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That charity and mercy were known to be the essence of true religion, proved by all kinds of testimony-The writers of the early and middle ages, cited in evidence-Charity inseparable from faith-Its deficiency in later times noted-Proved by the fact of a separation-Mercy in ages of faith evinced towards all-Absence of the pharisaic spirit.-Mercy shown to animals -Love the actuating principle of these ages

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Influence of mercy upon conversation and the tone of society-Doctrine and example of the middle ages in evidence-A glance at the contrast in modern times-Influence of mercy upon literature-Upon the intercourse of life-Happy condition of society in consequenceGeneral survey of a Catholic state


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Multitudinous fruits of mercy in ages of faith-Its influence upon government-On judicial proceedings-The ecclesiastical courts, why extended-The canonical penalties-Capital punishment rare-Pecuniary compositions-Exact execution of justice-Though with compassion-Use of torture-Its origin-Spirit of the middle ages to pardon criminals, and not pursue them-The prisons-The new religious opinions produced no amelioration in themTestimony of Howard in proof-The action of mercy in the prisons of the middle ages-Solicitude of women and of the clergy to comfort prisoners-They are delivered or consoled on the religious festivals-The privilege of pardon possessed by various churches-That of St. Romain described-Prisoners delivered out of respect for holy persons-Through the intercession of the Holy See-Visit to the dungeons-Meet the merciful there consoling the captives— The ransom and deliverance of prisoners a work to which all classes devoted themselves-The confraternities for this purpose-Their sufferings-Extreme pity with which even criminals were regarded-Accounted for by the doctrinal importance of mercy-Which was synonymous with holiness


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Application of mercy to the moral and social enfranchisement of slaves-Their condition in the ancient states-Gradual influence of Christianity in this respect-Catholicism by degrees procures the abolition of slavery-Enfranchisement of the serfs by the Church-By the monks-By

devout kings and nobles-New religious order to redeem captives from the Sarassins-Devotion of the friars to this object-Zeal of the Holy See-Of Christian princes and the religious orders of knighthood-Exertions of the friars to protect the Indians of America-A glance at their heroic deeds in this respect-Action of the merciful directed to protect the weak and unhappy-The privileges conferred by law on all miserable persons-Efforts of the clergy to help them on all occasions-Interference of the Holy See-Labors of the monks co-operat ing


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Humanity and mercy in the conduct of war-The chivalrous spirit and its influence on the military character-Mercy considered one of its noblest features-Consequent amelioration in the state of the conquered-Influence of the clergy as confessors in the councils of the kings -The absence of Catholicism marked by a different spirit in war-Character of Turkish hostilities-The wars waged under the influence of the new religious opinions


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The charge of intolerance against the ancient Catholic states considered-General view of the Christian society-In what sense it is intolerant-Falsehood of the accusation as generally conceived-Interests of the state tended to confound the limits of ecclesiastical and civil policy -Right of excommunication inalienable-Discipline of the first Christians with regard to persons separated from the Church by a formal sentence-Its wisdom, justice, and expediency— It was transmitted through the middle ages-Consequences of disregarding it in later times— Spirit and object of ecclesiastical men and measures, in regard to censures-Conduct of the Church towards unfaithful and corrupt members-Spirit of the clergy towards persons without the Church, of those obnoxious to her censures-The public opinion and the civil government require more severe measures-The Holy See protects offenders-Rise and progress of the Albigenses-Their true character-Necessity of repressing them-Mercy of St. Dominick, and his evangelic zeal-Encroachments of the secular power and its cruelty-What was the inquisition-The clergy subject to it as well as the laity-Character of the inquisitors-Fruits of their zeal not exactly what is often supposed-Doctrine of the middle ages respecting the tolerance of false religions-Conduct of the Church towards the Jews-Conduct of the people and of the state towards them-Conduct of the Church towards schismatics-Interested and cruel interference of the civil power-Doctrine of the Church respecting its real duty-Origin of the Crusades-How these wars were compatible with mercy-Wars of the Spaniards against the Moors-How consistent with mercy-The wars of the Teutonic knights similarly explained -Whether the moderns have evinced greater mercy and toleration than the old Catholic society-A glance at their achievements since the sixteenth century-Their claims shown to be vain 131


Doctrine of the ages of faith respecting the duty of mercy to enemies-Seen in action in the manners of the religious, and of persons in the world-Examples from history.


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The mercy of which the poor were the objects-Recognition of its importance in ages of faith-In what light riches were regarded-Contrast between the ancient knowledge and the modern opinions respecting the poor-Consequent revolution in their state-Catholic charity contrasted with modern beneficence-Ancient institution for their relief-Ancient mode of extending it-The doctrine of alms explained-Shown in action—The alms and charity of the Roman pontiffs-Of the episcopal order in general-Of the monastic orders-Of the lay

society-Of kings and nobles-Of women-General spirit of the Catholic society in regard to the poor-Municipal laws-Conduct of the merciful in times of pestilence-Catholicism in this respect contrasted with the modern systems-Posthumous charity held to be of small avail p. 227


The institutions of mercy in ages of faith-State of the heathen society before their establishment-Origin of hospitals, and brief sketch of their history-Their founders-Their professed object-Beauty and grandeur of the structures-Provision for all wants-The hospice for the stranger-Mercy towards travellers in constructing bridges—Religious character of hospitals— Their solemn aspect and holy internal discipline-They constituted schools of piety—Their chapels and cemeteries-In which great men often chose their burial-The chaplains and religious servants-The sisters or brethren-Order of hospitallers-Of the Holy Ghost-Of St. John of God-Of the sisters of charity-Serving the sick-A duty undertaken by persons still in the world-Curious examples-The motives which induced them-Their personal devotion -The means provided for the support of hospitals-Their land, privileges, and other revenues -Casual supplies-Their fate in the general destruction of religious edifices by the reformers -Alteration of their character in subsequent times-Conclusion

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Difficulties of approaching the subject of the sixth beatitude-What was understood by cleanness of heart in what relation the senses stood with it-Conformity to divine image-Beauty of holy souls their humility, purity of language-Scrupulous obedience to the voice of conscience-Examples-Necessity of attaining to this supernatural cleanness of heart, insisted on by the ancient guides-Their rules to facilitate its acquisition-Their description of moral conversions-They were effected by love, by the ministry of angels


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Extent to which cleanness of heart prevailed in ages of faith-Influence of the love of God on the affections-Traits of ancient manners in proof-Power of the clergy-Consequent stability of states-The contempt for comfort which characterized Catholic society-Sanctification of all professions by a divine motive-Direction of the intention-Consequent inability of modern writers to give a true picture of Catholic manners in ages of faith


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Influence of cleanness of heart upon literature-Representations of love-Sanctity of the ancient type-The drama religious-Consequent universality of the range opened to genius in union with religion-Antipathy to paganism-Love of truth-Obedience-Interior purity indicated even by style-Influence of the clean of heart upon music, and upon art in general— The Catholic schools of painting; sanctity of the artists-Revival of paganism in modern


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Quoniam videbunt Deum-Influence of moral purity upon the intellectual character of those ages-Sanctity of the eminent men of the Catholic schools-Predominance of an intellectual conscience proved by the prevalence of faith-Cause and indications of its absence in the enemies of the Church-Grounds of their ignorance considered-Grounds of their hostility to the Catholic religion considered-How the spiritual day begins and is perfected in the clean of heart

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