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Important as is its educational service, the service of the university in cooperation is even more striking. Each of the eight colleges of the university is engaged in this kind of work to some degree. The college of liberal arts serves the city through several of its departments. The department of biology conducts the bird reserve, has charge of school gardening, and cooperates with the zoological garden. The department of psychology trains school psychologists, prepares teachers for special schools, and does systematic research work. Its practical work is devoted to the diagnosis of the nature of the mental deficiency of backward school children, and it also cooperates with teachers in the special schools for defectives in the arrangement of courses, methods, etc.
The department of social science cooperates in social service with many public and private institutions. It assists the juvenile court in providing volunteer officers; the department of charities and correction, the house of refuge, and the associated charities, in investigations; the antituberculosis league and the juvenile protective association, in surveys; the Union Bethel and the Settlements, in investigations and club work, and the Council of Social Agencies, in surveys and rehabilitation.
One of the most important services rendered the city government is the maintenance, by the political science department, of a municipal reference bureau in the city hall. Every department of the city must know what similar departments are doing in other cities, what policies have been followed successfully elsewhere, and what the results have been. Council needs similar information for its work. The municipal reference bureau collects this information for council and all the departments, and thus what is secured for one is available for all. It focuses light from all possible sources on all possible subjects, and is, in short, a clearing house of municipal information.
The college for teachers uses the public-school system for the training of students, and cooperates with the superintendent of schools in the inspection, appointment, and promotion of teachers, in the arrangement of plans and methods, and in investigations and reports.
Students of household arts, preparing for positions as managers of lunch and tea rooms, find practice work in conducting the university lunch room, and those studying institutional housekeeping and dietetics do cooperative work in the Cincinnati General Hospital.
The engineering college conducts a city testing bureau, which examines, analyzes, tests, and evaluates all materials and supplies for use by the city departments. This college also cooperates in teaching and training students, and in research with 68 institutions and industrial companies, including the city engineering, water works, street, sewer, and bridge departments.
The observatory furnishes accurate time to schools, banks, railroads, the traction company, jewelers, etc. It provides magnetic declination and geographical coordinates to engineers and surveyors, and also cooperates with the city sewer survey and furnishes the azimuth line.
The college of commerce, during the past year, cooperated with the chamber of commerce in making an industrial survey, and with the banks of Cincinnati in collecting statistics and reports.
The graduate school is not less potent in true work. It promotes scholarly research throughout the city, strengthening the teaching and other professions. It has trained many teachers for the high schools and the private schools of the city and vicinity.
The medical college is connected with the Cincinnati General Hospital and five other hospitals, where the faculty have charge of the surgical and medical work. It conducts a free dispensary, at which 21,000 cases were treated last year. The children's clinic of the college maintains a number of milk-supply stations and sends nurses to the homes to train the mothers in the care of their infants. The orthopedic dispensary treats the crippled and deformed, and assistance is given poor patients in securing braces and other instruments by which they may be returned to activity and thus enabled to earn a living
A unique feature is the endowment fund association. It is a private corporation, not for profit, made up of 69 of the leading citizens of Cincinnati, and its sole object is to collect funds and property for the university. The method pursued is, through the medium of the press and private agencies, to bring the needs of the university to the attention of persons having surplus wealth. The association has already received a number of bequests.
The association came into being because there was a strong feeling in Cincinnati years ago that the city, which owns the university, was not, perhaps, the best corporation to hold trust funds for it, and this attitude was strongest among the people who had the most to give. So, to meet this feeling, and to interest a larger number of citizens in the university, the alumni and friends of the institution formed the endowment fund association, and we believe it will grow in power and influence and do more and better work as the years go on.
XI. REED COLLEGE, PORTLAND, OREG.
By WILLIAM T. FOSTER, President. Reed College is neither a municipal institution nor a university. It is established on a private endowment with no obligation to State, city, religious denomination, or individuals. The officers of the college believe, however, that the institution should serve the entire city; and the aim has been from the outset to see to it that no individual in the city of Portland, Oreg., should fail to gain some benefit from Reed College.
The fact that the city has contributed no money for the support of the college, and has not been asked to contribute any, has not prevented the college from cooperating effectively with the city administration. Members of the faculty have aided in the work of the art museum, the public library, the vice commission, health bureaus, and the home for delinquent girls. One of the faculty is head of the Oregon Civic League, an independent organization of voters for promoting good government. One of the faculty was the first chairman of the committee of 100 which carried on a campaign that resulted in carrying the State of Oregon for prohibition by some 30,00 majority. Another faculty member is president of the Oregon Social Hygiene Society, an organization which has received $20,000 aid from the State. Five members of the faculty, working under this organization, have given lectures on social hygiene to public schools and to the employees of department stores, factories, railroad companies, and lumber camps.
Members of the faculty are on the boards of the Congress of Mothers, the Parent Teachers' Association, the Drama League, the Oregon Peace Society, the Archeological Society, the Academy of Sciences, the College Equal Suffrage League, the Dental Education Society, the Advertising Law and Ethics Committee. The head of the department of biology is an adviser of the Fish and Game Commission, one of their experiment stations having been constructed at the expense of the State on the college campus.
The college has endeavored to aid the city in solving some of its problems through the activities of both the faculty and the students. It is one of the settled principles of the college that faculty and students shall work together for the welfare of the city. In this cooperative work students receive certain kinds of training and practical experience in public service, similar, in the field of social service, to the cooperative plan in engineering at the University of Cincinnati. The young psychologists, for example, are doing field work in psychology. These students are preparing themselves in a measure for work as experimental psychologists in connection with agencies for the care of the feeble-minded and the morally delinquent.
When the city commissioners were faced with the problems of motion-picture and vaudeville shows, the mayor of the city called upon the college to furnish information. A committee of 60 investigators was organized, covered every theater in the city, and made a report to the mayor. The mayor, commissioner, and all the people of the city are led to understand that they are free to call upon the college for aid of any kind at any time, and they are constantly doing so.
Last winter the problems of the unemployed were studied. The member of the faculty in charge of social economics took a group of his major students and an assistant in his department and made a scientific study of the problem. The students and faculty went among the unemployed, slept with them, ate with them, talked with them, lived with them, and got life histories of 431 of these men. They got the kind of accurate information that is necessary as a basis for intelligent action; and the college published the report.
Significant of attitude of the college toward the city is the extension course on “The voter and the city of Portland."
This course aims to present to every voter in the city of Portland the kind of information he ought to have in order to exercise intelligently his prerogatives as a citizen, and to present it in a concrete, nonpartisan, accurate, up-to-date, and interesting way. For that purpose the cooperation of every department of the city was secured and the faculty and students-all this work is done by faculty and students together-went into every department of the city and endeavored to learn all they could. They then presented to the voters many
. timely items of information, never before available to any except a very few on the inside. The work was to bring out the facts, whether they were favorable or unfavorable to any individual, or to any political party, or to any form of government. Word was sent all over the city that anybody who could get together 50 people anywhere could hear this course of six lectures.
The students of the college presented this course in several places. Work in public speaking in this field was continued by having students explain to voters the measures on the initiative ballot. Students of the college have spoken on street corners, in public parks, social halls, public libraries, schoolhouses, churches—wherever the people would listen to them.
The college could not cooperate more effectively with the public libraries of the city if it owned the libraries. Every room in the main library, every room in every branch library, is made available by our progressive library board and staff for extension work.
Another branch of the work has been the annual conference, in which endeavor has been made to get together at Reed College the representatives of every organization in the city of Portland which in any way seeks to promote the welfare of the city. This annual conference has thus been a kind of clearing house for agencies for social, moral, economic, and political progress. Every organization in the city of Portland, private or public, which was working for some definite improvement, took part in the conference held last spring at Reed College. Over 150 organizations were officially represented through exhibits and on the programs of that conference, and some 5,000 persons attended.
The college has been in operation only three years. Much of the work, therefore, is tentative, and most of the plans are as yet visions of things hoped for. Three years is not a long time in which to find and use every opportunity for service to the city; especially since there were in Portland, four years ago, no buildings, no campus, no faculty, no students, no college-only an endowment and an opportunity. Yet, in these few years, the conviction has grown that a college in a city like Portland, Oreg., is limited in the possibilities of service only by the limits of its own intelligence and faith.
XII. UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE, LOUISVILLE, KY.
By John L. PATTERSON,
Dean of College of Liberal Arts. The University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky., was founded in 1837 by a decree of the city council, and was chartered in 1846 by an act of the legislature. Owing to local conditions, only the schools of medicine and of law were put immediately into operation.
About eight years ago, or about the time when the Carnegie Foundation investigated the status of the medical schools in this country, the trustees realized that for the completeness of the university an "academic department” must be added. And so the original purpose of the founders was at length fulfilled by the establishment of the present college of arts and sciences.
The attempt has been made to develop the college as a modern municipal university, which will cooperate in due time with the various departments and public institutions of Louisville, and offer an equality of educational opportunity to the sons and daughters of its citizens. The university has been influenced in this work by the example of the municipal universities in this country and in England, and especially by the brilliant one of the University of Cincinnati.
The college of arts and sciences cooperates with the Board of Education of Louisville, and offers a B. S. degree in education for a prescribed course of study pursued in the college, together with complementary technical work done in the public normal school. The college further cooperates with the board of education by giving annually a series of free lectures on educational psychology to a large class of public-school teachers.
In the second place, the college cooperates with the Baptist and the Presbyterian Theological Seminaries which are located in Louisville, by offering to their students free tuition in the undergraduate
The amount of credit given for the work done in the theological seminaries is adjusted in such a way that a combined aca