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The love and cultivation of wisdom in ages of faith, indicated by the influence of the spiritual over the material power-The importance ascribed to knowledge-How truth was valued for its own sake: how earnestly it was loved-Men sought wisdom, not profit: desired all kinds of knowledge-The love for wisdom indicated by the number of collegiate foundations -Universities-By the privileges of scholars, and by the general features of the ancient scholastic character and manners

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p. 452

Glance at the series of eminent philosophers in ages of faith, who are made to pass as if processionally, classed in periods.

p. 473


General characteristics of all schools of philosophy in ages of faith-Religion and philoso phy were synonymous with the fathers, with the scholastic doctors, and with the laymen who philosophized in the middle ages-Testimony of reason and of the ancients to the wisdom of this view


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p. 511

Consideration of the objection that no grand questions were agitated-Faith superseded inquiry-Consequent inutility of discussions-Curiosity and intellectual restlessnes of the moderns the result of having lost faith-Groundlessness of the charge that there was no inquiry whatever-There remained magnificent subjects for discussion-Causes of the scholastic subtilty explained-Important disputes of the scholastics-Pernicious consequences of the modern



p. 521

On the method of philosophy in ages of faith-Divisions of proofs appropriate to divisions of truths-A threefold method recognized-Authority, testimony, and experiment or induction-The two former adopted in the sphere of religion and morals-The latter recognized as the proper method in physical science-The grounds of certainty ascertained-Reason, authority, or faith-Cause of faith, and mode of its acquirement-The inductive experimental philosophy excluded from the sphere of religion and morals-The philosophy of development and illustration adopted-Direction of studies by this rule-Method of instruction conformable to it

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p. 545

Other characteristics of the philosophy of ages of faith-Its humility-Danger of intellect. ual pride then estimated-The humble, docile spirit of the scholastic philosophers-The humility in speculation, in regard to religion, to language-Change in the manners of the learned on the rise of the new opinions-Humility of the Catholic philosophers in submitting their writings to the Holy See-Its practical character-Practice recognized as the source of knowledge-Practicability of the Catholic philosophy-Its clearness and communicability-All men could receive it-Error of the unintelligible philosophy-The imaginative and poetic character of the philosophy of the middle ages an indication of its truth-Arguments of the schoolmen to show the relation of the senses to intelligence-Mistake of modern writings in stating that theirs was merely imaginative-Its Catholicity-How heresy is opposed to philosophyUnity of the church and of its philosophy-How it was Catholic in principles-Mystics and

scholastics not antagonists-Catholic truth one-Consequent advantage to the intellect-Force of Catholic truth; its grandeur, its generous and ennobling influence, its warmth and expansiveness

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p. 569

How the clean of heart more immediately saw God first in creatures-The study of nature in ancient times-In ages of faith-Not confined to scientific pursuits-Vanity recognized of mere human science-How far the sciences were cultivated in the middle ages-In what spirit they were pursued-Change of sentiment in this regard


p. 630

How the clean of heart saw God in history, in miraculous operations-Piety, humility, and Catholicity obliged them to recognize the divine agency-Its unlimited power-The universality of its manifestations-Miracles considered historically, philosophically-Objections refuted


p. 656

How the impure sought to behold their God-A Supreme Being-Analogous to their internal state-Origin of demoniac mysticism-Faith and superstition the two great rivals-Contest of the church with the latter, under the form of idolatry—Contest continued through the middle ages with sorcery and old errors in a new form-What is to be thought respecting the arts condemned by the church-Magic and demoniac mysticism considered-Historically-Philosophically-Books of magicians alone would justify the zeal of the church against all such arts -Defence of the ancient Catholic society from the charge of superstition-Origin and termination of the ordeals-Abuse of religious practices exposed and prohibited-Error of the moderns in classing some ancient convictions among superstitions--Delusion here also distinguished from truth-Visions


p. 675

How the clean of heart saw God in human records-In the Gentile philosophy-Consequent use of the pagan learning to confirm religion by reason, and to convey the original traditions of mankind-Spirit with which the heathen philosophy was studied in ages of faith. p. 733


How the clean of heart saw God in the holy Scriptures-The Bible considered historically, philosophically-Necessity recognized of guarding against its abuse-Against false translations-Zeal in the church in promoting versions-Familiarity of all classes of men in the middle ages with the holy Scriptures


p. 743

How the clean of heart saw God in the church, in the mysteries of faith-The sacramental sense in general-The Ineffable Presence-The Eucharist-Considered historically, philosophically-Sentiments of the clean of heart respecting it-External effects-Miraculous visions-Fruits of wisdom and all grace-Consequent proof of the divinity of the Catholic religion-How the clean of heart saw God in mystic union of their souls with his divinity-The spiritual vision-The intellectual vision-Its organic effects attested-Testimony of the scholastic and mystic philosophers-Their description of the consequences of thus seeing God— Experience of Catholics at the present day confirms its truth-Longings after the final consummation--The beatific vision -In future glory

p. 756.




Were the Ages of Faith pacific?-State of the question-We are not obliged to show that ages of faith were untroubled-Peace from war not promised by the gospel-Wars and disorders, therefore, do not form ground of objection to the title of these ages to the character of eminently Christian-The causes of war always exist-Consequent misery of the present lifeA glance at the most warlike periods of the Christian history


p. 787

The love and desire of peace which prevailed in ages of faith-The pacific character which nations assumed-Peacefulness deemed synonymous with conversion-How peace was extolled: how war was regarded with horror-The objection of modern writers respecting the wars of the middle ages might be turned against later times-Instances of the manner in which wars were stigmatized-The demon known chiefly as the enemy of peace-The people detested war-Warriors themselves had remorse

p. 808


The desire of peace expressed in the prayers, hymns, and regular office of the church-A sense of danger indicated by them-Other devotions for peace practised-Ancient local offices cited--The antiphon Media vita-Public supplications for peace-The flagellants-The processions of the whites

p. 837


The peace invoked and promised by the Prince of peace was known to be chiefly internal,— peace of the breast-Testimonies of the middle ages cited-How peace was enjoyed; first, from internal disorder, men were at peace with God, and, therefore, at peace with the evils of life, with death, with the grave; secondly, they were at peace with themselves: hence they had the spirit of wisdom, and were personally at peace with the enemies of truth ; thirdly, they were at peace with men ; but they renounced an evil peace-Definitions of evil peace-The ancient portraits denote this threefold peace

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p. 852


From internal peace followed the peace of domestic life-The simple manners of these ages promoted it-Peace between all members of the house-The patriarchal character of Catholic families indicated peace-The peace of marriage-Discords appeased by marriages


p. 882

From domestic peace followed peace through society-The pacific character of all Catholic life-Litigation denounced and shunned-The legal profession sanctified, but a horror prevailed for law-suits-men preferred suffering loss-Causes referred to arbitration by the clergy -Diplomas of popes and bishops cited-The trial by battle condemned as contrary to peaceTo all disputes men were averse-Ambitious desires as contrary to peace repressed-They were excluded by the prevailing taste for natural joys-The pacific character of life in citiesin the country-The spirit of peace had descended through religion upon men


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p. 901

From the domestic and social peace passed to all views of the political constitution-The pacific ideal of all government in ages of faith-Its object was to extend the good of peace-Ancient testimonies cited-The ritual of coronations-Representations of monarchy-The pacific education of princes-The pacific symbols of power-The pacific instructions given to kings-The pacific counsellors of kings-The pacific intervention of women in governmentThe judicial character of the monarchy preferred to a warlike-The parliament-The pacific duties of all administrators-Peace indicated by the harmony between the temporal and spiritual powers-The desire of establishing a unity of empire arose from the desire of peace— The pacific ideal of subjects implied in the views of government-No undue advantage taken of it-The good of the people recognized as essential to states


p. 926

The pacific ideal of government, how far realized-The pacific kings, princes, and nobles of the ages of faith-Testimonies of tombs-The middle ages enjoyed more peace than modern writers pretend-Evidence alleged-Origin and nature of the truce of God

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p. 958


Peace resulted from the union of all nations by the Catholic Church-No national spirit opposed to this harmony-The love of one's country cherished - No wars of opinion then-No wars of religion-No national wars-Political peace desired and ratified on religious grounds grounds.

p. 981


What wars were sanctioned-General character of warlike operations in the middle agesWars commenced, conducted, and terminated in a spirit of peace-The calamities of war fell not on all men-Multitudes enjoyed exemption from them-Wars did not interrupt works of peace-Destructive modes of warfare prohibited-The pacific ideal of the military profession in those ages-The pacific instructions given to soldiers-What were their duties-Chivalry instituted with a view to counteract their vices and promote peace-The pacific warriors that flourished-Three kinds of war sanctioned; first, wars for justice, examples; secondly, wars for mercy, examples-The crusades to rescue oppressed brethren-The Templars

p. 992


Thirdly, wars for peace-Border wars to repel invaders-Internal wars against disturbers of peace-The degenerate feudal lords-Terrific character of their castles-The cries of the Church against local tyrants-Brotherhoods instituted to defend the country against them-The royal power invoked-In Italy feudal tyrants subdued-The wars of the French kings against their castles-The clergy used their temporal power to defend the people, and erected castles -Wars of German bishops against the castles of the robber-knights-Their labors to secure peace-Their wicked Castellans sometimes converted


p. 1025

The blessed peace-makers-Men who imparted peace by pacific means passed in review-including kings, princes, feudal lords, knights, who were not the advocates of duelling in the modern sense, obscure men, women, the clergy generally, who condemned tournaments as contrary to peace-The sovereign pontiffs-The papal legates-The monks and friars p. 106)

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