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33D CONG....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of War.
SENATE & Ho. of Reps.
by to emigration towards the western frontier, and of transportation, one of the heaviest expenses, is General of the Army, and it is again brought to the increase in the overland trains to our Pacific not increased, and is therefore relatively less than notice in his report of this year, possessions, have multiplied the opportunities as that for the current year; thus verifying the In some important particulars, our military well as the causes of Indian depredations and expectation stated in the last annual report, that legislation, in regard to rank and command, as hostilities. It is reasonable to expect that the an increase of the Army would not be attended well as to organization, needs revision. In armies, ensuing year will be marked by more numerous with a proportionate increase of expense. In fact it is essential that it should be known, under all and serious Indian outrages than the last or any an undue expense in proportion to numbers al
possible circumstances, who is the officer entitled preceding year.
ways results from not keeping on foot a sufficient io command. Doubt as to the source from which Our border settlements extending from the Mis- force. If the force is too small for the line it pro- orders are to emanate, is destructive of discipline souri westward, and from the Pacific ocean east- tects it must be kept moving. The result is that and subordination, and might, on many occasions, ward, are steadily pressing the savage tribes stated in the Quartermaster General's report. compromise the safety of the troops. 'On this iminto narrower limiis and an unproductive region, The cost of transportation comes upon the war portant point our military law is exceedingly vague from which result combinations of bands hereto- || scale, as for armies in the field.
and defective. Much of the mischief that otherfore separated from each other, producing, at the The means of transportation have, in some in- wise would have resulted, has been prevented by same time, by their concentration, an increase of stances, been improved, and it is hoped further the care of the Department in keeping 'asunder power and a diminution of their ability to live by developments and improvements will still dimin- officers whose claim's would come in conflict, and the precarious products of the chase. Hence, a ish this large item of our Army expenditure. In by the patriotic self-denial of the officers themtwo-fold necessity for an increase of our military this connection, waiving other considerations, I selves who, in many instances, have waived claims force.
again invite attention to the advantages to be an- to command which they believed to be well-founded, · The question of economy in the employment | ticipated from the use of camels and dromedaries and served under those whom they considered as of the means for this purpose has been frequently | for military and other purposes; and, for the rea- their juniors. Nevertheless, many unseemly conand fully discussed. It may not, however, be sons set forth in my last annual report, recom- troversies have arisen, engendering, jealousy, without benefit to advert to some instructive facts mend that an appropriation be made to introduce rancor, and insubordination; and the decisions in in our past experience of Indian wars.
a small number of the several varieties of this such cases, so far from putting at rest the quesThe expenses occasioned by the war with the animal, to test their adaptation to our country. tions involved, present a mass of conflicting arguSac and Fox Indians, in 1832, amounted to more I think it but an act of justice to the officers of ments, from which no general principle can be than three millions of dollars; the definite appro- the Army again to call attention to the recommend educed, and which serve only to furnish to every priations for the suppression of Indian hostilities ation made in my last annual report, relative to disputant the means of maintaining his own course. from 1836 to 1841, inclusive, amounted to more an increase of their pay. The present rates of So numerous and contradictory have been the than eighteen millions of dollars. Within the pay were established more than forty years ago,
decisions of the highest authority on question of past six years large appropriations have been when money had a nuch higher value, as meas- rank, that no executive regulation or judgment of made for the same objeci in Texas, New Mexico, || ured by the price of food; even as late as 1845, a court-martial could now establish any certain Utah, California, and Oregon. The aggregate of the cost of the soldiers' ration was twelve-and-a-rule, or fix the interpretation of the law; for either such expenditures in the last twenty-two years, half cents, whilst the estimates of the Commissary of these would be met by as high authority for a independent of the regular appropriations for the General, for the present year, are based on the contrary doctrine, and would probably be, in turn, support of the Army, estimated at more than | price of twenty-five cents for a ration. The ne- || overruled. Congress only can apply the remedy, thirty millions of dollars, a sum sufficient to have cessaries of life, generally, have had a like, if not and whatever rule they may, in their wisdom, maintained for the whole period, a nuch greater | always, an equal appreciation; and, under such adopt, should be simple in its terms, and universal force than that recommended in my report of last circumstances, it would not be just that salaries in its application. year. This sum is independent of the expendi- should remain fixed, which were originally grad- One fruitful source of difficulty arises from ture for property destroyed, compensation to suf- uated to afford the means proper to the officers' | double rank. In our service, as in the English, fering inhabitants, and on account of pensions and support.
an officer may have one grade by brevet in the bounty lands, and, of course, does not include The justice of an advance in the salaries of Army, or at large, and another in a particular the losses occasioned by the destruction of private | public officers corresponding with the increased regiment or corps. The law has attempted to property, nor those consequent upon the interrup- cost of the means of living, has been recognized define the cases in which one or the other of these tion of agriculture and of the progress of settle- | by the Government in the recent laws for increas- commissions shall take effect, and it is to the dement. These cannot be measured by any specificing the compensation of most of those employed fective and insufficient manner in which this is sum, and although private in their character, are in the civil departments of the public service. done that much of the confusion above alluded to not limited in their effects to individuals, but by These considerations apply with greater force to is due. The statutory provision on the subject is diminishing the resources of the country, become the case of officers of the Army, many of whom copied from the English. Even in their service public losses, and, as such, are widely felt. are compelled, by the nature of their duties, to it has proved a source of much trouble, and, as
It has been stated by those conversant with all reside in parts of the country where even scanty in ours, there is a class of commissions not known the facts, that if, in 1831, a small mounted force | supplies can be obtained only at exorbitant to theirs-commissions in the Army at large, not had been at the disposal of the War Department, || prices.
by brevet. The interpretation of the law is furthe Black Hawk war might have been prevented; If it was deemed necessary to offer other con- ther embarrassed by the necessity of applying it and that, in 1835, if a few additional companies siderations than those of justice and equality, to a class of cases for which it was not intended. had been sent to Florida, the Seminole war would many would present themselves, appealing alike To remove this cause of difficulty, some have not have occurred.
to the pride, the liberality, and the gratitude of the proposed to abolish brevet rank altogether, but The state of the recruiting service is shown by | American people to sustain a proposition which ihere are many stronger reasons against this the report of the Adjutant General, and the ac- only seeks to relieve the military officers of a dis
Brevet rank affords an honorable incentcompanying tables. Since the passage of the law crimination alike onerous and wounding.
ive and reward to distinguished conduct, and enaof August 4, 1854, to encourage enlistments, that It can require but little reflection to convince bles the Government to avail itself of the services service has progressed very satisfactorily both as any one that a policy which confines so large a and abilities of meritorious officers in higher comregards the number and the character of the men body of intelligent and instructed men to a rate of mands than they would be entitled to exercise by enlisted. In the months of September and October | compensation below that given in the ordinary their ordinary rank. It is true, indeed, that these last, 1,005 enlistments were made, while in the occupations of life must tend to drive from the mili- arguments lose much of their force and applicacorresponding months of 1853, the number was tary service its more active and efficient officers. tion, if the system of brevet promotion is not only 309. In consequence of the number of com- If, as I doubt not, there will be many honorable discreetly and justly administered, and that the panies that have been placed on the maximum exceptions to this general proposition, resulting system itself produces a shifting of rank dangerestablishment under the law of June 17, 1850, the from strong professional attachment to the Army, ous to discipline and military authority. The little success that attended the recruiting service they are exactly such exceptions as would claim main benefit of the system is in affording selecprior to the passage of the law above cited, and increased consideration from every one who can tions for command, but the present law gives brethe greater than usual number of casualties that estimate the patriotism and elevation which should vet rank effect in all detachments composed of have occurred during the past year, the number characterize the officer to whom the honor and flag different corps, and selection is as much restrained of recruits that will be required for the service of l of his country are intrusted.
by this rule in favor of brevet rank as by the rule the ensuing year will probably not be less than In the law of the last session of Congress to in- || in favor of ordinary commissions. To avoid the 6,000.
crease the pay of the rank and file of the Army the evils without forfeiting the benefits of the system, The estimates for the support of the Army terms used to designate the grades of enlisted men it is proposed to give effect to brevet rank only during the next fiscal year exceed those submitted are construed to exclude those of the Ordnance when the President may see fit to authorize it. at the last session, for the current year, by the Department. As this exclusion is supposed to be As these commissions are designed only to take eum of $681,668 39. The increase is to be found | accidental and unintentional, it is suggested that occasional effect, there seems to be a propriety in in the items for pay of the rank and file at the an explanatory act should be passed to extend the requiring his sanction either direct or delegated, higher rates fixed at the last session of Congress, increase of pay to all enlisted men of the Army. as constitutional commander-in-chief of the Army, and for recruiting, clothing, and subsisting the The pay of ordnance laborers and mechanics to give them effect. A further limitation, however, better filled ranks of the Army. In other items would still be much below the ordinary wages of should be put on them. As they are not intended, there is a decrease, so that, leaving out of view such employments.
and ought not to be allowed to advance an officer the pay of the Army, which, being fixed by law, I would again call attention to the propriety of in his own corps, over his proper seniors, the this Department can in no way decrease or di- | additional legislation which shall place the widows exercise of them ought to be forbidden, as it now ministr, the expense of keeping the Army in active and orphans of the officers and soldiers of the is, in the regiment, troop, or company, where the service, with its ranks thus increased, during the Army on an equality with those of the officers and officer belongs and is mustered. next fiscal year, will not, according to the esti- sailors of the Navy. The subject has been A difficulty of still greater magnitude is found mates, exceed that of the current year. The item I repeatedly recommended by the Commanding in the enactments intended to regulate rank and
330 CONG....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of War.
Senate & Ho. OF REPS.
command when different regiments and corps do vice, according to their rank, might devolve upon cers. It was in his first great campaign to the duty together. The general provision is, that the them.
frontiers of Russia that the Emperor Napoleon command shall devolve upon the officer highest in It has been stated that our organization is found the great utility of giving a military organrank" in the line of the Army,” but these words peculiar. A brief reference to some of the Euro- ization not only to his artillery trains, but also to were new in that connection, and of undefined
pean systems may aid in illustrating the views the general equipage and transportation trains of signification, and it cannot be determined whether hereinafter submitted, of a well organized staff. his armies. The civil machinery of the French they were intended to include officers holding The French staff is divided into two branches, || staff is now censured by some of their able milicommissions by brevet, in the staff, or in certain a military and a civil. The military has charge tary critics as too expensive, and too much respecial corps. The interpretation that has pre- || of all that relates to orders, movements, and mili- moved from military control. In these respects vailed in our service is, that they do not embrace tary operations. The civil furnishes all the sup- it is contrasted with the Prussian system, where any officers of the general staff, except the major | plies of the Army. The officers who furnish the every branch of the Army administration is general and the two brigadier generals, but this supplies have no rank. The military staff have brought under military supervision and direction; is not acquiesced in by many, and the question is rank, and succeed ordinarily to command by vir- to which are attributed that admirable efficiency still productive of frequent controversy, attended tue of it. This military staff is composed of two and economy which enable Prussia to maintain with all the evils which have been above enumer- classes of officers--the highest positions in it are so large an army in proportion to her revenue. ated.
filled by selection from the general officers of the In lieu of this control, the French system substiI find much difficulty in proposing any general | Army, so as to secure the best capacity and experi- | tutes, as a machinery of paper checks, a mass of rule to govern in this particular such a military ence in the service. For the subordinate and more writings and an amount of bureau labor, which organization as ours. It is clearly improper to routine duties they have a special corps. But the have been justly condemned as hardly possible in exclude from command, according io their rank, functions of this corps are of much importance; war, and as really affording no efficient security the officers of the military staff, whose duties are and to supply it with fit officers, they have pro- for the fidelity and economy of the expenditures. as important to the service as any other class of vided a special military school and a complete || In a comparison of the relative expense of the military duties below the chief command, and system of instruction in all its duties.
two systems, the French is stated at more than require equal general capacity, professional skill The system is simple, with many obvious merits. $1,020,000 a year in salaries, and the Prussian at and experience. This would, in effect, convert It brings all the military staff into one line, and $19,000. the military staff, so essential to an army, into a under one head. It secures the double benefit of It is not recommended to bring our military staff quasi civil corps. On the other hand, officers experience in the general service, and in the spe- || into one corps, or to incur the increased hazards whose duties, being confined to a special corps, cial duties of the corps. But it is a system only and expense of a separate corps for supplies. On remove them from the ordinary service of troops, practicable in a large army. The permanent corps the contrary, it is thought that, without attemptought not to take, by seniority, the military com- must be such as to secure a sufficient field of pro- || ing so entire a revolution of the system to which mand for which their special service has not qual- | motion. A small establishment does not allow of we have been accustomed, a staff organization ified them. This remark does not, indeed, now both selections and permanent appointments. Nor may be devised which will avoid the evils of our apply to all officers of the staff corps, in the higher is the separate school and corps for the staff needed present system, and will secure the benefits of the grades of which are found many officers who, in our Army, in which a large proportion of the French and English systems, with others which having long served with troops, and won distinc-officers are prepared for such duties by the com- neither of them affords. One principle, however, tion in battle, were transferred to the places they plete course of studies at our Military Academy. I should govern in any system that may be adopted now hold. But the principle of promotion has This is an advantage which our service has over -that of throwing open the
appointments on the since been applied to ihese corps, and, under op- || those services where the size of armies does not staff to selection from the officers of the Army at eration, their places must ultimately be filled by permit the education of officers by Government large. officers early separated from the general service, 1 except for those corps in which it is indispensable, I now proceed to state, somewhat more in deand thenceforth confined to a round of special and has attracted the attention of foreign officers | tail, the organization recommended. duries. These difficulties can be obviated only by and writers.
We have now one Major General commanding a change in the organization of the general staff Instead of one corps, to which all the military the Army, and five other general officers comitself; and I propose it with less reluctance, as I staff business is assigned, the English army has manding as such by brevet or other commissions, share the conviction entertained by officers of ex- two principal military staff departments—the ad- the five geographical departments, and one brigaperience, that the organization is not well calcu- || jutant general's and the quartermaster general's. dier general at the head of the quartermaster's lated for the duties of the staff itself. And I think | The chief officers of these are generals of the army, department. that not only the efficiency of the staff, but the appointed temporarily on the staff; the inferior It is proposed that the brigadier generals shall general good of the whole military service, would are appointed, in like manner, from the regiments. be nine in number. This will give one for each be promoted by some essential changes which I shall proceed to submit to your consideration. The adjutant general's is the department of mil. eral, as now; one for adjutant general, and two
Our military general staff, besides the major || itary orders and regulations, of ihe recruiting of for the inspectors general, being an addition of general and the two brigadier generals, who are the army, and of all correspondence connected with three to those who now, by brevet or otherwise, habitually in command of troops, is composed
the discipline and equipment of the troops. have rank and command as brigadier general, of an adjutant general's department, inspector The duties of the quartermaster general's de- The duties of the Adjutant General of the Army general's, a quartermaster general's department, partment relate to the marching, embarking, trans- are those which in other services belong to the and a commissariat of subsistence. The officers portation, billeting, encamping, and cantoning of chief of the staff. It is obvious that he should of these departments, all of whom have military | the troops, and the distribution of their quarters. have as high rank as any other member on the rank, form so many corps distinct from the rest of
It is the office of all correspondence relating to staff with him and as the department commanders. the Army, with promotion confined to their own military science and topography, maps, and plans. || Congress marked their sense of the duties of this corps. The embarrassments in regard to rank Besides these military departments of the staff, office by a special act, allowing to the late adjuand command geresulting from this arrangement, is the ordnance, which, though not strictly a staff tant general the exercise of his rank of brigadier have been slated. But worse evils result from it department, and having many important functions general. in the ordinary staff service. In the first place, not of the staff, yet provides many supplies for the Inspectors General must have different funcmost of these staff duties require military knowl- army, and is charged with much of that part of its tions in war and peace. It is impossible for edge, only to be derived from general service and staff business.
them, and so the regulations of the French service experience. In the second place, from various Both these systems, it will be observed, avoid explain the employment of these officers to exercauses and accidents, errors may be made in the the mischiefs indicated as arising from corps or- cise their inspection functions with troops in first selection; either the officers selected may not ganization like ours, limited to permanent officers. actual campaign. There, the generals in command be qualified, or they may become disqualified for As to which is best where they differ—the Eng. must take care of the condition of the troops. their special functions, and yet be fit for the gen- lish in dividing, the French in uniting, the mili- | But, in peace, and with scattered garrisons, and in eral service. These are evils which the Govern- tary functions of the staff-there seems not much a service distributed like ours, the inspection ser ment should, at all times, be allowed the means room for doubt, if the purely military business of vice is highly important. By taking, in time of of correcting. A good staff is so essential to the staff only were in question. The advantages peace, inspectors from officers of the grade of army operations that it is important to secure its gained by unity of responsibility and authority in generals, they will have a proper rank and authority constant efficiency. There are, to my mind, con- military operations overbalance those of special for the inspection service when so employed. clusive reasons why the staff should not be organ- | experience and skill that arise from division of Their duties suggest the special reasons why the ized into permanent corps; and experience in the labor. But there are a mass of staff duties, not inspectors should not be commissioned permaadministration of the War Department has fur- | purely military connected with Army supplies and nently and solely for that service. nished many practical proofs of them. If the equipments. All these cannot be accumulated Besides the Adjutant General of the Army, duties of the staff were performed by officers upon one military staff; and an organization which there will be needed in this branch of the staff holding temporary appointments for such service, | provides only a single military staff, makes neces- about seven officers, taken from the regiments andall the benefits might be secured of a large field sary the employment of other agents for supplies. | corps; one at the headquarters of the Army, one of selection, at all times open, of general experi- But supplies are as essential as the movement of at the office of the Adjutant General; and one at ence in the service, and of special qualifications | troops to the operations of an army. To separate each department or district headquarters. One for staff duties. The principal officers found par. || the furnishing of Army supplies from the other of these would probably be available when any ticularly qualified for their special duties, would staff duties is, at last, to destroy the unit of mili- | important detachment may be collected for actual naturally be retained. Those who might not be tary administration in a point where it is always service; or if others are needed with armies in useful on the staff would be replaced in their regi. || useful, and sometimes necessary, to preserve it. the field, they may be authorized as occasion may m.ents. Either class not having been confined And to confide the supplies to civil agents is to require. always to a staff corps would be qualified for such lose the control, where it is so important to retain The ordinary service of the Quartermaster's military duty or command as the course of ser- !it, which commanders exercise over military offi- Il Department in regiments, posts, and detachments, 330 Cong....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of War.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPS.
should be performed by the detail of capable offi- one permanent officer. Officers to officiate as ment, the rule of promotion by selection might be cers from the command. A limited number of judges-advocate at courts-martial, are appointed advantageously applied in filling up all the grades experienced officers will be needed to perform the by the officers who order the courts.
of the Army. But in no military service has it more important duties of the department with large requires legal study and experience, but it also re- been thought safe to adopt this rule to such an commands, or at the principal stations, and to quires a familiarity with the military laws and the extent, and in our Army the difficulty of its supervise and control, under the generals in com- customs and regulations of the service. It is application is vastly increased by the usually mand, the operations of the inferior officers in the therefore proper that judges-advocate should be || scattered condition of the forces, as well as by parts of the country most remote from the seat of appointed from military officers, which is the sys- other considerations, Government, and from the direct authority of the tem now practiced.
The appointment of fit men for commissions in quartermaster general. Ten field officers would In the proposed organization, it is not intended the lower grades of the Army may be, in a great probably be sufficient at any time. It is doubted if to give increased rank, by virtue of their tempo- measure, secured by requiring, in all cases, a pre80 many would be always required. Selection and rary appointments, to the officers employed on liminary examination, as is now required for the temporary appointments will regulate the number the military staff. Their rank would remain promotion of cadets and non-commissioned offiemployed by the actual wants of the service. according to their commissions in the Army. It cers. But, with every precaution in the first ap
At the head of the Subsistence Department there may be inexpedient to narrow the field of selec-pointment, some officers will be found unsuitable should be a Commissary General, iaken from the tion by defining the grade from which they shall for discharging the duties of the higher grades, field officers of the Army, with the pay and allow- be taken. They should receive the cavalry pay or they may become disqualified in consequence ances of colonel, as at present.
and allowances of the next higher grade. This of the infirmities of age or other disability. The A few officers would be required for the princi- organization removes all grounds of controversy | proposed organization of the general staff propalstations and duties; but the ordinary business and objection to the rank and exercise of com- vides a remedy so far as relates to their important of the department, being mainly the care and issue mand by staff officers. It leaves military rank to || duties, by opening a wide field for the selection of of the rations to the troops, to be performed at all the military staff. I cannot doubt that an general and staff officers, and for replacing those posts, and with troops on the march by proper | organization upon these principles would mate- who may, on trial, be found to want the peculiar officers detailed from the subalterns. The officers | rially increase the efficiency of the staff and pro- | qualifications requisite for those duties. This of this department should be charged with the sup- mote the general good of the service. It would principle may, perhaps, be advantageously exply of clothing for the Army.
require, of course, a greater number of officers in iended to the selection of officers for some other It may be proper again to advert to one effect of the regiments than the law now provides, to fur- important stations in the Army, just as it is now this plan of details. That in selecting a sufficient | nish the necessary details and appointments on applicable by law to the appointment of a comnumber of junior officers to perform ihe ordinary the staff, as well as for regimental duty. No mander of the corps of engineers. It is necesBervice of the staff in the field and in garrison, most injustice or undue hardships would probably re- sary, therefore, in order to maintain an efficient of them still serve immediately with the troops, sult to individual officers of the present staff corps body of officers, that some provision shall be and will not cease to be instructed in regimental in assigning them to regiments. If the law for made for the cases above alluded to, where officers and field duties.
the retired list shall pass, there will be no difficulty may be disabled or disqualified for promotion. It is not proposed to disturb the present system on this head. But, in any event, the interest of The only means for effecting this object without as regards the pay of the troops and the hospital individuals must yield to the public good.
injustice to faithful public servants is, to create a service. Hospital supplies may undoubtedly be The present organization of the regiments is reiired list which may provide the means of rebest procured by the medical offivers who admin. also capable of material reforms. In the artillery treat for disabled officers, like that which the ister them; and in this business no other agency line we have now a larger body in proportion to institution of a military asylum has afforded to is needed for economy or efficiency. To maintain the strength of the Army than can be spared for other disabled soldiers. This measure has already a separate corps for the mere payment of the the proper service of artillery. In fact, most of received the favorable consideration of one branch troops, is an expense rather disproportioned to our artillery has always been armed, drilled, and of Congress, and its final adoption is urgently the strength of our Army. But our troops are employed as infantry. As, however, it is neces- recommended, as being absolutely essential to an distributed over so great an extent of country, sary that every regular army should have a pro- efficient reform. Its adaptation to the service may that the pay officers on the establishment seem to portion of artillery, armed, instructed, and ready be tested by restricting to a short period (one have sufficient employment. When troops are for service, it is proposed to reduce our artillery to year) the exercise of the power to place officers assembled in campaign, the paymasters might the size which our service requires and can main on the retired list, and requiring the renewed have additional duties imposed on them; as the tain. The regimental organization is now given authority of law for its continuance; and as to care of the military chest, and the payment (as to it, but in the field our artillery serves by bal- | the expense, though that is not the primary conto some extent in other services) of money upon teries, and it is proposed to organize it in one corps, sideration in a question which involves the effi. orders and warrants for other branches of the of such size only as may suffice for instruction and ciency of the Army, it need only be remarked military administration.
for necessary service in the field and in the fortifi- || that, by the present law, the disabled officer who Topographical services being included in the cations. The officers and men now in the artillery, renders no service draws full pay, while, on the functions or the corps of engineers, and of officers not required for the reduced corps, to be converted retired list, he would receive a much smaller of the general staff, it is not deemed expedient to into regular infantry. A sufficient artillery would allowance. So far as relates to them, the expenretain a separate organization for the topograph- be about half the strength of the present four regi- sive system is that which keeps them on full pay. ical corps. Engineers should be instructed by ments of artillery, and would leave enough to make Whatever military establishment a nation mainproper practice and employment in all the various two regiments of infa ry.
lains, should be kept efficient; and it never can and important duties of the engineer service; and The cavalry force of our Army being all required be so if the higher ranks are occupied by officers that organization is very objectionable which for active service of the same kind, there appears incapable of service. The only choice is to retire makes a permanent distribution of duties which no propriety in making a permanent distinction in them on some reduced allowance, or to disband should be equally shared and practiced by all, and the designation and armament of the several regi- them. The last is a remedy too harsh to be apappropriates a large portion of officers to one,
It is therefore proposed to place all the plied to faithful officers, disabled and worn out in and that, ordinarily, a less important portion of regiments of cavalry on the same footing in these its military service. its services.
respects, and to leave it in the power of the Execu- For detailed information concerning the Military In this connection it may be in place to remark, tive to arm and equip them in such manner as may Academy, I refer to the report of the last board of that as the duties of engineers require a continued be required by the nature of the service in which visitors, and to that of the chief engineer, ex officin, Body and experience of a special kind, they they may be employed.
inspector of the academy. The proposition subrequire a permanent body of officers. But no The remarks just made in regard to dragoonsmitted in my last annual report, to increase the injury can result from intrusting the command of and mounted riflemen, apply to the case of infantry | asademic time of cadets, by the addition of one troops, according to their military rank, to officers and foot riflemen. In increasing the force of foot- year, has been matured and put into effect by whose functions, in the language of our articles of troops, it is proposed to designate them all as in- || dividing the class last admitted into two parts, the war, appertain "to the most elevated branch of fantry, leaving to the Executive the selection of first to pursue the former course of four years, military service." It is therefore recommended the arms and mode of instruction applicable to and the second, composed of the junior and less to give effect to the rank of engineers, as of other their service in the field. A strong reason for this educated members, to pursue the newly arranged officers charged with military duties, in accord- arrangement exists in the fact that, with the re- course of studies, which will occupy a term of five ance with the rule which governs all other service. cent improvements in small-arms, it is probable || years. By this arrangement, we avoid an inter
The remarks relative to the specially of the that the distinction in the armament of heavy and mission in the supply cf cadets to be attached as duties and studies of engineers, in some measure light infantry, and riflemen, will nearly, cease, brevet second lieutenants to corps and companies; apply to those of officers of the ordnance. But especially in our service, where the whole force and all classes hereafter admitted will be instructed advantage will be found in giving on the one is liable to be employed as light troops. In the according to the plan of studies arranged for the hand to the officers of ordnance the benefit of a Prussian army, even before the adoption of the five years' course. In general terms, it may be previous service with troops, and on the other new arms, the service of skirmishers or light stated that the scientific course has not been hand in giving to the officers of troops the oppor- troops regulated the instruction of the whole body increased, and that the additions made are those tunity of acquiring useful practical information of infantry.
appertaining to practical military instruction and relative to the construction and preservation of It has always been difficult to devise a rule of extension of the course of languages and national their arms and equipments. With this view it is | military promotion by which the interests of the law. These additions were deemed necessary to recommended to retain in the ordnance corps State may be secured in advancing none but com- | qualify military officers for the high and delicate only a small number of permanent officers for petent men, without affecting the just pride of the duties they are sometimes required to perform; the more important arsenals, and duties, and to officer, or violating the consideration due to long and they could not be added without increasing associate with them, as assistants, junior officers, and faithful service. Undoubtedly, if it were the term or subtracting something from the thor. taken, by detail, from the regiments and corps. possible that the appointing power should always ough scientific education included in the course The Judge Advocate's department has now only exercise a perfectly enlightened and impartial judg. I heretofore pursued. New SERIES—No. 2.
330 Cong....20 Sess.
Report of the Secreiary of War.
SENATE & Ho. or REPS.
From a recent inspection of the academy, I can of the powder alone, without the aid of the cup. I have to ask attention to the necessity for furlear testimony to iis successful administration, | This is known as the Pritchett ball, having been ther legislation for the sale of uselesa military od the many and decided improvements which brought into use by Mr. Pritchett, a gun maker sites. According to the construction which has have, from time to time, been made. Additional of London. This idea also had been suggested been given the acts upon this subject, and imeans of instruction have greatly facilitated the || by Captain Delvigne.
which, though its correctness has been doubted, acquisition of knowledge, and better arrangements My attention being drawn to the subject, I must be regarded as settled by the practice of the is the quarters and recitation rooms have materi- directed experiments to be made by the Ordnance Department, the act of March 3, 1819, applies ully contributed to the economy, comfort, and Department, both as to the proper shape of the only to military sites then held, and that of April urder of the corps.
ball and the best mode of grooving the barrel. In 28, 1828, only to lands “conveyed to "the United I concur in the recommendation of the chief | the course of these trials some important conclu- States for forts, &c. According to these views, cigineer for the establishment of a new professor- | sions were reached, agreeing, as was afterwards there is no provision for the sale of lands which, slip to replace that of “ Ethics and English stu- ascertained, with the results of the investigations since the 31 of March, 1819, have been reserved
ies." This chair is now filled by the chaplain then making in Europe. Although our experi- from the public domain for military purposes, and If the post, and if it was ever desirable that the ments have been confined to our service rifle, and I therefore recommend that the provisions of the pastor of cadets should also be a member of the are yet incomplete, they confirm the great supe- acts giving authority to sell useless military sites icademic staff, the wider range recently given to riority claimed for this invention abroad. They be extended to embrace these reservations. the study of philology, national law, and the con. show that the new weapon, while it can be loaded Many reservations around military posts, oriemplated addition of cognate branches, render it as readily as the ordinary musket, is at least | ginally established on the frontier, and now ren.
npracticable for one person properly to perform equally effective at three times the distance. dered useless by the advance of population, have with duties.
The foreign experiments indicate a still greater | acquired great value, not only from the rise in the I also concur in the estimates of that officer for superiority of the new arms. These results render | price of lands in such localities, but from improveon appropriation for the commencement of the con- it almost certain that smooth-bored arms will be ments put upon them by the labor of the troops, struction of additional quarters for officers on duty superseded as a military weapon; but great cau- or at public expense. In disposing at public sale at the Military Academy. The necessity for this tion is requisite in introducing a general change in of some of these, which came within the act of 13 fully stated in the report of the board of visitors this important element of national defense, for the 1819, it was found that the bids were far below and the chief engineer. The total cost of the pro- waste of public money is not the greatest of the the fair market value of the land-a result which posed buildings is estimated at $44,054 16, about evils resulting from the adoption of an erroneous has been attributed, no doubt correctly, to combione half of which is asked for the current year. system. The strong probability of a change, and nations among the bidders. I concur with the
The condition of the sea.coast defenses is stated the fact that we have already accumulated so large quartermaster general in the opinion that similar in the report of the chief engineer. The grant of a supply, more than half a million of muskets and results can be prevented in future only by estabpropriations for these works at the last two rifles in the arsenals of the United States, besides lishing a minimum price, below which ihe land
29sions of Congress, after their suspension for about three hundred thousand in possession of the shall not be sold, and I recommend that provision several years, during which the policy of contin: || Slates, at a cost of near ten millions of dollars, i be made for this purpose in any act thai may be wing them was very fully discussed, is regarded | render it not expedient to continue, at this time, I passed on the subject. as a final decision of the question, and I advert to on a large scale, if at all, the manufacture of small- The accounts of disbursing officers have been je subject only to say that recent experience in arms of our present patterns. But, until experi- | rendered with more than usual punctuality during
the past year, but yet not with the promptitude i at conclusion. No defenses can long avail a new improvements, I am of opinion that our ex- which the Department desires to enforce. Many eople who cannot meet their foes in the open penditures for small-arms should merely be con- officers, not having staff appointments, besides the sild, and our fortifications are not intended to fined to the making of such as are required for 1 performance of their appropriate duties in the ac. serve as the refuge of weakness or as the strong-fully testing these inventions. I have, however, tive and arduous service of the frontier, are charged nolds of unpopular power. On the sea-board, in asked for the usual appropriations for the national with the disbursement of public money, and with rivance of populous cities and important harbors, | armories, in the hope that our experiments and the care of public property. This, besides the 1 ey are designed to arrest the progress of hostile trials in actual service, and the experience of the labor it involves, subjects them to some loss,
ets, and force the invader to abandon his attack, i present war in Europe, will enable us soon to which no care can avoid, and which is a tax upon sembark his troops, and pursue his attack by 1 decide on the value of the recent modifications, || their pay. To reimburse this loss, if not to remu. mind. The capacity of sea-coast defenses to effect and to continue the manufacture of arms upon nerate their labor, I concur with the Quartermas. t'is object against the most powerful armaments improved models.
ter General in recommending that some additional pjat have ever been placed afloat, is amply demon- Congress, at its last session, made an appropri- | pay be allowed.
trated by the results of the late military operations ation for the purchase of a number of the best cannot too strongly urge the necessity of is the Black sea and the Baltic. Happily we may || breech-loading rifles. To ascertain which among effectual measures being taken for the prompt profit by the experience of others without suffer. the many that have been invented are the best, settlement of accounts of disbursing officers at ing the evils that attend the practical solution of public notice has been given through the news- the Treasury. The delay to which they are now such problema.
papers of the appropriation and its object, inviting subjected exerts a most injurious effect, by deThough our arms have heretofore been consid- all' inventors to furnish samples of their arms. stroying the salutary impression of a waichful ered the best in use, recent inventions in Europe | When all who choose to compete shall have sub- || superintendence of public expenditures, paralyzes have produced changes in small arms which are mitted their arms, a number of each kind deemed the efforts of this Department to enforce promptnow being used in war, with such important re- worthy of trial, will be subjected to such practical ness in accounting, by keeping it in ignorance of
alts as have caused them to be noticed among the tests as may determine their relative merits as the true state of officers' accounts, and exposes 'markable incidents of battles, and indicate that military weapons. Should the result, as it prob- then to loss by failing to give them notice of errors
aterial modifications will be made in the future ably will, secure a substantial and simple breech or defects of evidence until the accidents and muarmament of troops. The superiority of the loading arm, it will supersede our present patternstations incident to army life have destroyed their rooved or rifle barrel and elongated ball, in range for the use of cavalry.
ability to rectify the one or supply the other. and accuracy of fire, has been long known, yet The efficacy of these new patterns of arms will One cause of the delay has been the distribution i'e difficulty of loading this weapon has hitherto, be further increased by an improved mode of | of military accounts between two auditors, both ive most military purposes, counterbalanced its priming, which has been approved by the highest of whom, in some cases, have to settle different
Ivantages. To overcome this difficulty two officers in our military and naval services. Oper- || parts of the same account, and even sometimes inethods have been proposed; the first, by loading ations are now in progress to perfect the details different items of the same voucher. It is hoped ine piece at the breech, has been for some time in of fabricating this new primer and applying it to this inconvenient and useless arrangement will be wise, but has defects which all the ingenuity ex- finished arms of the old pattern as well as to new abolished, and all the military accounts committed pended on it has failed to entirely overcome. The ones now in process of manufacture.
to a single auditor. It is scarcely to be expected, second method which has produced the important In anticipation of an increased, if not exclusive however, that this measure alone will remove an results above indicated, is io use an oblong ball of use of rifle arms by the regular Army, and because evil which has resisted the earnest efforts of this sich diameter as to be readily introduced into the of the belief that the rifle or light infantry system Department for a long series of years. It is, how. iece, but which afterwards is expanded so as to of instruction, is best adapted to the foot militia, ever, the remedy suggested by our present knowlil the caliber. This was at first done by pro- | I have caused inquiries to be instituted into the edge of the case; and, if further investigation shall viding a rest or support at the junction of the systems used by the light troops of other countries, 1 develop other causes of the delays complained of, chamber with bore, as in Captain Delvigne's that complete light infantry or rifle tactics might it will also indicate the additional means necessary method, or by means of a solid pillar in the axis be introduced into the service with such improve- || to complete the reform. of the barrel, upon which the ball rested and was ments as the experience of other armies has shown The arrangement made by the Treasury De. expanded by blows from a heavy rammer. This to be valuable. A work on this subject is now partment, by which disbursing officers are enabled was the plan of Colonel Thouvenin, of the French in the course of preparation, and it is expected to keep funds on deposit with the assistant treasarmy, and is known as the system "a la tige will be, in a short time, submitted to you for such urers of the United States, proves to be of great which has been extensively used in their service. action as it may be deemed worthy to receive. advantage to the service, and promises, when The same object was subsequently attained by Attention is again called to the necessity for more perfectly understood and carried into full inserting into the rear part of the ball a conical legislation to provide a more certain and equitable | effect, to obviate most of the inconveniences hereiron cup which, being driven into the lead by the mode for the distribution of arms among the tofore experienced in transmitting funds and explosion of the charge, acted as a wedge to ex- militia, and to the propriety of supplying them | making disbursements in remote parts of the counpand the ball. This is the plan known by the || with books of tactical instruction, as contemplated try. It preserves the control of the Department name of its inventor, Captain Minié, of the French in the clause of the Constitution “ for training the over the public moneys till the moment of their army. Still more recently, in England, the ball militia, according to the discipline prescribed by expenditure, and enables it, in the event of the has been improved so as to expand by the force || Congress."
death of an officer, to reclaim its funds without
33D CONG....20 Sess.
Report of the Secretary of the Navy.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPs.
waiting for the appointment of an administrator route by wells, for which the act makes provision. was judiciously planned and located. My confior the settlement of his accounts. It also removes, The cheapest method of obtaining it will, it is | dence is strengthened that it will be completed at in a great measure, those temptations which the believed, be by boring, for which purpose imple- a cost within the estimate, and will secure the possession of large sums of money in times of ments could not be obtained in that couniry. l object in view with more certainty, and, taking active speculative excitement cannot fail to pre- Measures have been taken to procure the neces- inio view the permanence of the work, its capa. sent.
sary tools and apparatus in connection with the city to supply future wants, and the absence of I have again to invite attention to the necessity. Il examination and trials to be made for the supply machinery entailing anrual expense, more ecoof some general provision for the prosecution of of water by Artesian wells on the routes for the nomically than any other mode that has been suits involving titles to lands and other public Pacific railroad. When these have been com- | suggested. interests, committed to the charge of this Depart- pleted, the same apparatus can be economically By the civil and diplomatic appropriation act, ment, and for the settlement of accounts for coun- used for the wells on the military roads.
approved August 4, 1854, this Department was sel fees, costs, and other expenses incurred in Since the date of my report of February 6, 1854, | authorized to purchase for $200,000 the large firemaintaining the rights of the United States in communicating to Congress copies of all reports | proof building at the corner of F and Seventeenth such cases. In the absence of any provision of then received from the engineers and other per- streets, which has long been occupied in common law on the subject, this Department has been sub- sons employed in explorations and surveys to by Bureaus of the Treasury, Interior, Navy, and ject to exorbitant charges, and has experienced i ascertain the most practicableand economical route War Departments. The lease under which it much embarrassment in the conduct of suits. for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the was held expired on the 30th of June, and the
In pursuance of the views stated in my last Pacific ocean, the six parties engaged in those owner, who had given the Department due notice, annual report in reference lo river and harbor surveys have completed their field duties; reports refused to renew it for a less rent than $30,000 improvements, the Departnient has adhered, in the from four ot' them have been received and printed | per annum, which Congress had refused to approdirections it has given, to the design of making under a resolution of the House of Representa- | priate. A thorough survey of the building was them as complete as possible, without any opera- tives, passed at the last session. The two remain | made by competent engineers and builders, who tion being undertaken which would be dependent || ing reports, it is expected, will be ready for the estimated its value, in its actual condition, at for its completion upon future appropriations. || printer in the course of next month. No pro- | $197,042, $197,937, and $193,342, respectively, Some works have been completed in conformity vision was made, by the resolution above cíted, and after some negotiation, the owner agreed to with these views, but by reference to the reports for engraving the maps-without them the reports accept the amount of the appropriation in payment of the colonels of the two corps of engineers, it are comparatively useless. In making surveys of for the building and in satisfaction of all claims will be seen that a large majority are unfinished, this character, the maps and reports being hastily || for damages, as also for arrears of rent accrued and that, in many cases, the balances of appro- || prepared in the field and generally at nighi, after a since the termination of the lease-nearly three priations applicable thereto are not sufficient to ay of fatiguing duty, required careful revision in months, which could not be paid, as the act was efect results of much value. As no appropria. I the office, and are considered as merely, prelim- regarded as making an appropriation either for tions were made at the last session of Congress, I inary to the more elaborate results which finally purchase or ent, but not for both. have deemed i unnecessary to present further esti- take their place. Hence it has been found neces- It is true the plan of the building was not conmates at this time.
sary to return some of the reports for revision, | sidered as the best adapted for public offices, but To the general remarks upon this subject, in | and in some cases to replot the work and make Congress had refused to allow the rent demanded my last annual report, I have only to add that new maps.
by the owner, and had thus left the Department experience confirms the opinion thai no benefit at When all the reports and maps are received, no alternative but to purchase or vacate it. Be. all commensurate with the expense has been ob- they will be laid before Congress, with a general tween these conditions there was scarcely a choice. tained, or is to be expected from appropriations report, and a map exhibiting all the routes and Accommodations elsewhere could not be procured, granted and applied in the mode heretofore pur- such profiles and other drawings as will be neces- without much difficulty, and I should have felt bued. Much of the expenditure has been utierly sary to illustrate the subject.
great reluctance to place in insecure buildings the lost for want of further appropriations to com- An appropriation having been made at the last valuable records stored there, some of which, if plete what has been commenced, and works com- session for continuing these surveys, a party has destroyed by fire, could not be replaced at a cost pleted have fallen into ruins for want of appropria- | been organized to make feither explorations be- less than the price of the building, while others tions to preserve them from dilapidation by the tween the plains of Los Angeles und the waters could not be replaced at all; the purohase was thereviolence of storms, the wear of currents, and the of the bay of San Francisco, to determine whether fore concluded upon the terms stated. I have subprogress of natural decay. A rock or a snag re- there be a practicable route for a railroad through i mitted an estimate for repairs and improvements moved from a navigable channel is a benefit gained the mountain passes of the Sierra Nevada and sufficient to put the building in proper condition. forever; but artificial structures to protect harbors coast range which extend to the sea-coast at Point Much of the repairs now proposed would have or change the course, or increase the velocity of Conception. A second party is making prepara- been equally necessary had the Government vacurrents, must undergo deterioration, which, how- tions for testing the practicability of procuring cated the building, instead of purchasing, as the ever small, will be constant, and whatever policy water by means of Ariesian wells, upon the arid i lease provided that the building should be restored may be hereafter adopted in regard to such works, plains which occur in the several routes. The in a good state of repair. The cost of the audiit will be imperfect, unless it embrace not only | results of the surveys already made will, when tional improvements will hardly exceed the amount their completion upon the plans selected, but assembled and compared, probably indicate the of the rent that was released in the contract of their preservation from the operation of the nat- direction in which further explorations shall be purchase. ural agencies which tend to destroy them, as made by parties organized to take the field next It is hardly necessary to remark that the pur. well as from injury or occupation by irespassers. | spring, as early as the season will permit. chase of this building in no degree obviates the No means will be adequate for these objects, un- I refer to the report of Captain Meigs, of the necessity heretofore frequently presented, of reless accompanied by a cession of exclusive juris- corps of engineers, the officer in charge of the placing ihe building assigned for the use of this diction over the site, or at least ownership of the Capitol extension, for a very satisfactory account Depariment with a fire-proof structure. soil. Questions have already arisen, which seem of ihe progress of that work. The exterior facing The accompanying reports of the Commanding to indicate the difficulties which must inevitably of the walls has been retarded by the difficulty of General of the Army and the chiefs of the several occur from the want of jurisdiction and title obtaining, under the contract, a sufficient supply branches of the military service, contain full and whenever the powers now necessarily exercised of marble; but the brick-work is well advanced. exact information in relation to the duties with in the prosecution of these works shall come in con- | The walls of the Senate Chamber and Representa- / which they are respectively charged. To these Alict with the rights or interests of individuals. tives' Hall are finished, and these rooms will be I refer for such details as could not be embraced
The survey of the northern and northwestern placed under roof during the present winter. It in this report. lakes has made steady progress, and the docu- is expected they will be completed by the meeting I have the horor to be, very respectfully, your ments accompanying the report of the Colonel of of the next Congress; but the delay in the supply obedient servant, JEFFERSON DAVIS, Topographical Engineers show an unusual prog- of marble may so retard the completion of the
Secretary of War. ress in this work accomplished during the past outer walls and the corridors depending thereon, ! To the President of the United States.
as to prevent their being occupied so early. The The roads in course of construction in the Ter- style of the work, both in finish and strength, has ritory of Minnesota have been prosecuted with | been of a higher standard than was contemplated Report of the Secretary of the Navy. the means at the disposal of the Department, and when the estimates were made, but the adminis. a document in the report from the Topographical || rative capacity and professional skill of the cfficer
Navy DEPARTMENT, December 4, 1854. Bureau will show the system pursued and the in charge have so kept down the expenditures that progress made in their construction. With regard it is believed the cost will not exceed the estimates Sir: In the annual report from the Navy Deio those in Oregon, Utah, and New Mexico, spe- made for an inferior building. The modifications | partment, which I now have the honor to present, cial instructions have been given from this De- made in the interior plan of the structure are now I have taken the liberty, in addition to the usual partment, of which copies are appended, designed, so far completed as to be seen and easily under- statement of the operations of the squadrons and in each case, to secure, in the first place, a prac- || stood, and'I feel additional assurance as to the the general condition of the service and the pub. ticable wagon road between the termini, with such successful solution of the difficult problems of lic property, to recommend a still further gradual improvements afterwards as the balance of the acoustics, optics, and ventilation, presented espe- || increase of the Navy, and to express frankly my appropriation would allow. The roads in New || cially in the construction of the Hall of Represents views of the great importance of its reorganization, Mexico, from Taos to Santa Fé, and from Santa atives.
and the enactment of new regulations for the dis. Fé to Dona Ana, authorized by the act of July Operations on the work designed to supply this cipline and improvement of seamen. If they are 17, 1854, have not yet been commenced. The city with water have been suspended for want of urged with seeming pertinacity, my only apology location of these, or at least of the latter, will de. funds. It is hoped that appropriations will no is a deep interest in the magnitude of the subject, pend in a great measure upon the success which | longer be withheld from this important work. I and a conviction of the necessity of legislative in may attend the efforts to obtain water along the I have seen no reason to change the opinion that it Il terposition.