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the North Eastern extremity of the Sinus Thermaicus was the city of Therma, which gave name to it, afterwards called Thessalonica, and now Saloniki, a city well known from the preaching and epistles of St. Paul. The district between the Sinus Thermaicus and Strymonicus we have already said was called Chalcidice. The lower part of it formed three peninsulæ. The first, contained between the Sinus Thermaicus and a smaller gulph called the Sinus Toronæus, now the Gulph of Cassandria, was called Phlegra, or Pallene. At the North Western extremity of this was the city of Potidæa, so celebrated in the orations of Demosthenes; it was founded by the Corinthians, taken by the Athenians, and taken from them by Philip, and by him given to the Olynthians. It was afterwards called Cassandria, from Cassander, which name it still bears. At the top of the Sinus Toronæus, a little North East of Potidæa, was Olynthus, the scene of so many contests between Philip and the Athenians: the cause of its inhabitants was pleaded in the Olynthian orations of Demosthenes. A little North East of Olynthus is Chalcis, giving name to the district. The next gulph was called the Sinus Singiticus, or Gulph of Monte Santo, and the peninsula contained between it and the Sinus Toronæus, was called Sithonia. On the Western side of this peninsula was Torone, or Toron, which gave name to the Sinus Toronæus; and on the Eastern was Singus, giving name to the Sinus Singiticus. In the third and last peninsula, between the Sinus Singiticus and Strymonicus, or Gulph of Contessa, was the celebrated mountain Athos, now called Monte Santo, from the number of religious houses there. The Southern proinontory of Athos was called Nymphæum,

the Eastern Acro-Athos. A narrow tongue of land which connects the North West of Athos with the continent, near the cities of Acanthus, on the East, and Sana, on the West, was the spot so memorable for having been dug through by Xerxes, to afford a passage for his fleet, and save it from doubling the dangerous promontory of Acro-Athos. Above this on the Sinus Strymonicus, is Stagyra, now Stagros, the birth-place of Aristotle, who is hence called the Stagyrite, near to which was the tomb of Euripides. The river Strymon flows into the Northern extremity of the Sinus Strymonicus, separating Macedonia from Thrace. At its mouth was the city of Amphipolis, another of the causes of contention between Philip and the Athenians, as also between the Athenians and Spartans, for it was an Athenian colony. It was also called Ennea Hodoi, or the nine ways, because Phyllis, who had been deserted by Demophoon, made nine journies here to watch for his return; and it was predicted that the Athenians should suffer here as many defeats. It is now called Iamboli. It is unnecessary to mention many of the obscure and inconsiderable towns in the interior and North of Macedonia. In the central parts were Heraclea and Stobi, and to the West was Lychnidus, now Akrida, in the district of the Lyncestæ. The Western coast of Macedonia, above Epirus, we have already said was properly Illyricum. Immediately above Epirus was Apollonia, now Polina, on the river Aous, or Lao, and North of it Epidamnus, afterwards called Dyrrachium, which was greatly frequented by the Romans, as being nearly opposite to Brundusium, in Italy. We may call the latter the Dover, and the former the Calais, of

antiquity. The rest of the Eastern shore of the Adriatic was occupied by the Illyricæ gentes, or Illyricum, already described.

East of Macedonia was Thracia, which, though a barbarous country in the interior, had many Greek colonies on the coast. But the geography of Thrace, as well as Macedonia, is by no means accurately ascertained. It was separated from Macedonia by the Strymon and the ridge of Mount Pangæus and Mount Rhodope West, from Mosia by Mount Hæmus on the North, on the East was the Euxine, and on the South was the Ægean Sea.

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The principal nations of Thrace were the Bessi, a very savage people, in the North West, and the Mædi below them, in the South West, at the top of the Ægean; their maritime parts were inhabited by the small tribes of the Bistones and Ciconii. In the center were the Odrysæ, in the South the Pæti, and in the North East the Astæ. We have considered the Strymon as the Eastern boundary

of Macedonia, but in its utmost extent it reached as far as Mons Pangæus and the river Nessus, or Mestus, now Mesto, which flows into the Ægean a little East of the island of Thasus; the Strymon, however, is the more antient and natural boundary.

Flerunt Rhodopeiæ arces,
Altaque Pangæa, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus,
Atque Getæ, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia.

Virg. Georg. IV. 461.

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East of Amphipolis was Philippi, the celebrated scene of the defeat of Brutus and Cassius by Antony and Augustus, B. C. 42, A. U. C. 712. The poet Horace was a tribune in the vanquished army*, but afterwards found a more congenial and more profitable employment in the service of the muses and his patron Mecænas. This city is also well known in the travels and epistles of St. Paul. At the mouth of the river Nessus was Abdera, the birth-place of the philosopher Democritus, Eastward are Maronea, Mesembria, Sarrum, or Serrhium, and Ænos, now, respectively, Marogna, Miseira, Saros, and Eno. Ænos is at the Eastern mouth of the river Hebrus, now the Maritza. Inland, on the Western side of the Hebrus, was Scapta-hyla, or, as Lucretius calls it, Scaptesula t, where Thucydides, who had some gold and silver mines there in right of his wife, retired, after his banishment fronı Athens, to write his History of the Peloponnesian War; it is still called Skepsilar. The river Melas runs into the small gulph called Melanis Sinus, at the top of which was the city of Cardia, destroyed by Lysimachus when he founded the city of Lysimachia, a little South of it; it was afterwards called Hexamilium, now Hexamili, because the isthmus is six miles across. The peninsula contained between the Melanis Sinus and the Hellespontus was called the Chersonesus Thracius, of which we have frequent mention in Demosthenes. The Hellespontus, which was so called from Helle, the sister of Phryxus, who was drowned there, is now called the Straight of the Dardanelles. The town of Sestos was on its Western or European shore, opposite to Abydos, on the Eastern or Asiatic : this was the place where Xerxes built his famous bridge of boats, and where Leander was drowned in swimming from Abydos in the night to visit his mistress Hero, who was priestess of Venus here. It is now called Zermunic, and is the first place that was seized by the Turks in passing from Asia to Europe. Above it is the fatal little stream of Ægos Potamos, where the Athenian fleet was totally defeated by Lysander, Dec. 13, B. C. 405, Ol. 93, 4, which put an end to the Peloponnesian war.

* Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribuno.

Hor. Sat. 1. 6,58. Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax Ut versus facerem.

Hor, Epist. II. 2, 49. -- Philippos et celerem fugam Sensi, relicta non bene parmula.

Hor. Od. II. 7, 9. + Quales expirat Scaptesula subtus odores.

Lucret. VI. 8106

Still North is Callipolis, now Gallipoli. At the North part of the Hellespont the sea widens again, and was antiently called the Propontis, because it was before the Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea; it is now called the White Sea, or Sea of Marmora, from the little island of Proconnesus, now Marmora, which it contains. At its North Western angle was Bisanthe, or Rhodestus, now Rodosto. About the middle of the Northern coast was Perinthus, afterwards Heraclea, now corrupted into Erekli, from which a wall, called Macron Tichos, was built across to the Euxine by the Emperor Anastasius. East of it was Selymbria, now Selibria, and at its North Eastern extremity, called from its beauty Chrysoceras, or the Horn of Gold, was the renowned city

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