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7. Shew that the pressure of an uniform heavy incompressible fluid on any surface is equal to the weight of a column of fluid, the base of which is equal to the area of the surface, and altitude equal to the depth of the centre of gravity of the surface below the surface of the fluid.

How does this differ from the resultant pressure of the fluid on the surface?

A vessel, in the form of a right cone with a horizontal base and vertex upwards, is filled with fluid through a small hole in the vertex. Then the pressure on the curved surface, as given by the above formula, bears to the resultant pressure on the same surface the ratio of 1: sine of semi-angle of cone.

8. Investigate the conditions that a given body may float in a flạid in a given position.

A solid cylinder of uniform density floats with its axis vertical in two fluids which do not mix, and the axis is bisected by the common surface of the fluids. Shew that twice the specific gravity of the cylinder is equal to the sum of the specific gravities of the fluids.

9. Give a figure of a common pump so as to illustrate its working

If it be employed to raise a fluid whose specific gravity is •929, what is the greatest distance between the lower valve and the surface of the fluid that the pump may


? 10. Describe the Syphon and its mode of action.

If a hole be made in the side of it above the surface of the fluid which is being emptied, explain what will follow, giving the


11. Explain the difference between high-pressure and lowpressure engines: also the action and use of safety-valves.

Give a sectional drawing of a double-action condensing engine.

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 15, 1858. 6 to 8 P.M.

II. 9. Chemistry. 1. EXPLAIN the production of Hydrogen when Zinc is dissolved in dilute acid. Supposing an ounce of Zinc to be entirely dissolved, will the quantity of Hydrogen given off be more or less according as hydrochloric or sulphuric acid is used? Give

your reasons.

2. When charcoal is burnt in air explain what becomes of it, and the chemical change it undergoes. Can you mention any substance which, when burnt, leaves an ash or residue weighing more than the substance did when unburnt?

3. Name the different compounds of Nitrogen and Oxygen, and state the composition of each. By what qualities could you recognize the deutoxide (or binoxide) of Nitrogen?

4. Describe and explain a mode of preparing chlorine. What is the difference between Chloride of Calcium and Chloride of Lime ?

5. In what form does silicon occur in nature ? Name some common things which contain it. How is silica shewn to be an acid ?

6. Explain the chemical change limestone undergoes when burnt in a kiln, and that quicklime undergoes when slaked. How could you distinguish slaked lime from chalk ?

7. What is the effect of Hydrosulphuric acid upon each of the following substances: Arsenious acid, Perchloride of Iron, Alum, Caustic Soda?

8. What is the ore from which Zinc is commonly extracted, and what its chemical constitution ? Explain how the metal is extracted.

9. What is common vinegar? Explain the change of alcohol (C, H.02) into vinegar in the process of making vinegar.

Notice. The Practical Examination will be on MONDAY at TEN, but the Examination Room will be open at HALF-PAST NINE, in order that Candidates may get their apparatus * ready before the Examination.

* For the list of articles included in this see p. 18.


MONDAY, Dec. 20, 1858. 10 to 12.

II. 9. Practical Chemistry. [N.B. In the answers to the questions in this paper

Candidates must state every experiment or test tried, the result of it, and the conclusion drawn from it; and finally, the conclusion drawn from the whole.]

1. The substances marked A and B each contain one Acid and one Base, which you are required to determine.

2. The substance C contains either Cobalt or Nickel : test it with the blowpipe.

3. Test D and E for Iodine. 4. What metal is F?

Notice to Candidates.

Every Candidate will be furnished by the Examiner with the following reagents :

Hydrochloric Acid.
Nitric Acid.
Hydrosulphuric Acid.
Chloride of Ammonium.
Sulphide of Ammonium.
Carbonate of Ammonia.
Phosphate of Soda.
Ferrocyanide of Potassium.
Chloride of Barium.
Nitrate of Silver.
Sulphate of Magnesia.

Carbonate of Soda.

The Senior Candidates will also be furnished with the following reagents in addition to the above :

Oxalic Acid.
Acetate of Baryta.


Every Candidate will be supplied by the Examiner with a pint of distilled water.

Candidates are recommended to see that their test tubes are perfectly clean, and spirit lamp ready for use before the time of examination.

The greatest care must be taken to keep the reagents pure; and no solution once poured out must on any account be poured back into the bottle.

Care should be taken not to put the stoppers (which are all numbered) into bottles to which they do not belong.

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 15, 1858. 6 to 8 P.M.

II. 10. Zoology. 1. To what classes and orders do the following respectively belong: Fox, Beaver, Leech, Whale, Oyster, Sponge, Spider, Earthworm, Horse ? To what order do the quadrupeds found in Australia chiefly belong ?

2. Which Vertebrates are oviparous; which are abranchiate; and which have gills during a period only of their existence ? Which mammals have the simplest kind of teeth ?

3. In what regions are Whales found? From which species are the parts used in commerce derived, and what purposes do they serve to the animal ?

4. What land animal is confined to the highest latitude ? What bird dwells at the greatest altitude ? What purposes are served by the difference in colour between animals belonging to the arctic regions and those belonging to the tropics ?

5. How are corals formed, and at what depth below the surface? To what depth below the surface of the sea does animal life extend ?

6. Instance some examples of social migration among fishes corresponding with those of certain birds. What is the probable object of such migrations ?

7. What quadrupeds are known to have existed in these islands formerly, and are now quite, or nearly, extinct? What quadrupeds have been introduced in comparatively recent times, and what good purposes do they serve ?

8. What Saurian reptiles are now found in England; upon what do they feed ?

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 15, 1858. 6 to 8 P.M.

II. 10. Botany. 1. What parts of plants are the Blackberry, Strawberry, Mulberry, Apple, Potatoe, Beet, Tea, Opium ?

2. What is the usual veining of the leaves of Exogenous and of Endogenous plants? What do these terms mean, and why are they used? How do they correspond with the classes called Dicotyledones and Monocotyledones?

3. Describe the shape of the leaves and stem of specimen 1; and name all the 'external organs to be seen on specimen 2.

4. Describe a perfect flower of an Exogenous plant, and shew by a diagram the position of its several parts.

5. How does a stamen differ from an anther; a style from a stigma?

6. What are cotyledons, stipules, and compound leaves ?

7. Distinguish between oval, ovate, and obovate; acuminate and cuspidate.

[The specimens given were,

Stem and leaves of Bramble (Rubus discolor).
2. Sprig with flowers of Toadflax (Linaria repens.)]

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