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Chapter 5

Content and Organization of Program

THE QUESTIONS included in this section relate to program areas which were mentioned most frequently by conferees on the field trip which preceded the preparation of this inquiry form. There seemed to be general unanimity with respect to the importance of the questions included. Questions 1 to 8 elicited by far the greatest number of affirmative replies as compared with questions in the other four


1. Does your program provide for the adequate education of administrators relative to the nature of children and the implications of such knowledge in the school program?

a. Does your program provide for the study of the nature of adults and the implications of such knowledge, especially in public relations?

No better background for highlighting the importance of these two questions can be provided than to quote Tyler in his discussion of one of the "elements not usually included in the training program for school administrators."

The first of these (elements) is derived from the fact that administration is so largely concerned with human values. I realize that administrators must deal with many material aspects of their work . . . These activities do involve problems which administrators must learn to solve, and a part of the administrators' training must touch upon these matters. Basically, however, the solution of these problems is not acceptable unless it promotes the educational effectiveness of the school, and unless its effect upon the human beings concerned is salutary. Hence, a basic element in the training of administrators for democratic leadership is the study of human beings so as to understand the way they develop, their abilities, their interests, their motivation, and the relation of physiological factors, of social factors, and of emotional factors upon their development . . . A training program for administrators, it seems to me should include ample opportunity for the study of human growth and development through a study both of children and of adults. A laboratory school and a child development laboratory are as essential to the education of administrators as they are to the education of teachers.1

Fifty-two institutions report that their programs make provisions for the education of administrators relative to the nature of children.

1 Tyler, Ralph W. Training administrative officers for democratic leadership. annual conference for administrative officers of public and private schools, 1939. of Chicago Press. p. 67-68.

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Proceedings of the Eighth
Chicago, Ill., University


Three of these hesitate to claim adequacy. The question of adequacy is of course a difficult one. A proponent, for example, of Tyler's point of view would not be satisfied, as to adequacy, with a substantial majority of the provisions described by these institutions. One respondent who filed a negative reply insisted that "such education cannot be adequate with our present knowledge," the implication being, of course, that our present knowledge of child nature is far from adequate. Others will contend that until educational practitioners, teachers, and administrators catch up with present knowledge, the inadequacy of that knowledge is not a matter of immediate concern. It was assumed in stating the question that the matter of adequacy would be determined in relation to the emphasis given to the importance of this program area in relation to the purposes underlying the total program in each institution. The fact that a number of respondents struggled over an interpretation of this qualifying phrase "adequate education of administrators," may suggest that the importance of, and emphasis to be given to, the education of administrators in child nature, growth, and development has not been fully determined in these institutions.

There was slightly less confidence expressed with respect to provisions for the study of adults with 45 affirmative responses to question 1a. Here the question of adequacy did not arise.

2. Do you have teaching materials in use which synthesize the

contributions of medicine, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, and education to our knowledge of the whole human being?

The affirmative responses to this question dropped down to 36, with 4 of these qualified by such comments as: "not much," "to a limited extent," or by references to courses such as vocational psychology, mental hygiene, etc. The question was passed by 5 respondents.

3. Are opportunities for observation work and study at child development centers or clinics available to administrators in training at your institution?

a. Do you make systematic provisions for such observation and study?

Replies to these questions reveal that while such opportunities are available in 45 institutions, systematic provisions for such observation and study are made in only 31 institutions, and in 4 of these the affirmative reply was made with reservations. It can, therefore, be said that among the 62 institutions responding, the facilities referred to exist and are available in more than 70 percent, but in only 41 percent are these facilities systematically in use in the education of

school administrators. To put it another way, for this group of institutions, existing facilities for observation work and study at child development centers and clinics appear to be about 58 percent effective in this program area for the education of school administrators at the graduate level.

4. Describe briefly such provisions as have been made at your institution for the type of study referred to in 1-3 above.

In responding negatively to these questions a number of institutions point out that much of the training referred to is provided for in programs of teacher education at the undergraduate level and that school administrators in training at the graduate level may elect further work in these fields. There was no intention in setting up these questions to imply that work at the graduate level in this program area should be required in all cases. Interest was centered in the extent to which the area was recognized as important for administrators and the extent to which facilities are available and systematically used at the graduate level.

The following statements provide some detail with respect to the nature of the opportunities available and how they are used in providing "adequate" education of administrators relative to the nature of human beings, young and old:


At Ball State Teachers College (under the George and Frances Ball Foundation) we have a Child Development Center . . . The Child Development Center gives opportunities for observation work and study in child development and work in connection with clinics in such fields as speech correction and family relations.


We use the Institute of Child Welfare, the University High School, Claremont Junior High School, and University Elementary School for assigning students in a course entitled "Growth and Development of the Child" for observation purposes. They report on regular blanks which have been designed to guide their observations. The text which is used was written by the members of our staff. "Studying Children in School."


One of the most important provisions made for students in this area is found in our Guidance Laboratory. Students are given opportunity here, either through courses in which they work or through observation, to see the whole program of guidance involving psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, and personnel workers. In our field work many opportunities are provided for our students in this area.


We have at present four separately operated clinics on the University campus, each one having the two-fold purpose of assisting children with their adjustments and providing opportunities for the training of workers in

the different, but related fields. While they are under different management, representing three different departments or divisions of the University, the work of each one is related to that of every other one and the functions and activities are found to overlap somewhat.

The first of these clinics, The Psychological Clinic, has been in operation for many years. . . . There are two branches or divisions of this clinic, one in Indianapolis at the Medical Center and the other here on the University campus. Children are brought to the clinic from many parts of the State as well as from the local school situations. Tests are given to determine the mental, physical, and emotional status and the results are analyzed with a view to diagnosing the child's difficulties and as a basis for suggesting treatment.

The second of these clinics established at the University is the Speech Clinic which has been in operation since the school year 1938-39. Hearing and speech cases are brought into the Clinic here on the campus where tests are conducted and diagnosis made and practice provided for improving the condition.

The third one of these agencies, the Reading Clinic, is getting under way this year. Its primary purpose is to locate pupils with reading deficiencies and disabilities, to diagnose the difficulties, and to plan a program of remedial work in each case. ... We are endeavoring to provide the facilities necessary to immediate remediation and for an adequate follow-up of each case thus served.

The last of these agencies, The Pupil Service Center, was started during the present year (1940-41). This is designed as an educational clinic with a two-fold purpose. . . that of assisting children here in the University School and other Indiana school children to a better educational, social, and personal adjustment, and for the training of teachers and clinical workers for service in public schools. The Center makes careful studies of individual children and provides the school and parents with a complete record of all the studies made together with the recommendations for treatment of the child in each case. The services of the Center are available to parents and schools without charge but only a limited number of cases outside of the University School can be handled in any given year. It is our purpose to follow-up each case to check on the progress made toward adjustment and as a basis for further suggestions and recommendations.

The materials developed in connection with this work will serve to vitalize the courses in the School of Education concerned with Child Development and Pupil Adjustment and the practical phases of the work will serve as training opportunities for those preparing especially for work with exceptional children


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In most cases systematic work in advanced educational psychology is incorporated into the program of prospective school administrators. The biological basis of human nature is a definite part of this course. In many cases this is supplemented by courses taken in the departments of psychology, child welfare, and sociology. Certain departments have organized special graduate courses for students in education summarizing and interpreting the materials of the special fields with respect to their utilization by students of education. This is especially true in the departments of physics, sociology, psychology, and the psychopathic hospital. In connection with the Iowa Child Welfare Station, organized groups of children are available for observation beginning at the age of two, and for a limited number of students

facilities for observation are available even in the period of extreme infancy. With the laboratory groups of the Child Welfare Station, the University Elementary School and High School, and the Perkins School which is maintained in connection with the Children's Hospital, a complete program of observation is available.


The work of the city and county clinics is studied. Students are assigned cases. Most of our students are administrators in service. We advise, counsel and guide them in solving their actual school problems.


The University of Minnesota maintains on its campus a child development center which offers excellent opportunities for the kind of work about which you inquire. The results of the studies made at this clinic are extremely valuable to superintendents in training in the whole field of child development. UNIVERSITY OF OMAHA

A Child Guidance Clinic is established at the University of Omaha in cooperation with city school system. Young men who have taken courses in education, especially in school administration, are able to observe in the clinic.


Our Psychological Clinic offers services to schools in the vicinity and also is used for observation and training prospective administrators. There is also a Nursery School available for observation.

5. Does your program make adequate provisions for the study of the nature of our democracy, the major social, economic, and political problems which confront our society, and the function of education in that democracy?

A high point of 54 affirmative replies was reached on this question. Again the word "adequate" was disturbing. Two of the negative replies were conditioned by it. Two respondents passed the question, one with the comment, "I do not know." Several other comments were interesting, such as, "very uneven, some professors do very well, others don't." "We make provisions for it but much work must be done before anyone can do it adequately." Descriptive statements will be sampled under item 7.

6. Are the problems of education for economic well-being with the implications for vocational education, its content, organization, and administration, given any major emphasis in your program of education for administrators?

Interestingly enough the phrase "major emphasis" gave only one respondent any concern, at least to the extent of a reference to it.

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