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whence also Pan is called Tegeæus. The celebrated Atalanta was a native of this place. In the South of Arcadia was Megalopolis, near a place now called Leondari, or, as some think, Sinano. It was built by Epaminondas to check the inroads of the Lacedæmonians. It was the birth-place of Polybius the historian. Towards Messenia was the celebrated mountain Lycæus t, another favourite residence of Pan and the Sylvan Deities. Near it was the city of Lycosura, on the river Neda. The inhabitants of this part of Arcadia were called Parrhasii, from Parrhasius, a son of Jupiter, who built a city here, and the name is sometimes put gene-, rically for that of the whole nation. I Northward, on the river Alpheus, was Heræa, and still Northward, Psophis; and above, on the confines of Achaia, Cynethæ whose inhabitants were remarkable for the barbarous rusticity of their manners, so as to be despised, or almost excluded from associating with the other Greeks, who
* Ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycæi,
Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Mænala curæ,
Virg. Georg. I. 16.
Hor. Od. I. 17. | Arcadia derived its name from Arcas (the son of Jupiter) and the nymph Calisto. Juno transformed Calisto into a bear, whom Jupiter, with her son Arcas, removed into heaven, and changed into constellations called Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. Ov. Met. VIII. 315. Hence the constellation Ursa is called by Ovid Parrhasis Arctos, and, as Calisto was daughter of Lycaon, it is called by Virgil Claramque Lycaonis Arcton.
Æn. VIII. 334.
attributed their ferocity to a neglect of the study of music, so much cultivated among the Greeks in general. Yet it is remarkable, that in their neighbourhood, a little to the East, was the mountain Cyllene, celebrated as the birth-place of Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, of eloquence, and the gymnastic exercise *, who is so constantly distinguished among the poets by the name of Cyllenius. At the foot of Mount Cyllene was the city Pheneos, now Phenia.
We shall now describe the remainder of Greece, or Greece properly so called, lying above the Isthmus. The first province, lying almost within the Isthmus, is the small district of Megara, which affected to be independent of the potent territory of Attica. To the East was Attica; and to the North West of these Bæotia ; North East of Baotia and Attica was the long narrow island of Eubæa, separated by the narrow sea of Euripus. West of Boeotia was Phocis; South West of Phocis, lying along the Sinus Corinthiacus, were the Locri Ozolæ; and North East of Phocis, lying along the top of Euripus, were the Locri Epi-Cnemidii, or Locri of Mount
* Mercuri facunde, nepos Atlantis,
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum
More palæstræ :
Hor. Od. I. 10.
Cnemis, and the Locri Opuntii below them. North of Phocis was Doris, a small tract, but which divided with the Ionians the characteristic features of the language and tribes of Greece. Generally speaking, the Dorian colonies were settled in the Peloponnese, the Ionian in Asia Minor: the great Dorian state was Lacedæmon, the great Ionian state, Athens ;there was a marked distinction in their language and manners. The former being more broad and rustic, the latter more smooth and refined. West of Phocis was Ætolia ; and West of Ætolia was Acarnania. North of Phocis was Thessaly: North of Acarnania was Epirus :
In Megaris the capital was Megara, which preserves its name, and is a little inland. Its port was Nysæa. East of Megara, on the coast, in Attica, was Eleusis, now Lessina, so celebrated for the Eleusinian mysteries in honour of Ceres and Proserpine, which it was death to reveal. * They lasted 1800 years, and were abolished by the Emperor Theodosius. The statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, the work of Phidias, was removed from Eleusis by Dr. Clarke, A. D. 1801, and is now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge, and the temple itself has since been cleared by Mr. Gell. Opposite Eleusis,
Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum
Sit trabibus, fragilemque mecum
Hor. Od. III. 2.
and separated by a very narrow sea, is the island of Salamis, the birth-place of Ajax and Teucer, the evermemorable scene of the defeat of the Persian fleet by the Athenians under the command of Themistocles, B. C. 480, Ol. 75, 1; and below Salamis is Ægina or Engia, giving name to the Gulph of Engia, antiently the Sinus Saronicus. South East of Eleusis is the illustrious city of Athens, the eye of Greece, and of the civilized world. It is now called Atini, or Setines, by a corruption we have already noticed. This renowned city is situated rather inland, between two rivers, the Ilissus below, and the Cephissus (bearing the same name with a larger Baotian river) above. It had three ports, the Piræus, or principal port, now Porto Leone, which was connected with the city by means of two walls called the marga Teixn, or long walls; East of the Piræus was the second port called Munichia ; and still East of it the Phalerus, the least frequented of the three. The long wall, which connected the Piræus with the city, was sixty stadia (or rather more than six and a half English miles) in length, and forty cubits (or rather more than sixty feet) high, and broad enough for two waggons to pass. This wall was built by Themistocles, and finished by Cimon and Pericles. Another somewhat shorter wall, towards the East, united the harbour of Phalerum with the walls of the city. Entering by the gate of the Piræus, a straight line led to the Propylæa, or vestibules, of the Acropolis, or citadel. On the summit of the citadel, an oblong hill, was the famous temple of Minerva, called the Parthenon. At the bottom of this hill, on the South side, was the theatre of Bacchus, where the tragedians exhibited their compositions, and East of it was the Odeum, or theatre for musical competition. Proceeding round the hill of the Acropolis, on the North was the Prytaneum, or place where those citizens who had rendered essential service to their country were entertained at public expence. Opposite the North West side of the Acropolis was the ever-memorable hill of Mars, on which was established the court of the Areopagus; and opposite the Propylæa, or Western end of the Acropolis, was the Pnyx, or place of public assemblies. Opposite to which, on the South, was the hill of the Museum, having the road from the Piræus to the Propylæa between it and the Pnyx. From the hill of the Areopagus, continuing in a North West direction, we come to the Forum, which was in a place called the Ceramicus, or pottery ground. The Forum had at its Southern entrance an enclosure, containing the palace of the Senate and temple of the Mother of the Gods. On the South Western side of the square were the statues of the Eponymi, or ten heroes who gave name to the tribes of Attica; and at the Eastern gate were two vestibules, the Western called that of the Hermæ, in which were three statues of Mercury, bearing the names of those soldiers who had distinguished themselves in the battles against the Persians, and the Eastern called the Poecile, which was ornamented with the works of the first artists in painting and statuary. In the Forum was also the court of the chief Archon, near the statues of the Eponymi, and the camp of the Scythians employed by the government in the police of the city. The quarter to the East of the Forum was called Melita, in which were the houses of Themistocles and Phocion. At the North East of the city, without the walls, was Cynosarges,