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level of the sea, he was attracted by its topographical features, and, after landing and exploring the vicinity, resolved to purchase the land and found the settlement there. While, however, he was visiting the neighboring chiefs and endeavoring to arrange the necessary preliminaries, some slave traders were actively engaged in thwarting his purposes by slander and misrepresentation; so that, when a council of their chiefs had assembled to consider the proposals of Lieutenant Stockton, their disapproval of his scheme was manifested in such threatening terms that he found it necessary to call in an armed force that had been prudently posted near at hand. This opportune display of arms promptly wrought a change in the conduct of negotiations; so much so that the African warriors were easily induced to make a grant of the desired territory and a treaty to that effect was forthwith formulated and executed. A few American colonists who had accompanied the expedition were disembarked and, with the personal aid and material assistance of Lieutenant Stockton and his crew, they began to organize and build up the settlement. Thus was founded the city of Monrovia, so called in honor of President Monroe, at Cape Mesurado.

The negro republic of Liberia lies wholly within the torrid zone or between the fourth and seventh degrees of latitude north of the equator. Its territory extends from the San Pedro River at 4° 20′ latitude north to the Manna River at 6° 80' latitude north or about six hundred miles, and from the Atlantic coast on the west to an undefined boundary about two hundred miles distant in the east. It is thus west of Soudan, south of Sierra Leone, and north of the negro monarchy Ashantee.

The constitution of the republic is closely modeled after that of the United States. The executive power is vested in a president who is elected for the term of two years. The

legislative council is composed of a senate of eight persons elected each four years and of a house of representatives of thirteen members elected every two years. The cabinet of the executive consists of five members. The average annual revenue, most of which is derived from customs duties, amounts to about $175,000, and the average annual expenditure, chiefly incurred for the general administration of the government, amounts to the sum of $165,000. The unpaid principal and interest of the national debt, contracted in England in 1871, amounts to $200,000. The chief exports consist of coffee, palm oil, palm nuts, cocoa, sugar, arrowroot, ivory, and hides. The annual coffee crop reaches about one million pounds. The combined annual exports and imports are estimated in the sum of one million dollars.

The native population of Liberia, comprising about 800,000 souls, has been reinforced by about fourteen thousand negro colonists from the United States and the West Indies and by nearly six thousand recaptured African slaves that have been sent there, from time to time, by the United States government. Although the country is a democracy yet the emigrants from America are exclusively the governing class and they have built up among themselves a sort of aristocracy, that is rigidly maintained to the entire exclusion of the natives. This latter class cannot aspire to any social equality with the American-born negro and is subjected to all the menial service that people of their race are accustomed to perform in the United States. The aristocrats are absolved from all anxiety in reference to their social status by the fact that their government is a negro republic where white persons cannot hold property nor be admitted to citizenship.

Liberia, under the patronage and protection of the American colonization society, occupied a peculiarly anomalous position, since it had no rank among the states of the world and, though

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established as a colony in due and legal form by the government of the United States, received small sympathy and encouragement from our country. Hence its intercourse with the world was attended with inconveniences and embarrassments and the colonists grew restive under this condition of affairs until 1848, when, with the approval of the American society, they resolved upon measures of self-government. To this end a declaration of independence was adopted in which, after reciting the wrongs to which their race was subjected in America, Liberia was declared to be a free, sovereign, and independent state. A constitution was soon after ratified, a president elected, and the new government formally inaugurated.

The black republic has thus far escaped any serious complication with foreign powers and has demonstrated, although in a feeble way, its capability for independent existence. While it has probably failed in every sense to justify the expectations of its promoters and founders, yet, as an outpost of civilization upon the dark continent, it may serve as a foothold for future efforts toward the humanizing and christianizing of the African race. If it had been founded forty years later, when the slave was the innocent cause of the great civil contest that cost our country so much blood and treasure, it is not unreasonable to suppose that it would have become an asylum for a very large portion of the black Americans and thus have mitigated if not entirely removed the conditions that have so long operated to disturb peace and order in the southern states.



AT THE very time when the colonies in America were forming a stable government, Europe was approaching a crisis and a new order. A general acquaintance with European affairs during the century is helpful to a clear understanding of the relations which have existed between the United States and the older nations.

In 1789 France was the scene of a significant, popular uprising, and for the next twenty-five years she played the leading part in social and governmental changes which extended to almost every quarter of Europe. Louis XVI. inherited in 1774 the throne of France, with its responsibilities, made serious by years of arbitrary and extravagant rule. The taxes fell heavily on the peasant and merchant, but rested lightly on an exempted nobility and clergy; an unjust system of land ownership, brought down by the nobles from feudal times, oppressed the common people cruelly; monopolies of staple articles granted to the rich and powerful were a further irritation to the masses. Strange, new notions about the "equality of men "" and the true nature of governments were set going by a certain class of writers. The news of the successful revolt of the American colonies from England and of the share which Lafayette and other Frenchmen had taken in the struggle came as a suggestion and an encouragement. All these

and many other things combined to bring about the French Revolution, but the immediate cause was national bankruptcy. Every plan to restore the finances was tried in vain. Only one resort remained. The national parliament, or "States General," which the absolute monarchs of France had ignored since 1614, must be summoned and made to vote increased taxes. The call was issued, but the States General, quickly controlled by the representatives of the middle class, began to complain of abuses, to demand reforms, and in other ways to show a spirit new to French subjects. Louis, naturally benevolent and devoted to the best interests of his people, was hampered by antecedents and education, and urged to arbitrary acts by his courtiers. He resisted the demands of the parliament, tried to dismiss it, but finally had to yield. Thus he lost not only his power but the chance to surrender it gracefully.

American sympathies were heartily with the French people during the early stages of the revolution. When the hated prison, the Bastille, was destroyed, Lafayette sent one of its keys as a present to Washington. But the excesses of 1792 and 1793 caused a revulsion of feeling, and the United States decided upon a policy of neutrality.

The attack in France upon the "divine right of kings" alarmed the monarchs of Europe. The doctrine that the people are the source of authority was deemed hardly less dangerous than are anarchist teachings to-day. Austria was the stronghold of absolute monarchy. Her ruler, Francis I., was the father of his people, who were kept in ignorance and denied the right to think for themselves. Germany was a mosaic of some three hundred states and free cities, all loosely combined with Austria into the "Holy Roman Empire," a fancied perpetuation of the old Roman rule, sanctified and strengthened by an alliance with the pope. There was no national spirit; Germany was a geographical expression." Russia,

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