Royasist, and a strong partisan of Charles the First, yet in one of his pamphlets he compliments Cromwell upon assuming the title of Protector, and compares him to Charles Martel.

PRESIDENT BRADSHAW.

Very little is known of this extraordinary person, who by a wondersul concurrence of circumstances presided at the trial of his Sovereign.

He He is mentioned, however, occasionally in " Lud. ** low's Memoirs," as distinguished for his attachment to a Republican form of Government, and for his detestation and abhorrence of any attempt to place the government of this country in any one hand whatever.

"In a debate in Parliament, during the Pro. "tectorate of Cromwell," fays Ludlow, " whe"ther the supreme legislative power of the nation "should be in a single person, or in the Parlia"ment; in this debate Sir Arthur Haslerig, "Mr. Scott, and many others, particularly the "Lord President Bradshaw, were very instru"mental in opening the eyes of many young "Members, who had never before heard their ** interests so clearly stated and asserted, so that ** the Commonwealth party increased daily, and "that of the sword lost ground.

"Soon after Cromwell's death, when the "army had been guilty of violence to the Par"liament, and whilst one of their Officers of the ** Council of State, at which Bradshaw presided, ** was endeavouring to justify the proceedings of "the army, and was undertaking to prove that "they were necessitated to make use of this last * * remedy, by a particular call of the Divine * * Providence; Lord President Brudsiiaw," says G g 4 Ludlow,

Ludlow, " who was then present, tho' by long "sickness very weak, and much extenuated, "yet animated by his ardent zeal and constant "affection to the common cause, upon hearing "those words stood up, and interrupted him, "declaring his abhorrence of that detestable "action, and telling the Council, that being "now going to his God, he had not patience to ** sit there, and hear his great name so openly "blasphemedand thereupon departed to his "lodgings, and withdrew himself from public ** employment."

Bradshaw did not pronounce sentence of death against the unfortunate Charles the First. The sentence was read by the Clerk (the President of the High Court of Justice, and the rest of the Members, standing up while it was reading, in testimony of their approbation of it). The King objected to the legality of the Court. The President replied, " Sir, instead of answering the ** Court, you interrogate their power, which be** comes not one in your condition."—" These ** words," fays Lilly, who was present and relates them, "pierced my heart and soul, to ** hear a subject thus audaciously to reprehend fe his Sovereign, who ever and anon replied "with great magnanimity and prudence."

The

The following original supplicatory letter from Lord Keeper Williams to President Bradshaw, when he was Chief Justice of Chester, shews but too forcibly the vicissitude of earthly things, and the uncertainty of the possession of human power and dignity:

ORIGINAL LETTER

FROM JOHN WILLIAMS, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, LORD KEEPER IN THE REIGN OF CHARLES THE FIRST, TO MR. BRADSHAW, AFTERWARD PRESIDENT BRADSHAW, CHIEF JUSTICE OF CHESTER, AND MR. WARBURTON, HIS ASSOCIATE IN THAT CIRCUIT.

"Gwyder, 24 March 1647. "RIGHT HONBLE

"I live here under the favour & protection *t of both the most honourable Houses of Parlt: ** to whom I am much bound in that kynde, & '* in the House of Sir Richard Wynne my nere "Kinsman & a constant Member of the House P of Commons.—

"Where upon my return from Ruthyn f (where I hadd the opportunitye to salute you) ** I finde that Sir Rd Wynne is a Patentee for "the Post Fynes, &c. of the Countyes of •* Cheshyre and Flintshyre, & hath assigned his f* brother Owen Wynne for the executinge of

*4 that

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