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calls him a King of Messene. The port of the Eleans was Cyllene, now Chiarenza, a little North of the bay and promontory of Chelonites, now Cape Tornese.
· The rest of the coast of the Peloponnesus was occupied by Achaia, lying along the South ern side of the Sinus Corinthiacus, comprising also the districts of Sicyon and Corinth, called Sicyonia and Corinthia. Before we enter the straights of the Sinus Corinthiacus, or Gulph of Lepanto, is Dyme, on the coast of the Ionian Sea; and above it is Patræ, now Patras, near the mouth of the straights. At the entrance into the straights is Rhium, and on the opposite coast Antirrhium. Proceeding Eastward, along the shore, is Ægium, where the States of Achaia used to meet, and South West of it, within land, is Tritæa, now Triti. East of Ægium was Ægira, which had a port and dockyard, and South East of it, within land, was Pellene; North East of which is the district of Sicyonia. On the coast was Sicyon, which, in the modern name of Basilico, still retains the memorial of having been the most antient kingdom of Greece. South of Sicyon, in the interior, was the city of Phlius, which still preserves its name in Staphlica. * Proceeding towards the end of the Sinus Corinthiacus, we come into the district of Corinth, where we meet with that far-famed city, which was destroyed by Mummius the Roman General, B. C. 145, A. U. C. 609, and rebuilt by Cæsar. It is still called Corito. It was itself a little inland, but had two ports,
* The addition of Sta, or Stan, is common in modern Greek names, being a corruption of és rà, or is tér. Thus Constantinople is called Stambol, or is cày róasy.
Lechæum, on the Sinus Corinthiacus, and Cenchrex, on the Sinus Saronicus *, and a citadel, on a lofty hill called Acrocorinthus. The pass between the Peloponnese and the rest of Greece was called the Isthmus of Corinth, now Hexamili, from its being only six modern Greek, or perhaps not five British miles in breadth. Here the Isthmian games were celebrated in honour of Neptune. The Emperor Nero in vain attempted to cut through the Isthmus and join the Saronic and Corinthian Gulphs.
The province of Arcadia occupied the center of the Peloponnesus, being surrounded by the five provinces already enumerated. This was the celebrated pastoral country of the poets. + Near the North of Argolis was the river and lake Stymphalus, the fabled residence of those Harpies which were destroyed by Hercules. Below it was Orchomenus, bearing the same name with a town in Boeotia, and below it the celebrated city of Mantinea, 'near Trapolitza, where the great Epaminondas, the Theban General, lost his life, in the memorable victory he obtained over the Lacedæmonians there, B. C. 363, Ol. 104, 2. Below Mantinea is Mount Mænalus, from his residence on which Pan was called Mænalius. At the Southern extremity of Mænalus was the city of Tegea, now called Moklea,
* Kence Horace
- ---- Bimarisve Corinthi
Od. 1. 7.
Virg. Ed. IV. 58.
whence also Pan is called Tegeæus. * The celebrated Atalanta was a native of this place. In the South of Arcadia was Megalopolis, near a place now called Leondari, or, as some think, Sinano. It was built by Epaminondas to check the inroads of the Lacedæmonians. It was the birth-place of Polybius the historian. Towards Messenia was the celebrated mountain Lycæus t, another favourite residence of Pan and the Sylvan Deities. Near it was the city of Lycosura, on the river Neda. The inhabitants of this part of Arcadia were called Parrhasii, from Parrhasius, a son of Jupiter, who built a city here, and the name is sometimes put generically for that of the whole nation. I Northward, on the river Alpheus, was Heræa, and still Northward, Psophis; and above, on the confines of Achaia, Cynethæ whose inhabitants were remarkable for the barbarous rusticity of their manners, so as to be despised, or almost excluded from associating with the other Greeks, who
Ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycæi, i
. Virg. Georg. I. 16.
Hor. Od. I. 17. | Arcadia derived its name from Arcas (the son of Jupiter) and the nymph Calisto. Juno transformed Calisto into a bear, whom Jupiter, with her son Arcas, removed into heaven, and changed into constellations called Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. – Ov. Met. VIII. 315. Hence the constellation Ursa is called by Ovid Parrhasis. Arctos, and, as Calisto was daughter of Lycaon, it is called by Virgil Claramque Lycaonis Arcton.
Æn. VIII. 334.
attributed their ferocity to a neglect of the study of music, so much cultivated among the Greeks in general. Yet it is remarkable, that in their neighbourhood, a little to the East, was the mountain Cyllene, celebrated as the birth-place of Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, of eloquence, and the gymnastic exercise *, who is so constantly distinguished among the poets by the name of Cyllenius. At the foot of Mount Cyllene was the city Pheneos, now Phenia.
We shall now describe the remainder of Greece, or Greece properly so called, lying above the Isthmus. The first province, lying almost within the Isthmus, is the small district of Megara, which affected to be independent of the potent territory of Attica. To the East was Attica; and to the North West of these Bæotia ; North East of Boeotia and Attica was the long narrow island of Eubea, separated by the narrow sea of Euripus. West of Boeotia was Phocis; South West of Phocis, lying along the Sinus Corinthiacus, were the Locri Ozolæ; and North East of Phocis, lying along the top of Euripus, were the Locri Epi-Cnemidii, or Locri of Mount
* Mercuri facunde, nopos Atlantis,
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum
More palæstræ :
Hor. Od. I. 10.
Cnemis, and the Locri Opuntii below them. North of Phocis was Doris, a small tract, but which divided with the Ionians the characteristic features of the language and tribes of Greece. Generally speaking, the Dorian colonies were settled in the Peloponnese, the Ionian in Asia Minor: the great Dorian state was Lacedæmon, the great Ionian state, Athens ;there was a marked distinction in their language and manners. The former being more broad and rustic, the latter more smooth and refined. West of Phocis was Ætolia ; and West of .' Ætolia was Acarnania. North of Phocis was Thessaly: North of Acarnania was Epirus :
In Megaris the capital was Megara, which preserves · its name, and is a little inland. Its port was Nysæa. East of Megara, on the coast, in Attica, was Eleusis, now Lessina, so celebrated for the Eleusinian mysteries in honour of Ceres and Proserpine, which it was death to reveal. * They lasted 1800 years, and were abolished by the Emperor Theodosius. The statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, the work of Phidias, was removed from Eleusis by Dr. Clarke, A. D. 1801, and is now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge, and the temple itself has since been cleared by Mr. Gell. Opposite Eleusis,
Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum
Sit trabibus, fragilemque mecum
Hor. Od. III. 2.