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humanity, when Colonel Howard told him, on his father's death, that nothing but vigorous and violent measures could secure the Protectorate to him, and that he should run no risk, for that he himself (Howard) would be answerable for the consequences; Richard replied, "Everyone shall see that I will do nobody any "harm: I never have done any, nor ever will. "I shall be much troubled if anyone is injured ** on my account; and instead of taking away "the life of the least person in the nation for ** the preservation of my greatness, ("which is a "burthen to me,) I would not have one drop of "blood spilt."

Richard, on his dismission from the Protectorate, resided some time at Pezenas, in Languedoc, and afterwards went to Geneva. Some time in the year 1680 he returned to England, and resided at Cheshunt in Hertfordshire.

In 1705 he lost>his only son, and became in right of him possessed of the manor of Horfley, which had belonged to his mother. Richard, then in a very advanced age, sent one of his daughters to take possession of the estate for him. She kept it for herself and her sisters, allowing her father only a small annuity out of it, till she was dispossessed of it by a sentence of one of the Courts of Westminster-Hall. It was requi

Vol. 1. B B site s1te for this purpose that Richard should appear in person; and the Judge who presided, tradition says, was the elegant and eloquent Lord Chancellor Cowper, who ordered a chair for him in court, and desired him to keep on his hat.

As he was returning from this trial, curiosity led him to fee the House of Peers, when being asked by a person, to whom he was a stranger, if he had ever seen anything like it before; he replied, pointing to the throne, " Never, since I "sat in that chair."

Richard Cromwell enjoyed a good state of health to the age of eighty-six, and died in the year 1712. He had taken, on his return to England, the name of Richard Clark.


There seems never, in the History of Mankind, to have been a more complicated character than that of Sir Henry Vane, so sagacious and resolute as to daunt and intimidate even Cromwell himself, yet so visionary and so feebleminded as to be a Seeker and Millennist. His speech respecting Richard Cromwell is a master

piece of good sense and of eloquence. His writings on religious subjects are beneath contempt. His behaviour on the scasfold was dignified and noble, and he appears to have been executed contrary to the word of his Sovereign.

The following Letter addressed to Lord Clarendon is printed in Harris's "Life of Charles "the Second."

"Hampton Court, Saturday, "Two in the Afternoon.

** The relation that has been made to me of "Sir Henry Vane's carriage yesterday in the ** Hall *, is the occasion of this letter, which (if "I am rightly informed) was so insolent, as to "justisy all he had done, acknowledging no su"preme power in England but a Parliament, "and many things to that purpose. You have "had a true account of all, and if he has given "new occasion to be hanged, certaynlye he is too "dangerous a man to let live, if we can honestly "put him out of the way. Think of this, and "give me some accounte of it to-morrowe, 'till "when I have nothing to say to you. C."

Sir Henry opposed the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell, in the following short and impressive speech in the House of Commons:

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"One would (said he) bear a little with Oli"ver Cromwell, though, contrary to his oath of "fidelity to the Parliament, contrary to his duty "to the public, contrary to the respect he owed "that venerable body from whom he received ** his authority, he usurped the government. ** His merit was so extraordinary, that our judg** ments, our passions, might be blinded by it. * * He made his way to empire by the most illus** trious actions. He had under his command "an army that had made him Conqueror, and ** a people that had made him their General. ** But as for Richard Cromwell his son, Who is "he? What are his titles? We have seen that ** he had a sword by his side, but, Did he ever ** draw it? and, what is of much more import"ance in this case, Is he sit to get obedience "from a mighty nation who could never make "a footman obey him? Yet this man we must "recognize under the title of Protector; a man "without worth, without courage, and without "conduct. For my part, Mr. Speaker, it shall "never be said that I made such a man my "master."

Provost Ikillie, in one of his letters to his wife in Scotland, thus describes Cromwell and Sir Henry Vane:

"They be of nimble hot fancies for to put all "in confusion, but not of any deep reach. St.

"John , " John and Pierpont are more stayed,but not great

* * heads. Say and his son not albeit wiser,

"yet of so dull, sour, and fearful a tempera* * ment, that no great achievement in reason "could be expected from them. The rest, "either in the Army or in the Parliament of "their party, are not in their mysteries, and of "no great parts, either for counsel or action, as "I could observe."


Th1s Frenchman, son of the celebrated Gui Patin, was in England in the year 167:. In giving an account to the Margrave of Baden Dourlach of what he saw in London in that year, he mentions having seen (upon what he calls le Parkment, but which I suppose was WestminsterHall) the heads of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw. He fays:

"On ne sauroit les regarder fans palir, et "craigner qu'elles vont jet1er ces paroles epou"vantables: Peuples, Veternite n'expiera pas "notre attentat. Apprenez. a notre exemple, que • "la vie des Rois ejl inviolable."


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