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tar, which gives them an appearance of being very heavy, and very mean.

The commerce formerly carried on at Havre, was very extensive. There is here also large manufactories for lace. The theatre is very spacious, well ar-ranged, and as far as we eould judge by day-light, handsomely decorated. The players did not perform, during our stay; In the vegetable market place, which was much crowded, and large, we saw at this season of the year abundance os sine apples, as fresiv in appearance as when they were sirst plucked fronv the tree^

In.our way there we were accosted by a little ragged beggar boy, who addressed himself to our compaffionate dispositions, by the appellation of "tres, charitable citoyen," but sinding, we gave nothing, he immediately changed it to " rr.on chere tres charitable monsieur."

The strange uncouth expreflion of citoyen is gene- rally laid aside, except amongst the immediate officers under government, in their official communications, who, however, renounce it in private, for the more civilized title of " monsieur."

The principal church is a sine handsome buildings, and had been opened for worship, the Sunday before we arrived; On that day the bell of the Sabbath sirst founded, during ten years of revolution, insidelity,, and bloodstied!!!


The royal arms are every where removed. They formerly constituted-a very beautiful ornament over .the door of the hotel of the present prefect, at the head of the market place, but they have been rudely beaten out by battle axes, and replaced by rude republican emblems, which every where (I speak of them as a decoration) seem to dissigure the buildings which bear them. When I made this remark, I must, however, candidly confess, that my mind very cordially accompanied my eye, and that a natural sentiment mingled with the observation. The quays, piers, and arsenal are very fine, they, together with the docks, for small ships of war and merchandize, were constructed under the auspices of -Lewis XIV. with whom this port was a great favorite.

We saw several groups of men at work in heavy chains. They were soldiers, who had offended. They are dressed in red jackets and nrowsers, which are supposed to increase their disgrace, on account of its being the regimental color of their old enemy, the English. When my companion, who wore his regimentals, passed them, they all moved their caps to him with great respect.

The town, and consequently the commerce of Rouen, was most successfully blockaded, for near four yews,'by British commanders, during the late war, and particularly by Sir Sidney Smith. It was here,.] when endeavoring to cut out a vessel, which in point ,of value, and consideration was unworthy of such an j exposure, stiat this great hero, and distinguished being, was made a prisoner of war. The inhabitants, who never speak of him, but with emotions of terror, consider this event as the rash result of a w^ger conceived over wine. Those who know the character of Sir Sidney, will not impute to him such an act of idle temerity. l>fo doubt he considered the object, as included in his duty, and it is only to be lamented, that during two lingering years of rigorous, and cruel consinement, in the dungeons of the unhappy sovereign* his country was bereaved of the assistance of her immortal champion, who, in a suture ieason, upon the shores of Acre, so nobly silled up the gloomy chasm of suspended services, by exploits which to be besieyed, must not be adequately described, and who revenged, by an act of unrivalled glory, the long endurance of sufferings, and indignities hateful to the magnanimous spirit of modern warfare, and unknown to it, displayed within the walls pf a Pruffian dungeon.*

I shall hereafter have occasion to mention this extraordinary character, when I speak of his escape from the Temple, the real circumstances attending which [ are but little known, and which I received from anauthority upon which the reader may rely.

This town is not unknown to history. At the

♦ The cruel imprisonment of la Fayett* is alluded to, CHAP. IN FRANCE. 37

celebrated siege of it, in the time of Catherine de Media's, that execrable princess, distinguished her'seif by her personal intrepidity. It is said, that slie landed here, in a galley, bearing the device of the sun, with these words ip greek, "I bring light, and sine weather"—a motto which ill eorrelponded with her conduct.

With great courage such as seldom associates with cruel, and ferocious tyrants, she here on horseback, at the head of her army, exposed herself to the sire of the cannon, like the most veteran soldiers, and betrayed no symptoms of fear, although the bullets flew about her in all directions. When desired by the duke of Guise, and the Constable de Montmorenci, not to expose her person ib much, the brave, but sanguinary Catharine replied, " Have I not more to ** lose than you, and do you think I have not as "much courage?"

The walk, through la ville de Sandwiche, to the light houses, which are about two miles from Havre, is very pleasing. The path lay through flax and clover sields. In this part of the country, the farmers practise an excellent plan of rural economy, which is also used in Dorsetshire, and some few other counties, of consining their cattle by a string to a spot of pasture, until, they have completely cleared it.

Ppon the hill, ascending to the clisfs, are several B

yery elegant chateau? and gardens, belonging to the principal inhabitants of the town.

Monsieur 13 , the prefect de marine, has. a beaur

tiful residence here. We were accidentally stopping at his gate, which was open, to view the enchanting prospects, which it presented to us, when the polite .owner observed us, and with that amiableness, and civility, which still distinguish the descendants of the ancient families of rank in France, of which he is one, requested us to enter, and walked round his grounds, which were disposed with great taste. He afterwards conducted us to his elegant houi'c, and gave us dried fruit, and excellent hurgundy, after which we walked round the villags to the light houses. From him we learnt, that the farmers here, as in England, were very respectable, and had amassed considerable wealth during the war. The ap-. proach to the light houses through a row of elms, is very pleasant; they stand upon an immense high perpendicular clisf, and are lofty square buildings, composed of sine light brown free stone, the entrance is handsome, over which there is a good room, containing four high windows, and a» lodging room for the people, who have the care of the light, the glass chamber of which we reached, after ascending to a considerable height, by a curious spiral stone stair case. The lantern is composed of ninety imn'fen'fe reflecting lamps, which are capable'df being raised16x depressed with"great ease'by'mÆaus'bf an Ir&'n w'ilid

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