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Extending over Thessaly and Epirus, from the Ægean to the Ionian Sea, was Macedonia, in its utmost limits as a Roman province ; but the Western part of Macedonia, above Chaonia, was more strictly speaking part of Illyricum, now Albania. The pure Greeks affected to disclaim the Macedonians and part of the Epirots; and Demosthenes always discriminates, in very pointed terms, between the Macedonian upstart Philip and the Greeks, especially the Athenians, who claimed their descent from remotest antiquity, and wore golden grasshoppers in their hair, to mark their aboriginal extraction. The splendid victories of Philip and Alexander subdued somewhat of this haughty spirit among their Southern neighbours. Macedon, now Roumelia, was bounded on the South by Thessalia, on the East by Thracia, on the North by Mosia and Dardania, and on the West by Illyricum. It was possessed by several tribes, whose situations are not very correctly known.
In the North Eastern part was Pæonia, in the North Western Pelagonia ; along the central part was Sintica, bordering on Thrace, next it Migdonia and Æmathia, and West the Orestä and Eordani; along the Southern boundary, to the East, was Edonis, bordering on Thrace, next it Chalcidice, lying between the Sinus Strymonicus and Thermaicus. Within the Sinus Thermaicus, to the South East was Pieria, bordering on Thessaly, and to the South West Elymiotis. Immediately above Thessalia, on the Sinus Thermaicus, now the Gulph of Saloniki, was Dium, now Stan-dia, according to a corruption already noticed; above it was the river Haliacmon, and above it Pydna, now Kitra, so frequently mentioned in Demosthenes, and memorable also as being the place where Olympias, the mother of Alexander, was besieged and put to death by Cassander, and where the decisive battle was fought between the Romans, under the conduct of Paulus Æmilius, and Perses, the last King of Macedon, June 22, B. C. 168, A. U. C. 586, which ended in the overthrow of Perses, and the reduction of Macedonia to the form of a Roman province. Above Pydna was Methone, now Leuterochori, also memorable in the contentions between Philip and the Athenians, and the scene of his first victory over them, B. C. 360, Ol. 105, 1. A little North West of the top of the Sinus Thermaicus is Pella *, the royal city of Macedon; its ruins are still called Palatiza or the Little Palace. It was situated on a lake communicating by a smaller stream with the Axius, or Vardan, the greatest of the Macedonian rivers, which falls into the Sinus Thermaicus. South West of Pella was Bercea, now Cara Veria, a city which has merited the eulogium of St. Paul for the docility and ingenuous disposition of its inhabitants (see Acts XVII. 10, &c.); and North of it was Æge, or Edessa, the antient royal city, now called Vodina. At
* Hence Alexander is called the Pellæan youth Unus Pellæo juveni non sufficit orbis.
Juv. Sat. X. 168. And as Pella was in Æmathia, and Æmathia the most distinguished province of Macedonia, it is often put for the whole country.
the North Eastern extremity of the Sinus Thermaicus was the city of Therma, which gave name to it, afterwards called Thessalonica, and now Saloniki, a city well known from the preaching and epistles of St. Paul. The district between the Sinus Thermaicus and Strymonicus we have already said was called Chalcidice. The lower part of it formed three peninsulæ. The first, contained between the Sinus Thermaicus and a smaller gulph called the Sinus Toronæus, now the Gulph of Cassandria, was called Phlegra, or Pallene. At the North Western extremity of this was the city of Potidæa, so celebrated in the orations of Demosthenes; it was founded by the Corinthians, taken by the Athenians, and taken from them by Philip, and by him given to the Olynthians. It was afterwards called Cassandria, from Cassander, which name it still bears. At the top of the Sinus Toronáuš, a little North East of Potidæa, was Olynthus, the scene of so many contests between Philip and the Athenians: the cause of its inhabitants was pleaded in the Olynthian orations of Demosthenes. A little North East of Olynthus is Chalcis, giving' name to the district. The next gulph was called the Sinus Singiticus, ör Gulph of Monte Santo, and the peninsula contained between it and the Sinus Toronæus, was called Sithonia. On the Western side of this peninsula was Torone, or Toron, which gave name to the Sinus Toronæus; and on the Eastern was Singus, giving name to the Sinus Singiticus. In the third and last peninsula, between the Sinus Singiticus and Strymonicus, or Gulph of Contessa, was the celebrated mountain Athos, now called Monte Santo, from the number of religious houses there. The Southern promontory of Athos was called Nymphæum, the Eastern Acro-Athos. A narrow tongue of land which connects the North West of Athos with the continent, near the cities of Acanthus, on the East, and Sana, on the West, was the spot so memorable for having been dug through by Xerxes, to afford a passage for his fleet, and save it from doubling the dangerous promontory of Acro-Athos. Above this on the Sinus Strymonicus, is Stagyra, now Stagros, the birth-place of Aristotle, who is hence called the Stagyrite, near to which was the tomb of Euripides. The river Strymon flows into the Northern extremity of the Sinus Strymonicus, separating Macedonia from Thrace. At its mouth was the city of Amphipolis, another of the causes of contention between Philip and the Athenians, as also between the Athenians and Spartans, for it was an Athenian colony. It was also called Ennea Hodoi, or the nine ways, because Phyllis, who had been deserted by Demophoon, made nine journies here to watch for his return; and it was predicted that the Athenians should suffer here as many defeats. It is now called lamboli. It is unnecessary to mention many of the obscure and inconsiderable towns in the interior and North of Macedonia. In the central parts were Heraclea and Stobi, and to the West was Lychnidus, now Akrida, in the district of the Lyncestæ. The Western coast of Macedonia, above Epirus, we have already said was properly Illyricum. Immediately above Epirus was Apollonia, now Polina, on the river Aous, or Lao, and North of it Epidamnus, afterwards called Dyrrachium, which was greatly frequented by the Romans, as being nearly opposite to Brundusium, in Italy. We may call the latter the Dover, and the former the Calais, of antiquity. The rest of the Eastern shore of the Adriatic was occupied by the Illyricæ gentes, or Illyricum, already described.
East of Macedonia was Thracia, which, though a barbarous country in the interior, had many Greek colonies on the coast. But the geography of Thrace, as weil as Macedonia, is by no means accurately ascertained. It was separated from Macedonia by the Strymon and the ridge of Mount Pangæus and Mount Rhodope * on the West, from Moesia by Mount Hæmus on the North, on the East was the Euxine, and on the South was the Ægean Sea. :
The principal nations of Thrace were the Bessi, a very savage people, in the North West, and the Mædi below them, in the South West, at the top of the Ægean; their maritime parts were inhabited by the small tribes of the Bistones and Ciconii. In the center were the Odrysæ in the South the Pæti, and in the North East the Astæ. We have considered the Strymon as the Eastern boundary of Macedonia, but in its utmost extent it reached as far as Mons Pangæus and the river -Nessus, or Mestus, now Mesto, which flows into the Ægean a little East of the island of Thasus; the Strymon, however, is the more antient and natural boundary.
--- Flerunt Rhodopeiæ arces, Altaque Pangæa, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus, Atque Getæ, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia.
Virg. Georg. IV. 461.