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The dews had fallen heavily ever since we had left Madras, but they had now become like nightly showers of rain, and wetted every thing as effectually as a smart squall could have done. As on the preceding night, our wind declined at sun-set, and left us before midnight in a perfect calm.
28th. The day opened with light S.E. winds, and the weather was so hazy, that no object could be distinctly seen at a greater distance than a mile. Our course was now N.E., and as we had a light or concavity in the line of the coast abreast of us, we deepened our water gradually from 25 to 45 fathoms, and as gradually shoaled again as we approached the land.
At noon we observed in lat. 19° 6' N., and were in long. 85° 5' E., with 38 fathoms water, the town of Ganjam, bearing N.N.W., distant about twelve or fifteen miles. This place has,
very recently, been one of considerable trade, being seated in a populous manufacturing district, and having the advantage of a navigable river for coasting vessels. It has been lately however completely depopulated by the rayages of the cholera morbus, and the Ganjam fever. The first it is said to have received from Bengal, where that disease has raged with unprecedented violence.
The last is a disease to which the place is constantly subject, from some local causes affecting the healthiness of the spot. During our stay at Vizagapatam, we saw there a Captain Colley, who commanded a small brig of his own called the Fairy. He was the Master Attendant of Ganjam, and was now absent on leave, and we learnt from him, that from deaths and removals, there were not now a hundred individuals left in the place, and that these were of that class of society who cannot afford to change their place of abode,
We had a fresher breeze toward the close of the day than we had before experienced, and as it blew from the southern quarter, it deceived us into a hope of its continuance. It died away, however, about ten o'clock, and left us becalmed, at midnight, in fifteen fathoms water, and in sight of the illuminated pagodas of Jaggernaut. It was, probably, some festival here, which occasioned the illumination of these temples, as all the feasts of the Indians, whether sacred, or merely social, are held at night, and accompanied with a profuse display of lamps. The celebrity of these pagodas, and the astonishing scenes of infatuation witnessed there, in the self destruction of devotees at every annual festival, furnished a subject of reflection, of wonder, and of regret.
29th. We had scarcely any wind throughout the night, and at sun-rise the pagodas of Jaggernaut were still in sight, bearing about north, and distant from seven to eight miles, our soundings still in fifteen fathoms water.
The high land of the coast which commences on the borders of Golconda, between Coringa and Vizagapatam, ends here on the coast of Orixa, between Manikpatam and Ganjam. The pagodas of Jaggernaut, which are to the N.E. of this last place, are seated on a low sandy shore, and the first appearance of them, when seen from the sea, is like that of a large ship under sail, since the buildings themselves are distinguished before the ground on which they stand can be seen. There are three of these which, as they appear in one in a bearing of W. by N., are distinctly open in a bearing of N.W. to N. They are, however, so close together as to appear to be connected at the base, when seen from a distance, which is partly occasioned by their being all surrounded within one inclosure. This is said to be a square wall of 600 feet on each front, constructed of enormous masses of black stone, and having a gate in each face, fronting the respective cardinal points. They
are of a conical form, lessening in diameter from their bases upward, and are all crowned with white balls, and painted spikes rising above them. The westernmost is the largest, the central one next in size, and the easternmost the smallest of the three. Around them are seated many small buildings, probably for the residence of the officiating Bramins, or for the accommodation of the Hindoo pilgrims, who are said to exceed in number those of the whole Mohammedan world assembled yearly at Mecca, though there are many other places of pilgrimages in India, of almost equal celebrity with Jaggernaut.
At noon, we observed in lat. 19°40' N., and were in long. 86° E., with the Jaggernant pagodas bearing W.N.W. distant about five leagues, and the Black Pagoda, due North, distant about three leagues, in fifteen fathoms water. The appearance of the Black Pagoda, so called from its actual colour, when seen from this point of view, is that of a huge pyramidal building, with a tall and slender minaret, or column, rising just from its western base.
In some points of view, it appears exactly like a vessel under sail, and in others, again, like a rude mass of rock. It is seated, like those of Jaggernaut, on a low and sandy coast, with shoal water, and is, therefore, seldom approached nearer than five or six miles, from which very little of its peculiarties, or details, can be seen.
Our surprise had been excited at the kind of weather which we had experienced since our leaving Madras, and which was quite unseasonable. We had expected strong southerly winds, with all the fury of the S.W. monsoon here, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, whereas we had hitherto experienced only light bafiling airs and calms. At four P.M., the sky began to assume a threatening appearance in the N.W., from whence arose most rapidly a dark thick cloud, having its base in the horizon, and extending an arched, or semicircular edge, projecting towards the ship. It rose, and with so much rapidity, that we had scarcely time to reduce our canvas, before it burst upon us in all its fury. As it came immediately off the land, it contained no rain, but its force was sufficient to make our masts bend, when every sail was taken in, and to split several of those sails after they were clewed up and hauled down. It lasted about an hour, and then fell a dead calm, which left us again unmanageable by the helm, and tossing about in a cross sea.
At eight P.M., 'a second squall, but of less violence, came off the land from the N.W., bringing a strong smell of earth, and of shrubs burnt up by the sun, with a dryness that alınost 'crackled the skin. This reduced us to the topsails while it lasted, and then left us again becalmed.
30th. At day-light, we had light airs from the eastward, the ship going only two knots We steered a course of N.E. by E, throughout the morning, shoaling our water gradually, from twenty-five fathoms at midnight to twenty at sun-rise, and fifteen at noon, when we observed, in lat. 20°6' N., and were in long. 86°45' E., with a projecting piece of low land, bearing N.N.W., distant about six or seven miles, and green and shoal water between it and the ship.
We continued standing on the same course of N.E. by E., having fifteen or sixteen fathoms throughout, until at ten A.M., having run our whole distance of forty-six miles, to the point of Palmiras reef by the log, and deepening suddenly from sixteen to twenty fathoms water, while steering N.E. by E., we conceived these to be sufficient proofs of our being to the northward of it, and accordingly hauled in W. for an anchorage under its 'lee. We stood on this course, occasionally edging off to w. by N., for about twelve miles, shoaling our water gradually from twenty-one to sixteen fathoms, when, conceiving ourselves to be near the anchorage of the pilot vessels, we brought up for the night.
31st. At sun-rise, we had hạnds at each mast head, but no land or vessel were to be seen. We therefore weighed, and stood in still to the westward, under easy sail, shoaling to fourteen fathoms, very gradually. At ten A.m. we saw a vessel in the S.W. quarter, standing towards us, under a press of sail, and taking her for a pilot brig, we made the signal with a gun, tacked off shore, and hove to. At twenty minutes past eleven, she passed within hail, and proved to be the Ocean, from Bencoolen, standing on in search of a pilot, as well as ourselves, the commander having unaccountably taken us, as we presented a whole broadside to himn from the moment of his first seeing us, for one of the pilot schooners, which are vessels of 200 tons, and brig rigged.
At noon, we observed in lat. 20°34' N., and were in long. 87°20' E., when finding ourselves still to the southward of Point Palmiras, by the effect of some strong southerly current, or tide, we bore up, and made sail to the N.E. accordingly.
At two P.D., baving ran our distance by the log, hauled in north, N.W., and W.N.W. successively, and at three passed over the tail of Palmiras Reef, at its north-eastern extremity, in ten fathom
The water here was of a dull muddy yellow, and its edge accurately defined, where it joined the purer green water of the sea. The soundings in the yellow water was ten fathoms at its very edge, and that of the green twelve fathoms, within a ship's length of it. In the day-time, the colour of the water alone, would be a sufficient guide to keep ships clear of the shoal, for the whole of the sea to windward of us, as we steered in west with a southerly wind, was like a lake of yellow mud, while, to leeward, it was the green water of a sandy bottom.
Steering along upon the edge of the shoal, we could just distinguish the trees of Point Palmiras, and the breakers off it, when in twelve fathoms, and 'standing in for about twelve or fifteen miles, we shoaled to seven fathoms, in which depth we anchored for the night, with Point Palmiras bearing S.S.W., and the entrance to Kannaka River W.S.W., each of them distant six or seven miles. As this is called in all the late Charts and Directories the New Pilot's Station, we expected to have found a light-house here, on the Point, and pilot vessels at anchor under the reefs, but in both these hopes we were disappointed. We considered ourselves fortunate, however, in attaining a good anchorage, as the night was exceedingly tem, pestuous, with alternate squalls from the N.W. and S.W., accompanied with thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. We rode in smooth water, with fifty fathoms of cable, and all our yards down, and were much more snug than we could have been, if we had continued under sail for the night.
June 1st. Finding no pilot here in the morning, we weighed, and made all sail to traverse the bay in search of them. Having a fine breeze from the southward, we shaped a course of N.E., for the tail of the Western Brace, deepening to twelve, and shoaling to ten fathoms on its edge, at noon, when we observed in lat. 21°12' N., and had yellow mnddy coloured water all along to the northward
Having seen no pilot-vessel in the way, we now wore ship, and stood over west, towards the Old Pilot's Station, in Balasore Roads. We had scarcely trimmed our sails on the larboard tack, before the sky gathered up black in the S.W., and within ten minutes after the first threatening appearance, we had every sail taken in, from the violence of the squall. It was accompanied with much thunder, lightning, and heavy rain, and kept us for about three hours with every sail in, and so thick, as to prevent our seeing more than the ship's length a-head. As the wind was from the N.N.W., and we were in ten fathoms, we still stood along W.S.W., with the wind a-beam, taking the whole range of the Balasore Roads, in search of a pilot, but without finding one.
We had shoaled into seven fathoms at four P. M., when the wind chopped round suddenly to the W.S.W., and threw us a-back. As the change of wind had moderated the weather, we wore round, and stood away E.S.E., with an intention to cross the tail of the reefs, and make the floating light, so that if no pilot was found by that time we might stand up the Saugor Channel, as far as was practicable, in search of one.
At five p. M.; having stood about an hour on this course, and being in twelve fathoms water, we discovered a pilot-brig at anchor right a-head. We accordingly shook out all reefs, and crowded every sail, to come up with her. We had neared her at six P. M. to within about four miles, when she bore due east of us, and were certain, in our own minds, of being alongside her before dark, when in an instant the wind shifted round to the eastward, and precluded all hopes of our reaching her. We fired several guns, however, and kept both the signal for a pilot, and our national colours displayed during a full hour, without any answer being made to us. We stood on, close hauled, to the N.E. until dark, when we brought up in thirteen fathoms and a half, with the pilot-brig S.E. about four miles. Still giving no answer to a gun, and two lights at the peak, which we fired and boisted on anchoring.
At ten 30 P. M., the wind shifting to the S.W., and admitting of our fetching the pilot-brig at anchor to the S.E. of us, we weighed, and made sail, firing guns, and wearing a light at each cat-head, to give the most ample warning of our approach. The last gun, which was a twenty-four pounder, was fired within half a cable's length of the brig, and just as we hauled our coursers up, to pas under her stern. Notwithstanding all this, it will scarcely be believed that we hailed with a trumpet seven distinct times, before we received any answer, by which time we shot so far past her, as not to be able to distinguish any other reply than that she was a pilot-vessel. Shame on them was cried out by every voice on board, for such gross and unaccountable inattention, as our movements and intentions must have been known to them early in the day, and our guns and lights must have been heard and seen by them, though both remained unanswered.
While in the act of passing under this vessel's stern at midnight, the weather had the most threatening appearance, and we had scárcely got clear of her, intending to anchor within a short distance of her until morning, when a squall burst upon us with such violence, as to oblige us to take in every stitch of canvas, and let her drive at the mercy of it; the thunder, lightning, heavy rain, and pitchy darkness increasing the evil, and absolutely terrifying the crew. When its force abated sufficiently, we let go the anchor in fifteen fathoms, and veered to eighty fathoms cable at once, to ride out the night.
June 2d.-Finding the brig to be about a mile to the N.W. of us, still at anchor, we sent a boat on board her at day-light, with an officer, to receive a pilot from her, and to obtain an explanation of the extraordinary conduct which we had witnessed on the pre