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20 Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.

21 Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,

22 And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.

23 And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli,

g Matt. iii. 13

proved Herod, not merely for marrying much disputed by critics, whether these Herodias, but for all the evils he had done. words, which are somewhat indefinite, That is, he had habitually reproved him, indicate that our Lord was then entering as often probably as he had had access to his thirtieth year, or had completed it. him, which appears not to have been in- Grotius contends that woel often expresses frequent. And for a time his reproofs excess as well as deficiency, and that it were not wholly lost, nor were they ma- here implies that Christ came to his baplignantly resented till the darling sin, the tism a few days after the birth-day of choice and favourite lust was touched, thirty complete years. Lightfoot, on the till the incestuous marriage with his bro. contrary, observes that the current year, ther Philip's wife was denounced. Then however lately begun, was reckoned as a indeed Herod added this evil above all, year in a person's age, and that apxouevos, that he shut up John in prison ; which was joined with wel, shows that he was bea sin not only of injustice against man, ginning to be as it were thirty, or just but a crime against God, whose prophet past his twenty-ninth year. Many more John was; and it proved the occasion of recent critics take the sense to be, “ And a still greater sin than even this, for the Jesus himself beginning, or when beginimprisonment led finally to his murder, ning (to teach) was about thirty years which Herod does not appear at first of age,” which assumes an ellipsis of to have the least intended. Thus sin 018a0 KELV. The notion that the period of draws on sin, in rapid and frightful in- admission into the Jewish priesthood, crease!

which was thirty years complete, was reVerse 21. Now when all the people, &c.- spected at the time in which our Lord Not that our Lord was baptized publicly began his public ministry, has perhaps no when others were baptized. That was foundation ; and the principal reason of reprivate between him and John; but the cording the age of Christ was to show meaning is, that at the period when that he was in the vigour of life; that he John's ministry excited the most atten- neither commenced his ministry when tion, when multitudes were coming to inexperienced, nor when his faculties had him to be baptized in Jordan, that is, in begun to suffer from age. Still it is the early period of it, Christ went and likely that Jewish notions were not altogesubmitted to that ordinance also. On ther disregarded, and that, as they thought our Lord's baptism, see the notes on thirty years to be the most fitting period Matt. iii. 13–17.

for entering upon public offices, this was Verse 23. Jesus himself began to be conformed to both in the case of John and about thirty years of age, &c.-It has been Jesus; and with reference to this imprec

Vas

24 Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph,

25 Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge,

26 Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda,

27 Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri,

28 Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er,

29 Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi,

30 Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim,

31 Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan,

sion it was recorded. The words, after from the dead. The previous publication all the criticism expended upon them, of it must have exposed her to numerous appear simply to mean that our Lord, at and often captious interrogatories after the time of his baptism, was just en- Christ had entered upon his ministry; tering upon the completion of thirty and when there was so much division of years, Elvai merely being supplied after opinion respecting him, with his eneαρχομενος.

mies, it might have exposed her to some As was supposed.—This was the general danger, or placed her, at least, in very belief; the account of the miraculous trying circumstances. These consideraconception not being made public, but tions make it strongly probable, that this reserved in the breasts of Joseph and fact was not made known to any during Mary. When it was first declared does the life of Christ. St. Luke, however, not appear. The absence of all allusion by his qualifying clause, being, as was to it in the subsequent history of the SUPPOSED, the Son of Joseph, shows that gospel, makes it probable that it was not it had been among the earliest facts made declared even to the disciples themselves, known to the first disciples after the asso that they as well as others supposed cension, and was, without doubt, received. him to be the son of Joseph as well as Hence it makes a part of two of the GosMary, and that it was one of those things pels, St.Matthew's and St. Luke's. On the which Mary kept in her heart, under di- genealogy of our Lord, see the notes ou vine direction, till after the resurrection Matt, i. 2.

which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan, which was the son of David,

32 Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Obed, which was the son of Booz, which was the son of Salmon, which was the son of Naasson,

33 Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda,

34 Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor,

35 Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala,

36 Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech,

37 Which was the son of Methusala, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, which was the son of Cainan,

38 Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.

CHAPTER IV. 1 The temptation and fasting of Christ. 13 He overcometh the devil : 14 beginneth to

preach. 16 The people of Nazareth admire his gracious words. 33 He cureth one possessed of a devil, 38 Peter's mother in law, 40 and divers other sick persons. 41 The devils acknowledge Christ, and are reproved for it. 43 He preacheth through the cities.

1 AND * Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days

a Matt. iv. 1.

Verse 38. Which was the son of God.- temptations which are recorded at the Adam is so called, as having no human close of the forty days; but it follows father, and not being begotten, but cre from his account that there must have ated immediately by the divine power. been previous temptations, since it was

for this purpose that our Lord was led by CHAPTER IV. Verse 2. Being forty the Spirit into the wilderness. Hence, days tempted.–St. Matthew places the there is no discrepancy in the accounts

he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.

3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.

4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.

5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.

6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them : for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.

7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.

8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan : for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence:

10 For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee:

11 And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.

14 | And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee : and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.

15 And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all. 16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been * Or, fall down before me.

b Matt. xiii. 54.

St. Luke also varies the order of the specific temptations of which an account is given ; but as nothing depends upon the mere circumstance of their succession, the order became a matter of indifference.

On our Lord's temptation, see the notes on Matt. iv, 1–11.

Verse 16. As his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day.Let it be observed, that to attend the

brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.

17 And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written,

18 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent

c Isaiah lxi. 1.

public worship of God, on the sabbath, few verses, and those out of the order, in the synagogue, was the custom of our and makes them the text of a discourse. Lord; so that the obligation of this duty Liberty of expounding and exhorting in upon us cannot be questioned. On syna- the synagogues was allowed to qualified gogues, see note on Matt. iv. 23.

persons, and creditable strangers, by conAnd stood up for to read.-By this ac- sent of the ruler ; and when our Lord tion he signified his desire to read the gave the signal of his wish to read, by lesson for the day, which any might do standing up, he might include in it a deto whom the book was delivered, but not sire to expound also ; for having closed without leave of the ruler of the syna- the book, and returned it to the minister, gogue; for so the Jewish rule runs, ac- he sat down, as the manner of the Jewish cording to Maimonides: “A reader may doctors was, when they taught or not read until the chief of the congrega- preached, understanding that he had the tion bids him read.” It was the custoin consent of the president to comment upon to stand at the reading of the law and the the passage, as well as to read it. The prophets. Every sabbath-day, the Jews passage he had selected from Isaiah, they say, seven persons read,-a priest, a Le. all knew related to the Messiah, for in vite, and five Israelites.

that their interpreters were universally Verses 17, 20. There was delivered to him agreed; and as he had already preached the book of the prophet Esaias. This would largely throughout Galilee, and spoken be done at the bidding of the president, and acted in the character of Messiah, the by the Chazan, one of the ministers of eyes of all them in the synagogue were fas. the synagogue. The sacred books were tened upon him, in eager expectation as to taken out of the chest in which they were what use he might make of the passage, deposited with great reverence. It would or whether he would apply it to himself. seem by the book of Isaiah being deli- Verses 18, 19. To the poor.-In the Hevered to Christ, that each book was kept brew it is the meek, but St. Luke follows separately; no doubt for convenience of the LXX. The words, however, come from reference, and also for holding in the the same root; and spiritual poverty, or hand, as they were written on skins and lowliness and humility of mind, is inrolled up. And when he had opened, literal- tended. Not indeed, as Bishop Horsley ly "unrolled,” the book, he found the place well observes, that the figurative sense is where it was written ; a mode of expres to exclude the literal ; " for the Christian sion which intimates that it was not the revelation is emphatically glad tidings to portion assigned to be read for the day. the poor,” as it opens to them without The sections or lessons of the law were, it respect of persons the same glorious would seem, read with great exactness; hopes as to the most exalted. Still even but in the prophets, the reader might these must become “poor in spirit” beread less than the portion appointed, or fore they can obtain the true riches. The even turn to another place, if thought broken hearted are the contrite and peniapplicable, Here our Lord reads only a tent, who are truly healed by pardoning

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