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tion to those whom they wished to depose, the Assembly itself set their commissioners the example, by silencing and deposing the Rev. Andrew Ramsay and the Rev. William Colville, two of the remaining episcopal clergy of Edinburgh, and “who, for their eminence in learning, diligence in their calling, and strictness in their conversation, were ornaments to the church of Scotland.” At the same time the Assembly “ opened the mouth, that is, empowered one Gillan to preach the gospel, though he was but a poor ignorant plonghman, whose greatest proficiency in learning was that he could read English ?.” After this they appointed the next Assembly to meet at Edinburgh, on the first Wednesday of July, 1649; "and then the Assembly rose, with much less applause than any that had formerly been.”

On the 14th November, the first named committee, or visitors, came to Stirling, and thrust out of their churches the Rev. HENRY GUTHRY, author of the Memoirs, which have been so often cited, and who after the Restoration was bishop of Dunkeld, and the Rev. John Allen, as notorious malignants or loyalists; and “they made a fearful deprivation amongst” the episcopal clergy in the presbyteries of Stirling and Dunblane. A similar “ fearful deprivation” was exercised in the districts that were visited by the other two committees 2.

IN THE END OF July, sir William Fleming returned from the Prince of Wales, who then with a fleet lay in the Downs, and brought a considerable quantity of ammunition and other inilitary stores for the army under the duke of Hamilton. The committee of estates sent this supply to the castle, that, as Guthry says, “they might be sure not to have it at command;" for the castle was in the power of general Leslie, who was in the interest of Argyle and opposed to the Engagement, and so the stores that were intended for the king's service went to strengthen his mortal enemies. The committee despatched sir William Fleming and the earl of Lauderdale to the prince, to invite him to come to Scotland. The loyalists thought it a hazardous enterprise in Lauderdale; who, for the previous four years, had resided in London, and negociated the combination betwixt the two parliaments, and had approved of and assisted in all the proceedings against the king. To the surprise of every one, the Prince of Wales received him with open arms, and contracted that intimacy with him which was renewed and continued after the Restoration.

Notwithstanding all the opposition made by Argyle and his

| Guthry's Memoirs, 233,

Ibid. 250.

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faction, with the General Assembly at their back, the army at last, when too late, began their march for Carlisle on the 8th of July, under the duke's Engagement, and with the anathemas of the commission. And a contemporary says, “ Besides all this, the Scotch ministry have already mounted their presbyterian pulpits ..... and, as it becomes such rigid and severe pronouncers of fearful anathemas, prohibited all and singular their commanders, officers, and common soldiers, from marching or budging a foot, under the heavy penalty of excommunication or stool of repentance, in defence of the English Calvery, nor on any other plausive pretence whatsoever.

For it were high indiscretion,' they say, 'to engage our persons, nay, the whole security of our kingdom, in so doubtful and anxious a quarrel ; especially in the interest of any one particular person, be he of never so high, nor concerning a condition 1.'" At Appleby, there was a skirmish with a division of the parliamentary army, under Lambert, when the Scots had the advantage, and then they pushed on to Preston, in Lancashire, where they were met and totally routed by Oliver Cromwell, with great slaughter. The duke himself fied with all speed, but was captured, and sent to the royal palace of Windsor Castle, which was converted into a state prison.

In the interim, Argyle made open profession of his opinion that the duke's expedition would be defeated, and therefore raised some regiments, which were placed under the command of the earl of Lanerk, and sent towards the borders. The presbyterians assembled in the west, to the number of 6000, with Loudon, the chancellor, at their head, with the earls of Eglinton, Cassilis, “David Dick, and the rest of the ministers in those parts," and marched towards Edinburgh. The object of all these movements was to prevent that assistance being given to the imprisoned king which the tardy loyalty of some of the people was disposed to have given, and who had prepared

one of the greatest and best furnished armies that ever Scotland had sent forth.” But, says Guthry, “ Amongst all that headed this insurrection there was none so generally abhorred as Loudon the chancellor; not only in regard of his ingratitude to the king, (who, in the year 1641, raised him from the rank of a lord to the title of an earl, and presented him to be high chancellor, and farther gave him the yearly pension of £1000 sterling, and also the best part of the whole annuities throughout the kingdom,) but much more because of his late

1 Caledonius Mercurius, pp. 11, 12.

treachery to his majesty, who having, at the Isle of Wight, been a prime instrument in persuading him to refuse treating with the parliament of England, and to cast himself upon the Scots; and that now when, by so doing, his majesty could hope for no favour from the English, he did then fall from the assurance then given by him and the other commissioners to his majesty, and instead of assisting the army raised in reference thereto, did now (after the same had got a defeat by strangers) head a lawless multitude, to oppose and cut off the remainder thereof

LANERK was joined by the Scots who had escaped from the defeat at Preston, under general Munro, when he retreated to Edinburgh to meet the new enemies, under Loudon and the covenanting ministers. But there was no fighting; and, after some marching and countermarching, a treaty was concluded between the chiefs of both armies, to the effect that their civil differences should be referred to parliament, and their ecclesiastical to the next General Assembly, and both armies to be disbanded. After his victory at Preston, Cromwell moved towards Scotland, and established his head-quarters at Merdisfen, in Northumberland. The marquis of Argyle, lord Elcho, and sir Charles Erskine, waited on Cromwell there, delivered up Berwick to him, and accompanied his army to Edinburgh. Cromwell lodged at lady Home's house in the Canongate, and Argyle, the earls of Loudon and Lothian, the lords Arbuthnot, Elcho, and Burleigh, with the ministers, David Dick, Robert Blair, and James Guthrie, held frequent and close correspondence with him; and all those who had been in the Engagement were ordered, by proclamation, to leave the capital. “What passed among them came not to be known infallibly; but it was talked very loud, that he did communicate to them his designs in reference to the king, and had their assent thereto 2.”

WE ARE INFORMED by a popular writer, that on this occasion “ the cominission of the kirk sent Mr. Blair and the others to deal with Cromwell for an uniformity in England. When they came he entertained them with smooth speeches, and solemn appeals to God as to the sincerity of his intentions. Mr. Blair being best acquainted with him, spoke for all the rest, and, among other things, begged an answer to these three questions :- 1. What was his opinion of monarchical government? He answered, he was for it. 2. What was his opinion anent

? Guthry's Memoirs, 233-238.

3 Ibid. 249.

toleration ? He answered, confidently, that he was altogether against toleration. 3. What was his opinion concerning the government of the church ? O now,' said Cromwell, Mr.Blair, you article me too severely; you must pardon me that I give you not a present answer to this,' &c. This he shifted, because he had before, in conversation with Mr. Blair, expressed he was for independency. When they came out, Mr. Dickson said, I am glad to hear this man speak no worse; whereunto Mr. Blair replied, if you knew him as well as I, you would not believe one word he says, for he is an egregious dissembler, and a great liar l."

Cromwell's expedition to Edinburgh was called the “Whiggamore’s raid;" and when rogues quarrel the truth sometimes appears which otherwise might have remained concealed. In a dispute in parliament betwixt sir Archibald Johnston and sir John Browne, the former publicly confessed in open parliament on the 27th of February, 1649, that Cromwell and Lambert's coming to Edinburgh at the Whiggamore Raid was with the consent of Argyle, and those who had waited on them in Northumberland, although he and the others concerned had formerly denied it; “whereupon sir John desired the clerk to mark that as an essential point, now confessed in public parliament2."

A NEW TREATY betwixt the king and the parliament made Cromwell hasten to London ; but he left Lambert with a division of his army to support Argyle, in securing the supreme powerin the government, and it was agreed that some Scots commissioners should be sent to London to take part in the proceedings against the king. On the part of the kirk Mr. Robert Blair and sir John Chiesley were sent, and afterwards the earl of Lothian, and William Glendinnan, a burgess of Kirkcudbright, who were arrested at Gravesend, where they were going to embark for Holland,“ by warrant from that blasphemous army and wicked parliament 3." As soon as Cromwell reached London he put an end to the treaty betwixt the king and the parliament, by a remonstrance from the army against it, and craving justice on the king; and he directed them to summon the prince of Wales and duke of York to appear before parliament, to hear themselves declared incapable of holding power or authority in England. Notwithstanding, a vote was carried, “that the king's concessions in the treaty were good grounds

1 Scots Worthies, Life of Robert Blair, p. 276. . Balfour's Annals, iü. 388.

3 Balfour's Annals, iii. 388. VOL. II.

2 H

for a safe and lasting peace,” with only forty-six dissentient voices, against a majority of a hundred and sixty. Cromwell arrested some of ihe majority, and dispersed the others; so that the minority of forty-six, who were subservient to him, remained and composed the RUMP of the Long Parliament.

1649.-THE SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT sat down at Edinburgh on Thursday, the 4th of January; but only fourteen of the peers were present, all of whom were Argyle's partizans. The commission of the kirk, with consent of parliament, ordained a fast to be kept on the 10th, and the League and Covenant to be signed. Despatches were received from the Scots commissioners at London, informing parliament of the proceedings against the king, and requesting instructions. The committee met with the commission, and instructions, consisting of fourteen articles, were sent; but those most to the point were—6, that they should not agree to any measure that might be the occasion of a new war-7, that they would delay to meddle with the king's person—and, 9, if they proceed and pronounce sentence against the king, that they should enter their dissent and protest? Parliament divided the malignants, or loyalists, into four classes, the first of which were to be secluded from all public offices during life, the second for ten years, the third for five years, and the fourth till the next session of parliament. They next made an act OF CLASSES for purging the judicatory and public offices, and so they cashiered all the judges that were tainted with the crime of loyalty, and in their places appointed the most unscrupulous partizans of Argyle, secluding all those who had promoted the late unfortunate Engagement, “and in general all of malignant principles or scandalous practices.”

No man who has read the foregoing pages can doubt that Argyle had fulfilled his father's prophesy, that he would “wind Charles a pirn” [a reel]; yet no man can blame the king for neglecting the old earl's advice of arresting the incipient traitor. He was a most irredeemable coward; yet by his canting and hypocrisy, and his natural talents, which were good, he managed to direct the whole machinery of kirk and state, and to thrust others into danger. As an elder of the kirk he was always appointed one of the commission; which, with his position in the committee of the estates, a sort of republic, gave him the complete command of the whole machinery of the government. Argyle and the kirk mutually upheld cach other. As an elder he instigated the commission, without appearing in it himself,

Balfour's Annals, iii. 373, 386.

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