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« & fadur, we beseeche Almyghty Jhu geve yowe “s as good lyfe & long, with as moche continual

perfete prosperite as your princely hert con “ best defyre. Written at your Castel of Lodelowe on Satursday in the Astur-woke.

" Your humble sonnes, “ E. Marche & E. Rutlonde.”



Louis the Eleventh of France having, contrary to treaty, refused the Dauphin in marriage to the daughter of Edward, that Monarch thus addressed his Parliament: “ This contumelie I “ am resolved to punish, and I cannot doubt suc« cesse. Almighty God still strengthens his arm 6 who undertakes a war for justice. In our ex“ peditions hitherto against the French, what « prosperity waited upon the English arms is to 6 the world divulged, and yet ambition then ap“ peared the chief counsellor to war. Now, be« fide all that right which led our Edward the “ Third, our glorious ancestor, and Henry the “ Fifth, our glorious predecessor, we seem to “ have a deputyship from Heaven to execute the 56 office of the Supreme Judge, in chastising the 46 impious."

66 It is manifest that our confederacies are now dissolved, and I rejoice that alone we shall un

“ dertake e dertake this great business; for experience in « our last attempt shewed that Princes of several 6 Nations (however they pretend the fame) have “ ftill several aims; and oftentimes confederacy « is a greater enemie to the prosperitie of a war 6 than the enemy himself; envie begetting more “ difficultie in a camp, than any opposition from 56 the adverse army."

« But I detain you too long by my speech 66 from action. I see the clouds of due revenge “ gathered in your hearts, and the lightning of “ fury break from your eyes, which bodes thun“ der against our enemy; let us therefore lose « no time, but suddenly and severely scourge 66 this perjured Court to a severe repentance, “ and regaine honour to our Nation, and his 6 kingdom to our Crown.”-HABINGTON'S History of Edward the Fourth.

“ What prevailed upon King Edward,” says Comines, " to transport his army to Calais in “ 1475, was, first, the solicitation of the Duke 6 of Burgundy, and the animosity of the English s to the French (which is natural to them, and " has been so for many ages) ; next, to reserve “ for himself a great part of the money which " had been liberally granted to him by his sub.


«jects for the particular expedition (for,” adds Comines, “ the Kings of England live upon “ their own revenue, and can raise no taxes but « under the specious pretence of invading • France). Besides, the King had another stra.. « tagem to amuse and delude his subjects with; s for he had brought with him ten or twelve of 6 the chief citizens of London and of some other « great towns in England, all fat, jolly, and of “ great power in their country ; some of whom ,“ had promoted the war, and had been very ser« viceable in raising the army: The King or“ dered very good tents to be made for them, “ in which they slept ; but not being used to s such a manner of living, they soon began to “ grow weary of the campaign, for they had " reckoned that they should come to an engage~ ment three or four days after their landing ; " and the King multiplied their fears of the dan“ gers of the war, that they might be better • satisfied with a peace, and so pacify the murcc murs of the people.”

“ As soon,” says the same historian, " as - King Edward had settled the affairs of his « kingdom, and had received of our master “ (Louis the Eleventh) 50,000 crowns a-year, " which were regularly paid him in the Tower “ of London, and was become as rich as his

66 ambition

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« ambition could desire, he died suddenly, and " (as it was supposed) of grief at our present “King's (Charles the Eighth's) marriage with " the Lady Margaret, the daughter of the Duke « of Austria (his disorder seizing him upon the “ news of it); for he then found himself out6 witted with respect to his daughter, to whom “ he had given the title of Dauphiness*. Upon « this marriage the pension, or (as King Ed“ ward called it) the tribute, was stopped.” ..

6 This King,” says Habington, « if we com“ pare his life with the lives of Princes in “ general, was worthy to be numbered amongst " the best. His education was according to the « best provision for his honour and safetie in « arms; a strict and religious discipline, in all “ probabilitie likely to have softened him too 66 much to mercy and a love of quiet. He had “ a great extent of wit, which certainly he owed

England to endurengland wmut expelin view wobe

*“ The King of England,” says Comincs, “ retired “ soon to England. He was not of a complexion or dis“ position of mind to endure much hardship and difficulties: “ and those any King of England who wishes to make any “ considerable conquests in France must expect to endure. “ Another design the King of England had in view was, “ the accomplishment of the marriage concluded upon be« tween the Dauphin and his daughter; the hopes of this “ wedding causing him to overlook several things, which « was a great advantage to our Master's affairs.”

* to nature, that age bettering men but little by « learning; the trumpet founding still too loud « in his ears to have admitted the sober counsels “ of philosophy; and his wit lay not in the flights “ of cunning and deceit, but in a sharpe appre“ hension, yet not too much whetted by super“ stition.

* In counsaile he was judicious, with little “ difficultie dispatching much. His understand“ ing open to cleare doubts, not dark and “ cloudie, and apt to create new. His wife“ dome looked ftill directly upon truth, which “ appears by the manage of his affaires, both in « peace and warre; in neither of which (as farre “ as concerned the politique part) he committed

any maine error.

“ His nature certainly was both noble and “ honest, which, if rectified by the straight rule “ of vertue, had rendered him fit for example “ (whereas he is only now for observation); for “ prosperitee raised him but to a complacencie in “ his fortune, not to a disdaine of others losses “ in a pride of his own acquisitions. And when “ he had most securitie in his kingdom, and con« fequently most allurements to tyrannee, then « shewed he himself most familiar and indulgent: " an admirable temperature in a Prince who fo

“ well

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