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demical and theological degree when granted fulfills the proper and customary conditions of such degrees.

In the third place, the college cooperates with the Louisville chapter of the American Institute of Architects by offering courses in architectural design and the history of architecture to young men who are employed in the offices of the local architects, and so gives them the opportunity of becoming more than draftsmen.

In the fourth place, the college cooperates with the hospitals in Louisville by offering to the nurses from time to time night courses in physiology, hygiene, and bacteriology.

The college cooperates also with the associated charities of Louisville, and offers instruction in theoretical and practical sociology to those engaged in the work of charity and social service in the city.

This year, with the cooperation of a local department store, parttime employment has been secured for a few young men who are also pursuing their regular studies in the university and who could not continue their college course without financial assistance. The hope is that these plans of cooperation will develop successfully in the future.

The institution has grown from a college of about 75 students to a college of 338 students at the present time—an increase of more than 300

per cent in less than 7 years. The trustees, as soon as the accommodations are adequate and the funds sufficient, will offer free tuition to all graduates of the public high schools. The free tuition at present is limited to about 35 scholarships.

XIII. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, EVANSTON, ILL.

By W. E. HOTCHKISS, Dean. The members of the faculties of Northwestern University have always participated largely, in their individual capacities, in the affairs of the community. This participation has taken the form of committee activity in civic organizations, in services rendered in connection with special investigations and reports, and occasionally in the holding of public office.

There have been a number of ways in which the university as a corporate body has participated in affairs of community interest, but this has been in cooperation with individuals or with private organizations rather than with any arm of the government. As a specific instance of this, six years ago a number of men, including the executive officers of the Chicago Association of Commerce, cooperated with the president and other representatives of Northwestern University in establishing the Northwestern University School of Commerce in Chicago. This was perhaps the first instance of a school of commerce being founded in any community with the active participation of the business men working through representative business organizations. Their cooperation with the university in working out subject matter of new courses, as well as methods of instruction to meet business needs, has been of even greater significance.

The fact that a large number of men could profit immediately if courses were offered in the evening led to placing the chief emphasis on evening work at the start.

That the Northwestern School has filled a need is evidenced both by the number and the kind of men who have been in attendance. From an initial enrollment of 250 in the first year the registration has increased to 750 for the present year.

Instruction in the evening classes of the school of commerce is addressed to mature men. A surprisingly large number of students are already holding positions of trust and responsibility. These men are attending the school not for some indefinite benefit in the future, but in order to make themselves more efficient in the positions they now occupy.

Instruction is based on three fundamental aims: First, to give students a comprehensive many-sided survey of business facts and experience; second, to develop a power of accurate analysis which will prepare the student to think complicated business problems through to the end; third, to maintain an atmosphere in which large business problems will be regarded instinctively in a large and publicspirited way.

The securing of suitable teachers was the first condition of success. Two sources have been drawn from. On one hand, men who are primarily teachers have been secured to make a study of business through cooperation with business men. On the other hand, successful business men have been prevailed upon to give special courses in subjects with which they are thoroughly familiar. Though both of these types of men are necessary to the development of an efficient instruction staff, experience shows that it is essential above all else to have good teachers.

One of the problems has been the selection of students. We do not intend to do any work below university grade. On the other hand, the public purpose for which the evening classes are offered would scarcely be fulfilled if formal college entrance requirements were imposed. The situation is handled in four different ways:

1. By age requirement. No one under 18 will be admitted, and all under 21 must have completed a full four-year high-school course.

2. By tuition rates. Experience and investigation show that a fairly high tuition rate has a selective influence which roughly tends to eliminate the less mature man,

3. By appealing to the man who is able to do university work and who is attracted by the prospect of studying fundamental principles rather than of securing quick rule-of-thumb instruction.

4. By a careful interviewing of every applicant for admission. This interviewing by a member of the faculty has resulted in raising the standard of admission every year and in reducing the number who are admitted only to be disappointed later in finding themselves unable to carry the work.

The result is the automatic elimination of those who can not carry the work, for unlike college students whose expenses are paid by parents the man who is working for a living and who comes to school after the day's labors are done will not continue in school unless he feels there is some return.

XIV. COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, NEW YORK, N. Y.

By CHARLES BASKERVILLE, Professor of Chemistry. The College of the City of New York has a charter which limits its activities. The board of trustees, however, with the approval of the mayor and corporation counsel, has prepared an amendment to the charter, which will be presented to the next legislature.

The college, up to about 10 years ago, began its work in the morning at 8 or 9 o'clock, and it was virtually over at 1 p. m. Now some departments—for example, the departments of chemistry and physics-go from 9 o'clock in the morning to 6.45 in the afternoon, and then two nights in the week from 7.30 to 11.30.

Ten years ago the purpose was mainly to train a large number of teachers for the public-school system; later the college began to spread out in the line of extension courses, primarily for teachers. After settling in the new buildings, with improved facilities the college was able to prepare young men to act as summer playground and evening center directors.

As soon as the Great Hall of the college, seating nearly 3,000, was completed and the grand organ installed, the professor of music inaugurated a series of public organ recitals, giving them twice a week. The number of recitals is now approaching 400, and some 500,000 music lovers of the city have attended.

Evening sessions of the college were then inaugurated. The night college, now enrolling over 800 students, was established after careful investigation of the work done in evening institutions in this country, and it was opened on one condition, viz, that the standard of entrance requirements for the evening session should be exactly the same as the standard entrance requirements for the college proper.

Formerly all the students were required to pursue definite courses laid down, with some election leading toward a degree, the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science. Some little time ago the board of trustees authorized the admission of what are known as special students. Some of the departments, especially those of chemistry, physics, economics, and natural history, welcomed those students, because it gave an opportunity to take some of the graduates, or graduates from other places, who had not had opportunity to take special courses, to fit themselves better for municipal or for other work of a practical type.

Last year the board authorized a class of students who are designated as municipal students. A municipal student may be admitted to the institution on several conditions: First, he must bring proper papers showing that he is an employee of the city; and, second, he must comply with the requirements of the department in which he desires to work. He need not comply with all of the college entrance requirements, provided he shows maturity and exhibits fitness for the particular line he may wish to pursue.

What has been said in reference to special and municipal students applies to the evening as well as the day sessions. There were 250 municipal students in the evening sessions last year.

Another phase of cooperation with the city is that which may result from the activities of the teaching staff in service for the city or community. Last year one of the professors was assigned to the State factory investigating commission, to direct the study of the minimum-wage problem. He was given a leave of absence, his salary being paid by the State. Previous to this the professor of economics had utilized some of the advanced students in an investigation of pin setters in bowling alleys. A new law restricting the employment of the younger boys in such capacity resulted.

The professor of chemistry undertook an investigation for the State factory investigating commission, and made a very elaborate report on the wood-alcohol situation. He formulated the laws that were subsequently adopted and made a part of the city ordinances by the board of health, and these laws constitute the basis of the laws which are to be urged for uniform adoption throughout this country.

The professors of biology and chemistry carried out for the school inquiry committee of the board of estimate and apportionment an investigation of the ventilation of the schools of the city, with the result that a large expenditure that had been urged was avoided.

The professor of chemistry has served on the mayor's commission on tares and tolerances in working out the new laws in reference to net weight, etc., for different kinds of foods.

Two members of the college staff (the professor of hygiene and an instructor in chemistry) are at present on the advisory council of the board of health.

It must be frankly acknowledged, however, that most of this cooperation has come about primarily through the initiative of the different departments of the college. For example, in the department of chemistry there are three courses given in cooperation with the other departments of the city government. One is designated municipal chemistry, and is given in cooperation with the standard-testing laboratory of the board of estimates and apportionment. The city supplies the college with the samples used in determining the standard and quality of the materials it purchases, and the students do the laboratory work in the city's testing laboratory after they have had instruction in the college.

A similar arrangement exists with the board of health in regard to food investigations and food control. There is a very satisfactory arrangement with the board of health in the matter of food inspection, whereby the laboratory work is all done, or the practice is all obtained, under the direct supervision of an inspector of the board of health.

Senior students in the department of political science give brief courses in the settlements on the economic problems they have covered in college. They are also volunteers in the Big Brother work in the city. Some students also aid in the training work of the city Young Men's Christian Association and Young Men's Hebrew Association.

The employment bureau, maintained by voluntary subscriptions, keeps in touch with business opportunities for needy students at college and after graduation. These are some of the lines of activity that have been developed. An important question is the type of training we should provide for men going primarily into the municipal service. It stands to reason that training for municipal service should be somewhat different from the training given a man who is going into actual commercial manufacturing. It can not be expected that all of the 1,500 students in the regular day college will go into the municipal service. The market would be glutted. Shall the courses be shaped for the few who are preparing for the service of the city, or for the large number who are going to schools of technology or to universities to perfect themselves in certain professional fields ?

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