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29 And Levi made him a great feast in his own house : and there was a great company of publicans and of others that sat down with them.
30 But their scribes and Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, Why do ye eat and drink with publicans and sinners ?
31 And Jesus answering said unto them, They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.
32 I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
33 9. And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?
34 And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?
35 But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
36 | And he spake also a parable unto them ; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old ; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old.
37 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles ; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish.
38 But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved.
39 No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new : for he saith, The old is better.
e Matt. ix. 14.
have been intended; and it was sufficiently rent.—These two last clauses of the verse common for the Jews to have two names, must be read in a reversed order, to make and to be called indifferently by either or the sense conspicuous, If otherwise, the by both; as Simon, and Peter, and Simon piece that was taken out of the new agreeth Peter.
not with the old, and (what is worse) the Verse 30. Their scribes and Pharisees new maketh a rent. murmured, &c.—See notes on Matt. ix. Verse 37. New wine into new bottles.14–17. Some mss. and versions leave See the notes on Matt. ix. 17. out avlwv; but if it be retained, the scribes Verse 39. No man also, having drunk and Pharisees of Capernaum may be those old wine, &c.—He refuses the new wine, particularly alluded to.
which is harsh in its taste, and prefers Verse 36. Then both the new maketh a the old, which is xgnotorepos, better, be
CHAPTER VI. 1 Christ reproveth the Pharisees' blindness about the observation of the sabbath, by
scripture, reason, and miracle : 13 Chooseth twelve apostles : 17 healeth the diseased : 20 preacheth to his disciples before the people of blessings and curses : 27 how we must love our enemies : 46 and join the obedience of good works to the hearing of the word: lest in the evil day of temptation we fall like an house built upon the face of the earth, without any foundation.
1 AND a it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields ; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.
a Mait. xii, 1.
cause mellower and more generous. The in question, as novelties in religion, superiority of old to new wine forms the and therefore to be compared to new wine. basis of various proverbs and allusions Those of the Pharisees were certainly of among ancient writers. Our Lord's human invention, and so probably were meaning is generally understood to be, those fasts of the disciples of John, that it is difficult suddenly to change old rules devised and practised after their habits, and therefore his disciples must master had been cast into prison ; for be trained up gradually to austerities in his preaching he appears not to have which were practised by the disciples of enjoined them. But freedom from suJohn and the Pharisees. But he did not perstitous rigidity had been the chaenjoin these austerities upon his disciples racter of true religion in all ages; and afterwards, and could not, therefore, in- our Lord therefore compares his rule of tend gradually to train them to prac- discipline, as being conformed to that tise them. Nor can the interpretation of which had a divine authority from the Wolfius, who applies the words to the beginning, to old wine, and declares it Pharisees, as intimating that they were better. No inventions of men can comtoo much attached to their old traditions pare with the simple institutions of God. to relish Christ's new doctrine, be main- Old wine with the Jews was wine of the tained, because our Lord's words clearly age of three years. imply, on his part, a justification of the choice of old wine to new. The true im- CHAPTER VI. Verse 1. On the second port appears to be, that our Lord tacitly sabbath after the first.—On this phrase, affirms that his DISCIPLINE was as much ev oaßBaru OEVT Epot Pat, says Simon, there more pleasant to a spiritual taste, such as are eight different explications, and all conhe had excited in a good degree in his jectural; and even the Syriac and Arabic disciples by his teaching, and as much versions though so much nearer in time more salutary in comparison with the dis- and place to Palestine, show plainly, cipline of the Pharisees and that prac- that their authors did not understand it. tised by the disciples of John, as old wine Happily nothing depends upon it; and it was more grateful and wholesome than only adds another proof that this Gospel new ; and so, his disciples, having proved was written, as it professes, by one intithe excellence of the rule and spirit of his mately familiar with Jewish customs and religion, were not likely to measure their modes of expression. That most generally steps back to the ordinances of inferior received, is sanctioned by Scaliger, Lightdispensations. There is also, probably, foot, Whitby, Lamy, and others. On the in the words a reproof of the austerities second day of unleavened bread, or of b Matt. xii. 9.
2 And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ve that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?
3 And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him ;
4 How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone ?
5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
6 And it came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered.
7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him.
8 But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth.
9 Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it ?
10 And looking round about upon them all, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
11 And they were filled with madness; and communed one with another what they might do to Jesus.
the passover week, Lev. xxiii. 10, 16, sabbaths between the passover and the pentook place the offering of the sheaf tecost. This is supported by the season of or first fruits of the harvest. Thence they the year; for when our Lord went through reckoned fifty days to the pentecost. The the cornfields, the corn was standing ripe, DEUTEPO. A Pwtov, or second-first sabbath, is the or nearly so, in the fields. On this transfirst sabbath after this second day of un- action see the notes on Matt. xii. 1, &c. leavened bread. The second sabbath Verse 6. A man whose right hand was would be called Seutepo-DEUTepov, the third, withered. See notes on Matt. xii. 9-14. DEUTEPO.Tpitov; but of this, no instances can V erse 7. That they might find an acet be quoted, or this view of the matter would sation, katnyoplav, the matter of an acbe established. This view is originally cusation, against him, so as to proceed drawn from Theophylact, who explains the against him judicially, and arraign him sabbath in question as the first of the seven before the council of twenty-three, as a
12 And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.
13 | And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples : and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles ;
14 Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,
15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alphæus, and Simon called Zelotes,
16 And Judas d the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.
17 | And he came down with them, and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judæa and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases ; c Matt. x. 1.
d Jude 1.
sabbath-breaker. See notes on Matt. xii. follows, has given an abridgment of the 14.
sermon on the mount, reconcile this acVerse 12. In prayer to God.—IIpogeuxp count of our Lord's having delivered it Tou cou, here, is taken by some for one in the plain with that of St. Matthew, of the proseucha, or places of prayer, who says that it was delivered from the which they think distinct from the syna- mountain, by supposing that the plain gogues, and more ancient, and in which spoken of was an elerated table-land, on men prayed not together but apart. That the declivity of the mountain, where his proseuchæ was but another name for syna- audience might conveniently stand. This gogues appcars, however, most probable; presents no material difficulty; but there are but however this may be, there is no rea- reasons on the other side of greater weight: son for departing here from the common the sermon on the mount was not delivered interpretation, that our Lord, on this, as after the choosing of the twelve apostles, on many other occasions, spent the night but the calling of the four at the sea of Tiin the open air alone, in meditation and berias ; and St. Luke has united with pasprayer. In order to ensure more absolute sages from the sermon on the mount, solitude, he seems to have generally several others which were not delivered chosen a mountain for these special ex- at that time, but on various occasions. ercises. The genitive case, after apogeuxn, Notwithstanding, therefore, the objection is a genitive of the object, and has the that this discourse has the same exordium force of mpos, with an accusative : he con- and the same peroration as in Matthew's tinued all night in prayer to God. It is version of it, and that by both evangenot improbable that our Lord spent this lists Christ is represented as having renight in prayer preparatory to the solemn turned to Capernaum, after having debusiness of choosing the twelve apostles, livered it, it cannot be the same discourse which he did the next day.
preached on the same occasion. It conVerse 13. And of them he chose twelve. tains many of the same passages of divine -See the notes on Matt. x. 1, &c. wisdom and eloquence, which, however,
Verse 17. And stood in the plain. only shows that our Lord sometimes Those who think that St. Luke, in what chose to deliver the same truths in the
18 And they that were vexed with unclean spirits : and they were healed.
19 And the whole multitude sought to touch him : for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all.
20 | And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, • Blessed be ye poor: for your's is the kingdom of God.
21 Blessed are ye that hunger now : for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now : for ye shall laugh.
22 Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.
23 Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy : for, behold, your reward is great in heaven: for in the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets.
24 ‘But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.
25 8 Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep. e Matt. v. 3. f Amos vi. 1.
g Isaiah lxv. 13.
same or nearly similar words, and that in their consolation, and no felicity awaits discourses of considerable length; and it them in another. Campbell has a note to is confirmatory of this, that St. Luke him- caution us against considering these woes self, who has nowhere, like St. Matthew, uttered by our Lord as imprecations. recorded the sermon on the mount at full Perhaps in that he is right; but when he length, has preserved the account of ano- says, that“ if we regard them as authorither portion of the same sermon, as hay. tative denunciations of judgments, this is ing been spoken by Christ on an entirely the same thing,” he forgets our Lord's different occasion. See chap. xii. 22, &c. character as a judge. A judge may proParts of this sermon were therefore at other nounce a sentence without uttering an times repeated, with some variations. imprecation; and though he alleges that
Verse 20. Blessed be ye poor, &c.—See the office of judge is a part of that glory notes on Matt. v. 1, &c.
to which he was afterwards raised, this Verse 22. When they shall separate you only refers to the actual exercise of judg. from their company.--Otav apoplo Wolv vuas, ment upon persons. The authoritative when they shall excommunicate you, or denunciation of punishment against clascast you out of their synagogues.
ses of persons or characters, the connexVerse 24. Woe unto you that are rich.- ion of certain penalties with certain Not as rich, but rich men living in the offences, are both judicial; and these be spirit and after the example of the world. frequently announced in the time of his He alludes immediately to the opulent, humility: so that these woes are not mere proud, and luxurious Pharisees and Sad declarations of consequences, or warnings, ducees; yet against all rich men, in all which any teacher as well as our Lord ages, who forget God, this terrible woe himself might use: with him they assumed lies,—that in this world they have received a higher and more solemn character.