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nine principal nations, of whom the Elusates and Ausci appear to have been the chief. The Sotiates were a snjall tribe, above them, mentioned by Cæsar.

Gallia Lugdunensis was subdivided at first into two, and subsequently into four divisions, called Prima, Secunda, Tertia, and Quarta, or Senonia. It extended from the city of Lugdunum, or Lyons, on the Rhone, to the Western Ocean, being bounded on the South by Aquitania, and on the North by Belgia. The capital of Lugdunensis Prima, was Lugdunum, in the small tribe of the Ambarri, between the junctions of the Arar and Rhodanus, or the Saone and Rhone. The great nation of the Ædui were in this district, whose capital was called Bibracte in the time of Cæsar, Augustodunum under Augustus, and is now corrupted into Autun. Above it was the famous city of Alesia, or Alise, the account of whose memorable siege occupies the last twoand-twenty chapters of Cæsar's seventh book on the Gallic war. Near it were the Lingones, who have given their name to their capital, once called Andematunum, now Langres. Immediately adjoining these, to the North West, were the Senones, from whom the Lugdunensis Quarta was called Senonia, and which will be more conveniently now described, than in its regular order after the second and third. Their capital, originally called Agidincum, is now called, from the name of the people, Sens. To the North West of them, the Carnutes have, in like manner, given to their capital Autricum, the name of Chartres; and, to the North, the Parisii still give to Lutetia the name of Paris. South of the Carnutes, the Aureliani still preserve their name in Orleans, called by Cæsar Genabúm.' Among the Senones was Antissiodurum, now Auxerre, Noviodunum, or Nevirnum, Nevers, and Melodunum, Melun, North of the Lugdunensis Quarta was the Lugdunensis Secunda, nearly comprised in the situation of Normandy. The principal nation were the Velocasses, whose capital Rotomagus is now Rouen. Above them were the Caleti, or Pays de Caux: and South West the Lexovii whose capital, Noviomagus, is still Lizieux ; South are. the Aulerci Eburovices, whose capital, Mediolanum, still retains the name of Evreut. West of the Lexovii are the Viducasses, Bajocasses, whose capital is still Bayeux, and Abrincatui, whose capital is Avranches. Below were the Saii, or Essui, whose capital is Séez. Off this coast were the islands of Cæsarea, Sarnia, and Riduna - Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney. :

The Lugdunensis Tertia had for its principal people the Turones, who have given the name of Tours to Cæsarodunum, their capital. Above them were the Andes, or Andecavi, whose capital, Juliomagus, has still preserved the name of Angers. And the Aulerci Cenomani have given to their capital, Suindunum, the name of Mans. The Arvii have preserved their capital in a place called Citè, on the little river Erve. The Diablintes have given to Neodunum the name of Jablins. The Redones are easily discoverable in Rennes, and the Namnetes, in Nantz, which two capitals were antiently called Condate and Condivincum. North West of the Namnetes were the Veneti, whose antient capital, Dariorigum, still preserves the name of Vennes. Above them were the Corisopoti and the Osismii, whose capital,

Vorganium, is corrupted into Korbez. Among the Osismii were also the Brivatus Portus, Brest ; Uxantis Insula, Ushant; and below it Sena, or Sain, corresponding in some measure to the British Mona, as being the sacred residence of the Gallic priestesses. The whole of this tract between the Seine and Loire was called Armorica, which at last, however, was exclusively confined to Bretagne.

· Gallia Belgica was divided into Belgica Prima and Secunda, Germania Prima, or Superior, and Secunda, or Inferior, and Maxima Sequanorum. In Belgica Prima the principal people were the Treveres, whose capital, Augusta, is still called Treves, situated on the Mosella, or Moselle, which flows into the Rhine. Southwards were the Mediomatrici, whose capital, Divodurum, was afterwards called Metis, arid Metz. Still South were the Leuci, and to their North West the Verodunenses, whose capital, Verodunum, is still Verdun. North Wes of Belgica Prima was Belgica Secunda. The principal people were the Remi, who were much attached to the Romans in the time of Cæsar. The capital, Durocortorum, still preserves their name in that of Rheims. On their South, the Catalauni give name to Chalons. Closely connected with the Remí were the Suessiones, whose capital, Augusta, is now Soissons. Northwards are the Veromandui, or Vermandois, whose capital, Augustá, is St. Quintin. West of them were the Bellovaci, a very warlike nation, well known in Cæsar's Commentaries, whose capital, Cæsaromagus, is still Beauvois. Northwards, the Ambiana had for their capital Samarobriva, so called from the bridge on the

Samarus, or Somme. It is now, from the name of the people, Amiens. Still Northwards, were the Atrebates, or Artois, whose capital, Nemetacum, is still Arras, or Atrecht. Alove these were the Morini, on the extreme Northern coast. ** Their capital was Taruenna, or Terouenne. On the coast also was Gesoriacum, or Bononia, now Bologne, and about it Portus Itius, or Witsand, from which Cæsar embarked for the invasion of Britain. East of these were the Nervii, whose original capital was Bagacum, Bavia, in the middle of Hainau, but afterwards Camaracum, or Cambray, and Turnacum, or Tournay. Next to these was Germania Secunda, inferior, or lower, so called as being near the coast, lying between the Scaldis, or Scheldt, and the Rhenus, or Rhine. On the West bank of the Rhine were the Ubii, the chief people, whose capital, Colonia Agrippina, or Cologne, was so called in compliment to Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor Claudius. West of these were the Eburones, a people who were annihilated by Cæsar, in revenge for their having slaughtered a Ronan legion, and their country was occupied by the Tungri, whose capital, Atuataca, is still called Tongres. — All these nations were of Germanic origin. Between these and the Treveri, whose capital, Augusta, is now Treves, was the great forest of Arduenna, or Ardenne, extending from the confines of the Nervii to the Rhine. Above them were the Toxandri and Menapii, and still North, the Batavi, who possessed an island between the right

* Hence Virgil

Extremique hominum Morini.

Æn. VIII. 727..

branch of the Rhine and the Vahalis, or Waal, its left branch. The principal city of the Batavi, was Lugdunum Batavorum, which still preserves its name in Leyden. Noviomagus also is easily recognised in Nimeguen.

Germania Prima, superior, or upper, so called as being more inland, lay along the Western bank of the Rhine, and contained three Germanic nations — the Vangiones, Nemetes, and Triboci. The capital of the Vangiones was Borbetomagus, or Worms, North of which were Mogantiacum, or Mentz, and Confluentes, or Coblentz ; the capital of the Nemetes, Noviomagus, or Spires; and of the Triboci, Argentoratum, or Strasburg.

Maxima Sequanorum had for its principal nation the Sequani; their capital was Vesontio, or Besançon, on the river Dubis, now Doux. Next to them were the Helvetii, part of Switzerland, whose principal city was Aventicum, now Avenche; Turicum is now Zurich. Above the Helvetii were the Rauraci, whose principal city was Augusta, now Augst, a little South of Basilia, or Basle.

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