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ness of the structures, the exact humanity and civility of the inhabitants, the more polite and refined sort of language there, than elsewhere. During the time of his stay here, which was about two months; he visited all the private academies of the city, which are places established for the vement of wit and learning, and maintained a correspondence and perpetual friendship among gentlemen fitly qualified for such an institution: and such sort of academies there are in all or most of the most noted cities in Italy. Visiting these places, he was soon taken notice of by the most learned and ingenious of the nobility, and the grand wits of Florence, who caressed him with all the honours and civilities imaginable, particularly Jacobo Gaddi, Carolo Dati, Antonio Francini, Frescobaldo, Cultellino, Banmatthei and Clementillo: whereof Gaddi hath a large elegant Italian Canzonet in his praise: Dati, a Latin epistle; both printed before his Latin poems, together with a Latin distich of the Marquess of Villa, and another of Selvaggi, and a Latin tetrastich of Giovanni Salsilli, a Roman.
From Florence he took his journey to Siena, from thence to Rome; where he was detained much about the same time he had been at Florence; as well by his desire of seeing all the rarities and antiquities of that most glorious and renowned city, as by the conversation of Lucas Holstenius, and other learned and ingenious men; whọ highly valued his acquaintance, and treated him with all possible respect.
From Rome he travelled to Naples, where he was introduced by a certain hermit, who accompanied him in his journey from Rome thither, into the knowledge of Giovanni Baptista Manso, Marquess of Villa, a Neapolitan by birth, a person of high nobility, virtue and honour, to whom the famous Italian poet, Torquato Tasso, wrote his treatise de Amicitia; and moreover mentions him with great honour in that illustrious poem of his, intitled, Gerusalemme Liberata: this noble marquess received him with extraordinary respect and civility, and went with him himself to give him a sight of all that was of note and remark in the city, particularly the viceroy's palace, and was often in person to visit him at his lodgings. Moreover, this noble marquess honoured him so far, as to
make a Latin distich in his praise, as hath been already mentioned; which being no less pithy than short, though already in print, it will not be unworth the while here to repeat.
Ut mens , forma, decor, facies, si*) pietas, sic,
In return of this honour, and in gratitude for the many favours and civilities received of him, he presented him at his departure with a large Latin eclogue, intitled, Mansus, afterwards published among his Latin poems. The marquess at his taking leave of him gave him this compliment, that he would have done him many more offices of kindness and civility, but was therefore rendered inpacable in regard he had been over-liberal in his speech against the religion of the country.
He had entertained some thoughts of passing over into Sicily and Greece, but was diverted by the news he received from England, that affairs there were tending towards a civil war; thinking it a thing unworthy in him to be taking his pleasure in foreign parts, while his countrymen at home were fighting for their liberty: but first resolved to see Rome once more; and though the merchants gave him a caution that the Jesuits were hatching designs against him, in case he should return thither, by reason of the freedom he took in all his discourses of religion; nevertheless he ventured to prosecute his resolution, and to Rome the second time he went, determining with himself not industriously to begin to fall into any discourse about religion; but, being asked, not to deny or endeavour to conceal his own sentiments, Two months he staid at Rome; and in all that time never flinched, but was ready to defend the orthodox faith against all opposers; and so well he succeeded therein, that good providence guarded him, he went safe from Rome back to Florence, where his return to his friends of that city was welcomed with as much joy and affection, as had it been to his friends and relations in his own country, he could not have coine a more joyful and ---lcome guest. Here, having stayed
*) This word relates to his being a Protestant not a Roman Catholic.
as long as at his first coming, except an excursion of a few days to Luca, crossing the Apennine, and passing through Bononia and Ferrara, he arrived at Venice, where when he had spent a month's time in viewing of that stately city, and shipped up a parcel of curious and rare books which he had picked up in his travels; particularly a chest or two of choice music-books, of the best masters flourishing about that time in Italy, namely, Luca Marenzo, Monte Verde, Horatio Vecchi, Cafa, the prince of Venosa, and several others, he took his course through Verona, Milan, and the Poenine Alps, and so by the Lake Leman to Geneva, where he staid for some time, and had daily converse with the most learned Giovanni Deodati, theology-professor in that city, and so returning through France, by the same way he had passed it going to Italy, he, after a peregrination of one complete year and about three months, arrived safe in England, about the time of the king's making his second expedition against the Scots. Soon after his return, and visits paid to his father and other friends, he took him a lodging in St. Bride's church-yard, at the house of Russel a tailor, where he first undertook the education and instruction of his sister's two sons, the younger whereof had been wholly committed to his charge and care. And here by the way, I judge it not impertinent to mention the many authors both of the Latin and Greek, which through his excellent judgment and way of teaching, far above the pedantry of common public schools, (where such authors are scarce ever heard of) were run over within no greater compass of time, even than from ten to fifteen or sixteen years of age. Of the Latin the four grand authors De Re Rustica, Cato, Varro, Columella, and Palladius; Cornelius Celsus, an ancient physician of the Romans; a great part of Pliny's Natural History, Vitruvius's Architecture, Frontinus's Stratagems, with the two egregious poets, Lucretius and Manilius. Of the Greek, Hesiod, a poet equal with Homer; Aratus's Phaenomena and Diosemeia, Dionysius, Afer de situ Orbis, Oppian’s Cynegeticks and Halieuticks. Quintus Calaber's poem of the Trojan War, continued from Homer; Apollonius Rhodius's Argonauticks, and in prose, Plutarch's Placita Philosophorum, Tlepi Talsov Aycoylas, Geminus's Astronomy; Xenophon's Cyri In
stitutio et Anabasis, Aelian's Tactics, and Polyaenus's Warlike Stratagems; thus thy teaching, he in some mea*sure increased his own knowledge, having the reading of all these authors as it were by proxy; and all this might possibly have conduced to the preserving of his eye-sight, had he not moreover, been perpetually busied in his own laborious undertakings of the book or pen. Nor did the time thus studiously employed in conquering the Greek and Latin tongues hinder the attaining to the chief Oriental languages, viz. the Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac, so far as to go through the Pentateuch, or Five Books of Moses in Hebrew, to make a good entrance into the Targum or Chaldee Paraphrase, and to understand several chapters of St. Matthew in the Syriac Testament, besides an Introduction into several Arts and Sciences, by reading Urstisius's Arithmetic, Riff's Geometry, Petiscus's Trigonometry , Joannes de Sacro Bosco de Sphaera; and into the Italian and French tongues, by reading in Italian Giovan Villani's History of the Transactions between several petty States of Italy; and in French a great part of Pierre Davity, the famous Geographer of France in his time. The Sunday's work was for the most part the reading each day a chapter of the Greek Testament, and hearing his learned exposition upon the same (and how this savoured of Atheism in him, I leave to the courteous backbiter to judge), The next work after this was the writing from his own dictation, some part, from time to time, of a Tractate', which he thought fit to collect from the ablest of divines, who had written of that subject, Amesius, Wellebius, &c. viz. A perfect System of Divinity, of which more hereafter. Now persons so far manducted into the highest paths of literature, both divine and human, had they received his documents with the same acuteness of wit and apprehension, the same industry, alacrity, and thirst after knowledge, as the instructor was endued with, what prodigies of wit and learning might they have proved! the scholars might in some degree have come near to the equalling of the master, or at least have in some sort made good what he seems to predict in the close of an elegy he made in the seventeenth year of his age, upon the death of one of his sister's children, (a daughter) who died in her infancy.
Then thou the mother of so sweet a child,
But to return to the thread of our discourse; he made no long stay in his lodgings in St. Bride's church-yard; necessity of having a place to dispose his books in, and other goods fit for the furnishing of a good handsome house, hastening him to take one; and accordingly a pretty garden-house he took in Aldersgatestreet, at the end of an entry; and therefore the fitter for his turn, by the reason of the privacy, besides that there are few streets in London more free from noise than that.
Here first it was that his academic erudition was put in practice, and vigourously proceeded, he himself giving an example to those under him, (for it was not long after his taking this house, ere his elder nephew was put to board with him also) of hard study, and spare diet; only this advantage hé had, that once in three weeks or a month, he would drop into the society of some young sparks, of his acquaintance, the chief whereof were Mr. Alphry, and Mr. Miller, two gentlemen of Gray's-Inn, the beaus of those times, but nothing near so bad as those now-a-days; with these gentlemen he would so far make bold with his body, as now and then to keep a gaudy day.
In this house he continued several years, or two first whereof, he set out several treatises, viz. that of Reformation; that against Prelatical Episcopacy; the Reason of Church Government; the Defence of Smectimnuus, at least the greatest part of them, but as I take it, all; and some time after, one sheet of Education, which he dedicated to Mr. Samuel Hartlib, he that wrote so much of husbandry; this sheet is printed at the end of the second edition of his poems; and lastly, Areopagitica. During the time also of his continuance in this house, there fell out several occasions of the increasing of his family. His father, who till the taking of Reading, by the Earl of Essex's forces, had lived with his other son at his house there ; was upon that sons's dissettlement neces
in the one