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leap, on account of her fruitless passion for Phaon. · North of Leucadia was Anactorium, at the entrance of 'the Ambracian Gulph, and within the Gulph, which, at
its entrance, somewhat resembles the passage called the Sleeve at the entrance of the Baltic, was the memorable city of Actium, the scene of the great Battle between Antony and Augustus, which decided the fate of the Roman world, Sept. 2, B. C. 31, A. U.C. 723. Actium is still called Azio. The North Eastern part of Acarnania was called Amphilochia, from Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle*, who, having slain his mother, in revenge for having betrayed his father to the fatal Theban war, retired from his native country Argos, and built here a city of the same name, called for distinction Amphilochium Argos; the country is still called Filoquia.
The remainder of Greece, above the countries already described, was divided into two great portions, Thessalia on the East, and Epirus on the West. Though Epirus, especially towards the North, was hardly recognized as a genuine Grecian State. Thessaly, in fact, extended over all the countries below, except the North West part of Acarnania, and was bounded on the South by the chain of Mount Eta, on the West by that of Pindus, on the North by that of Olympus, and on the East by the Sea. It
-Mostamque Eriphylen Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera cernit.
Virg. Æn. VI. 445.
contained several tribes or districts. On the confines of Ætolia and Phocis, above Doris, are the Ænianes; Eastward, on the coast, was Phthiotis, above it Magnesia, and above that Pelasgiotis ; in the North was Perrhæbia ; West was Estiäotis, Aperantia, and Dolopia ; in the centre Thessaliotis.
The Sinus Maliacus, so called from the little city of Malia, is now the Gulph of Zeiton, so called from the town of Zeiton, antiently perhaps Trachis, or Trachinia, called also Trachinia Heraclea, the scene of one of the tragedies of Sophocles on the death of Hercules, who burnt himself on a funeral pile raised on the neighbouring Mount Eta. Above this, the river Sperchius flows into the Maliac Gulph: the beauty of its banks is celebrated by Virgil. * On this river was the city Hypata, or Neopatra, celebrated for the skill of its inhabitants in + magic in which the Thessalians were proverbially thought to excel. Near the mouth of the Sperchius is another Anticyra, equally famous for its hellebore, and above it Lamia, where Antipater was besieged by the Athenians after the death of Alexander, B. C. 323, Ol. 114, 2, but at last
Virg. Georg. II. 486. I have adopted the reading of Tempe here, for convenience, not forgetting the reasons in favour of campi.
+ Quæ saga, quis te solvere Thessalis
Hor. Od. I. 27.
escaped," and compelled the Athenians to beg a peace, and give up Demosthenes, who poisoned himself to avoid falling into his hands. At the entrance into the Sinus Pagasius, or Pelasgicus, now the Gulph of Volo, we find Aphetæ, now Fetio, from which the ship Argo is said to have taken her departure for Colchis. Proceeding along the coast we find the Phthiotic Thebes, and above it is the river Amphrysus, on whose banks Apollo is said to have fed the herds of Admetus king of * Pheræ. Westward is a city called Thaumaci, from the beauty of its situation, now Thaumaco. The river Onchestus flows into the Northern extremity of this gulph, on which was the lake Bæbeis and town of Pheræ, or Pheres, and the city of Pagasæ, giving name to the gulph, and Demetrias, or Volo, built by Demetrius Poliorcetes. Here were also two promontories, preserving the memory of the great Thessalian Deluge, in the names of Pyrrha and Deucalion. Near the junction of the Onchestus and a little stream called the Anauros, was Iolcos, the country of Jason, in the district of Magnesia, whence Argo is called Magnetian by Ovid.t And on the Ægean side of the Chersonese, formed by the gulph and the Ægean, is the city of Magnesia, above which was the promontory of Sepias, now Cape St. George, where the fleet of
* Cynthius Admeti vaccas pavisse Pheræas
Ov. Art. Am. 'II. 238.
. Virg. Georg. III. 1. † Cur unquam Colchi Magnetida vidimus Argo.
Ov. Med. Jas. V. . Xerxes suffered greatly from shipwreck. From this promontory all along the coast to the North of Thessaly stretch the ranges of mountains, Pelion, Ossa, and Olympus. * Proceeding Northwards, we come to the river Peneus, the Eastern course of which, towards its mouth, is through the celebrated vale of Tempe. This delightful valley, the beauty of which was proverbial among the antients, is about five miles long, but in general very narrow, in many places not above an acre and a half in breadth. It divides Mount Ossa from Olympus. A full description of it is to be seen in the third book of Ælian's Various History. West of Tempe, but on the river Peneus, is Larissa, the principal city of Thessaly, which retains its name. In the North of Thessaly was Azorus, now Sorvitz, and Oxyma. South of this is Gomphi, and below it Tricca, now Tricula. To the East, about the middle of Thessalia, on the river Enipeus, is the plain and city of Pharsalia, the memorable scene of the decisive battle between Cæsar and Pompey, May 12, B. C. 48,
* Here we may remark the excess of critical refinement in those commentators who compare Homer's ladder of the giants with Virgil's, and give the preference to the more judicious arrangement of the former. For, say they, Homer places Olympus at the bottom, Ossa on Olympus, and Pelion on Ossa ; Virgil uses the contrary order
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam
Scilicet, atque Ossæ frondosum involvere Olympum: which makes a pyramid resting on its point, Pelion being the least, and Olympus the greatest of these mountains. The fact is, Homer enumerates them in their direction from the North, or bighest, to the South, or lowest point; Virgil, an Italian, who lived South of them, and would naturally visit the Southern point first in his journey thither from Athens, enumerates them in the order in which they would present themselves to his view.
A. U. C. 706, in which Cæsar obtained the empire of the Roman world.
West of Thessalia was Epirus, now part of Albania, comprising, in the South, Molossia, above which, on the Western shore, is Thesprotia, and above it Chaonia, and, still North, Orestis.
On the Sinus Ambracius was Ambracia, the royal city of Pyrrhus and his descendants. Opposite the promontory of Actium, on this gulph, was Nicopolis, a city built by Augustus on the site of his camp, in honour of his decisive victory. Above it, in Thesprotia, was the lake called Palus Acherusia, into which two rivers flowed, the Cocytus and Acheron, and the river Thyamis, where Cicero's friend, Atticus, had a country seat called Amaltheum, near Torone. North of this was Buthrotum, now Butrinto, and above it Panormus, now Panorma ; above which is Oricum and the Acro-Ceraunian Mountains *, so called from their abrupt summits being often struck by lightning. They were remarkable for attracting storms, and dreaded by mariners on this account. In the interior of Epirus was the celebrated grove and oracular or vocal oaks of Dodona, sacred to Jupiter.
- Ille flagranti
Virg. Georg. I. 331.
Hor. Od. I. 3.