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The principal Rivers of European Russia are the Volga, which forms for a long space the boundary between Europe and Asia, and rises in Europe between Petersburg and Moscow, and, after receiving the Kama; (another important stream which rises in the Uralian Mountains;) flows into the Caspian Sea below Astrachan; the Don, or Tanais, which rises in a Lake in the Government of Tulan, and flows into the Sea of Azoph; the Dnieper, or antient Borysthenes, which rises in the Government of Smolensk, and falls into the Black Sea below Cherson, where it is joined by the Bog, or antient Hypanis; the Dniester, which rises in the Carpathian Mountains, and falls into the Black Sea at Akerman. The country between the Dnieper and the Dniester was formerly part of the Kingdom of Poland. The Cara rises in the Uralian Mountains, and falls into the Arctic, or White Sea, East of Waygat Island, and may be mentioned as a continuation of the boundary between Europe and Asia, from the Uralian Mountains Northwards; West of this the Qusa rises in the Ural Mountains, and falls into the Sea, West of Waygat Island; the Dwina rises from the West part of the Uralian chain, and falls into the White Sea at Archangel; the Onega rises in the Government of Olonetz, and falls into the White Sea, West of the Dwina'; the Neva rises on the great Lake Ladoga, and, flowing through Petersburg, falls into the Gulph of Finland; the
Duna rises near Bielow, in the Government of Smolensk,
N. La. E. Lo.
Sweden, Norway, and Lapland abound in Lakes, bu the Rivers are generally of inconsiderable magnitude. The principal Rivers of Sweden are the Dahl, which rises in the Norwegian Alps, giving name to the province of Dalecarlia, and enters the Gulph of Bothnia, nearly opposite, but a little North, of the Island of Aland; the Tornea rises from a Lake of the same name, and enters the Gulph of Bothnia at its Northern extremity, near the town of Tornea, the most Northern city in Europe. Sweden may be considered as a mountainous country, especially on the confines of Norway. The highest Swedish Alps are about 6700 feet above the level of the sea. The Island of Rugen, in the Baltic, and several smaller Islands belong to Sweden. In a direct line above the town of Tornea is
N. La. E. Lo. North Cape 71° 10' 25° 57 The extremest Northern part of
In Denmark and Norway
N. La. E. Lo. Altona 53° 34' 3° 58' Is a celebrated commercial town,
near Hamburg, belonging to
Denmark. Christiana 59 50 10 50 Are two of the most considerable Drontheim 63 26 10 22 S cities in Norway.'
Denmark abounds in small streams, but has no River of importance. In Norway there are abundance of Rivers, but few of them, owing to their cataracts, are navigable. The principal River of Norway is the Glomen, which is full of cataracts and shoals: it springs from the Lake of Oresund, and falls into the North Sea at Frederickstadt, below Christiana. Denmark has no Mountains ; but Norway is an Alpine country. The highest Norwegian Mountains are about 9600 feet, or perhaps somewhat more, above the level of the sea. Among the numerous Danish Islands, we should not omit the mention of Iceland, in which is the celebrated Volcano of Hecla, about 5000 feet high, and several Water Volcanos, called Geysers, which throw up a large column of water to an immense height. The highest Mountain in Iceland is Snæfial, about 6860 feet above the sea. The Feroe Islands, off the Coast of Norway, belong to Denmark.
Religions of Europe. The Church of England is commonly called a Lutheran Church, but whoever compares it with the Lutheran churches on the Continent, will have reason
to congratulate himself on its superiority. It is in fact a church sui generis, yielding in point of dignity, purity, and decency in its doctrines, establishments, and ceremonies to no congregation of Christians in the world; modelled to a certain and considerable extent, but not entirely, by our great and wise pious Reformers, on the doctrines of Luther, so far as they are in conformity with the sure and solid foundation on which it rests, and we trust for ever will rest, the authority of the Holy Scriptures, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone.
Other Lutheran churches are those of the North of Europe, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, and the North of Germany.
Martin Luther, the great Reformer, was born at Eisleben, in Saxony, A. D. 1483; was summoned to Rome for preaching against Indulgences A. D. 1518; excommunicated by the Pope A. D. 1520; threw off his monastic habit A. D. 1524; married A. D. 1525; died A. D. 1546. His great protector on the Continent was the Elector of Saxony.
John Calvin, whose real name was Chauvin, was born at Noyon, in Picardy, A. D. 1509. The persecution of the Protestants in France obliged him to fly to Geneva, where he established his system, and died A. D. 1564.
Among the leading features of Calvinism are belief in Predestination, Election and Reprobation, and Irresistible Grace, together with the rejection of Episcopacy; instead of which Calvin proposed that the Church should
be governed by presbyteries and synods, composed of clergy and laity, without bishops or any clerical superi.. ority. Hence Calvinistic churches are also called Presbyterian. The following churches are Calvinistic: Scotland, Holland, and Geneva.
Protestants are subdivided into numerous other sects, which it is unnecessary to particularize.
The Roman Catholic Church contains many errors, which were gradually introduced into it by the conti-. nually increasing thirst of the Popes for temporal power. Among their principal errors, renounced and opposed by the Protestants, are Transubstantiation, or a belief that the consecrated wafer, or Host, as it is called (from Hostia, a victim), are absolutely changed in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper into the real and substantial body and blood of Christ; Purgatory, or the intermediate state of punishment between this life and the final judgment, from whence the souls of men can be delivered by the prayers, or alms, or penances of the faithful; the Intercession of Saints; the worship of the Virgin Mary; Miraculous Interpositions ; the Celibacy of the Clergy:-—against these, and many other idle, superstitious, or erroneous doctrines, and against the Supremacy and Infallibility of the Pope, the Reformed Churches Protest, and are therefore called Protestant Churches.* The Popes formerly claimed the supreme
* The term Protestant was originally applied to the Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other Lutheran powers of Germany, who protested against the decree of the Diet of Spires, for the maintenance of the Catholic religion, A. D. 1530. April 19.