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a part-time employee of a school system the professor may feel a lack of responsibility to the local community or to the local administrator. As an attempt to secure some of the benefits of the proposal and yet to guard against some of the dangers, the . . . Department maintains cooperative relationships with one or more school systems each year under agreement . . . In addition, the Department provides consultation and advisory service to schools... Last year in addition to these activities: Two members of the staff were members of the State Board of Education. One member of the staff is a member of a local board of education. One member of the staff was president of a P. T. A. Several staff members participated in school surveys and special field studies in local school systems. Several members of the staff participated in State committees on school problems. Several part-time staff members devoted a major portion of their time to jobs in the city or State school system.
Instructors spend one-half time in in-service work in public schools.
4. Describe briefly the success you have had in bringing academic and professional personnel in graduate schools into closer collaboration in their common responsibility for the education of school administrators.
The problem of establishing effective cooperative working relationships between all staff members who are in any way concerned with the implementation of graduate-level instruction in school administration is one which, in many institutions, presents serious difficulties. The nature of these relationships clearly conditions the suitability of content and the effectiveness of a professional program. The disposition and the ability to promote and improve these relationships is more often than not quite seriously challenged. Schools, colleges, and departments of education are relative newcomers on the campuses devoted to higher education. In the thinking of some of the older inhabitants at least, the burden of proof of fitness to survive and the necessities for collaboration rest squarely upon the shoulders of the staff in Education. In some cases this may be due to the fact that the Education group has not reached agreements with respect to basic philosophy and resultant program which fully convince the older inhabitants that they know where they are going. Lest this appraisal of the situation seems to be one-sided and harsh, let it be said that the representatives of the older disciplines in their attitudes are also frequently on the defensive. The success with which Education staff members promote and assist in developing such relationships, through securing from the older inhabitants respectful consideration for the problems and the planned programs of graduate work in Education, may surely be accepted as one index of staff-member competence. This is not to say that failure in these efforts does not reflect perhaps equally upon the full competence of those referred to as the older inhabitants. It must also be recognized that resistance to the development of these relationships is often centered in indi
viduals who occupy strategically placed administrative positions. The difficulties of the task involved in many institutions must be taken fully into account before success or failure can be charged fully to special competence or incompetence on the part of individual staff members. In any case the difficulties in any given situation should not be permitted too readily, to result in a yielding to a sense. of futility in the matter. For these reasons the invitation to describe such successes was included in this section devoted to the general problem of preparation and competence of the graduate teaching staff.
Reports of successful experience in developing these cooperative relationships are encouraging. Twenty-one institutions reported in some detail upon their success in bringing about collaborations between academic and professional teaching personnel. Included here were 5 teacher-training institutions where unity of the curriculum toward a common professional objective admittedly makes the problem less difficult. The fact, however, that 29 institutions apparently had nothing to report and that an additional 6 presented statements of purely negative results in such terms as "nothing," "this has not worked out well," and "success-zero," would indicate that the problem is still a challenge to the will and the ability of more than half of the faculties represented in this inquiry. To the 21 more or less "complete" successes reported should be added another 6 which reported partial success with problems still ahead.
Representative statements in all categories of success or failure follow, again without identification:
Speaking from the viewpoint of the education department, we have had no success at all in bringing the academic departments to the realization that school administrators need graduate programs in some of the social studies, but that the school superintendent cannot give the time to secure a major in each of the social sciences. For example, we have proposed that the staff of the psychology department set up a year's program in which each would present the high lights of his specialty so that the school administrators (permitted in the course) could have the opportunity to apply the whole field to the public school system. Success, zero; reason, it would be impossible to present the material in less than 30 or 40 hours. We have answered the difficulty at present by suggesting that administrators beyond the master's degree select those academic courses which put the most stress upon current problems, to make their own applications without hoping to secure much from the professor, and to use the courses as contacts with the other governmental, economic, or social problems of the community.
The extent of the cooperation we receive from the academic departments is indicated by the fact that the courses required are offered at times when our men in the field can take the work, which are hours definitely inconvenient to the professors in political science, economics, and public administration, but they do it.
We have had some cooperation between our staff members and university professors in non-professional fields, including courses in sociology and
psychology pointed toward the interests of the administrator. We permit as much as ten (10) hours of work in an academic field on the master's degree for school administrators. Some of our doctorate candidates have as much as a year of academic work in such fields as English, history, music, physical education, etc. We have a close working arrangement with two local colleges of music for the graduate training of administrators and supervisors in the field of music.
Members of the faculty of (the) university have offered courses adapted to the needs of graduate students in school administration and have from time to time conferred with us concerning areas of greatest interest to our students.
I have not had any decided success, although I have been able to prevent active opposition to school administration. We have attempted to interest some of the academic departments in committee work of the State association and to appear on some of our local association programs.
At the university of . . . there is very close collaboration between the departments of political science and economics in the training of school administrators. There is also quite a bit of cooperation between the school of business and public administration and those engaged in the training of school administrators. . . The last one of our Ph. D. graduates in school administration had fully as much work in the field of political science and economics as he had in professional education courses.
The Department of Public Administration . . . has willingly cooperated with the Department of Education in every way, (they) feel that our graduate students in administration should have some knowledge of the general problem of public administration, especially municipal and city government. With this thought in mind our students are permitted to take an advanced course in public administration without the necessity of completing the undergraduate major requirements. In addition our students are advised to complete a course in public finance in the Department of Economics.
Aside from minor work in such fields as political science and economics we have not yet developed means of effecting this collaboration.
Considerable emphasis has been given to this phase of our program using field situations as the basis. Faculty and graduate students in various other fields than professional education assist in the education of school administrators. In particular the department of sociology, the College of Agriculture, the School of Commerce, and the departments of History and Government have participated in these activities. In addition to field practices students majoring in School Administration ordinarily build up minors in one or more of the above named fields. The field experience cannot be stressed too much as the basis of the cooperation.
The heads of the several departments in the academic fields have been asked to work with the members of the Department of Education in an informal way. This has not worked out well.
Members of other departments of the university are brought into the Department for a series of discussions. This year the schedule calls for six series of discussions, each of four meetings, under the leadership of some professor from another department. In some series more than one professor participates. The topic schedule follows: 1. Political Ideologies. 2. Structure of Government. 3. Economic Ideologies. 4. Social Welfare. 5. Dilemma of Youth. 6. Contemporary Religious Movements.
Academic departments are held strictly responsible for the mastery of content. In this connection, they have a free hand in setting up whatever requirements they deem necessary to meet this responsibility. The Department of Education takes the initiative in reporting lack of content mastery (and also evidence of superior mastery). We have found that such departments are very sensitive to criticism of this kind and a number have voluntarily asked for assistance in shaping courses for teachers. This plan has, in our opinion, produced much better results to date than mere requests for cooperation. It must be admitted, however, that we need closer collaboration than we have yet achieved.
Academic faculties in social studies, finance, and business administration form committees to advise with students.
We have developed a very close integration between the College of Education on the one hand and the College of Liberal Arts and the Graduate College on the other. We utilize the facilities of the entire campus by introducing great flexibility into individual student programs with respect to the amount and nature of academic work which seems indicated in each individual case.
In developing and carrying forward our program for the training of superintendents of schools, the faculty of the Graduate School of Public Administration plays an active part in determining the nature of the program, and practically all of the students taking the program in preparation for the superintendency are members of one or more seminaries in the School of Public Administration.
Selection and Guidance of Students
THE QUESTIONS which were included in this section of the inquiry were directed to problems of implementation. The assumption seemed valid, that selection and guidance procedures, generally, have been developed imperfectly and that many schools, colleges, and departments of education are uncertain and somewhat confused as to how selection and guidance responsibilities can best be implemented. As will be shown, the institutions canvassed report efforts and activities in this area which reveal rather general interest and concern, but which vary greatly in kind and intensity.
The importance of effective selection and guidance procedures seemed to be too generally understood and accepted to justify further elaboration in this study. Cocking and Williams have presented effectively the case for the application of these procedures in relation to the education of school administrators, with special reference to the importance of maintaining a balanced ratio between supply and demand for professionally trained administrators. It is difficult, however, to reconcile the apparent general acceptance of the importance of these procedures with the report of "indifference which national organizations of school administrators on the one hand, and professional schools offering programs in school administration on the other hand, have displayed in the establishment of entrance requirements to programs preparing for school administration. This is especially true in the one-year graduate program through which the majority of school administrators are being educated. In the majority of schools visited there are only two selective bases operating in this first year professional program, namely, the completion of a four-year undergraduate college program, and sufficient money to permit attendance at the institution."2 Returns from this present inquiry definitely substantiate this latter observation. Now to the questions raised in this inquiry.
1. Are systematic efforts made in your institution to identify and interest the more potentially capable persons in the work of administration?
The extent to which reported activities were "systematic" seemed to trouble some of the respondents. For this reason 5 of the affirma
1 Cocking, Walter D. and Williams, Kenneth R. The education of school administrators. Procedures used at selected institutions. Sponsored by the National association of colleges and departments of education and the Commission on teacher education of the American council on education. Washington, D. C., The Council, 1941. 146 p. (mimeo.) p. 13-16, 70.
Ibid., p. 69-70.