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was conceived in its value. However, an impetus was given by a Commission of Enquiry by the Board of Education, which toured the country and endeavoured to find in the handwork some values over and above the mere manipulation of tools and material and the training of hand and eye. .

The educational values were being observed with a clearer perception; and manual instruction of the older boys, together with hand and eye training of their juniors, were giving place to handwork which had educational purpose over and above that of training. It was seen that by teaching a child to fold paper he could be taught something beyond mere manipulative folding, as, for instance, that two halves or four quarters were equivalent to the whole ; that a planed piece of wood could be utilized for the experimental acquisition of scientific truths in mechanics, to wit, levers, moments, etc. This, then, is something of the condition in which handwork teaching is to be found in a few of the more up-to-date schools to-day ; some there be that adopt the higher type of educational handwork, but the vast majority adhere mainly to its subjective values rather than its objective ones.

It has been found that nothing is lost, but that everything is to be gained by employing handwork as a means to an end rather than as an end only in itself ; Pestalozzi recognized this, for he said : “Man must not merely learn first and then do ; but seek to learn by what he does.” Let two examples suffice to illustrate this principle, for it is vital in its bearing on the new teaching that must inevitably come into vogue in the near future.

The dominant attribute of human mind is “ purpose” or motive, and the natural attitude is to work

towards ends which appeal to the worker as necessary. The interests of the child are now more frequently consulted, and tangible practicable problems are presented to him. It is therefore interesting to compare the following cases which came within the writer's experience, and clearly show the difference between past and prospective practice. Two boys were attending different manual instruction centres in charge of different instructors ; both boys were about twelve



age, and came from homes in poor neighbourhoods—one boy was barefooted.

Boy A. B. was busy one day making a tooth-brush rack to hold two tooth-brushes ; the model had to be made 61 in. long, 24 in. wide and 3 in. thick. The wood which had to be employed was yellow pine. The boy was asked why he was making this particular model, and he replied : “Because it is No. 9”_he had finished No. 8, apparently with satisfaction. Asked why he used yellow pine, he answered : “Because the teacher told me to do so. On turning to the teacher for his observations, he agreed that the boy's statements were substantially correct. When questioned as to why such a model was being made, his explanation was that the “new exercise ”—that is, the new tool operation—was the making of a square mortice from a bored round hole-to hang the model up!

It will be observed that there was no child's purpose in the model, nothing from which he could derive any interest other than the pleasure of“ making something." This boy had certainly no personal interest in or need for a tooth-brush rack—as he had no boots on his feet it is highly improbable that he would have a toothbrush, much less two brushes. If there arises a need for a tooth-brush rack, let the resulting model be such

a one as will fulfil the needs of the demand. Either a boy desires a rack for his own personal need, or he desires to supply a family need ; in one case, the rack should be made to hold one brush, and, in the other, sufficient spaces should be made to accommodate the brushes of the family. This, of course, assumes that the need or motive for such a model arises from the boy. When the model is stereotyped in a rigid scheme, the need does not appear to be felt ; it is not personal or altruistic, but forced on him from without for little more reason than that it is model number so and so. No choice was left to him ; size, timber, method of construction had all been pre-arranged, and he was simply to act as machine-like as his nature would allow. Contrast this case with the following

Boy C. D. was absorbed in making a toy engine, chiefly from materials he brought with him to the manual instruction centre. They consisted of a small coffee tin with a lever lid, a cigarette-tin lid, and several pieces of wire. The boy was observed for several lessons, and though the model when finished was not particularly elegant it would work, and gave the boy a lead that he might, and eventually did, follow later on. Two tin supports were soldered to the sides of the tin, and holes punctured to take the wire, which was to serve as a spindle. The lid of the cigarette tin was crimped by snipping and bending to serve as a turbine, and three wire legs were soldered to the body of the boiler. A small hole was punched in the top of the boiler for the steam to escape and impinge on the crimped edge of the turbine. A tooth-powder tin with a hole punched in the lid served as a spirit lamp with shredded rag for a wick.

a wick. This was the first attempt, and many mistakes were to be improved upon later.

The boy was quite aware of the following points on the completion of the first engine.

(i) That the spirit lamp needed a small hole in the top to allow for expansion of gas in the tin—this by experience.

(ii) That some other method of supporting the boiler than by soldering wire legs to the body should be found—this also by bitter experience.

(iii) That a piece of fine tubing fitted into the boiler top would be better than a hole punched with a nail.

(iv) That a wooden pulley fixed to the spindle would drive another small model.

In conversation with this boy it was suggested to him that by arranging the lid of the tin as the boiler top instead of the bottom, the lid would blow off if an over-pressure of steam had been developed. To this was received the rebuking reply, “ Please, sir, the lid will blow down as easily as up, and the water from the boiler will put the lamp out." In this simple idea the boy had re-invented the fusible plug now found in the boilers of our liners and battleships. So far as possible the attitude of the boy towards his work should be either that of solving a problem or working out a difficulty which will eventually lead him to the knowledge of some truth, the working out and establishment of some principle, or the illustration of the subject-matter of one of his school lessons.

This, then, must be the “spirit of life” breathed into all the handwork teaching of to-morrow. The modification of that spirit to suit individuals and classes of children is all that is necessary ; the leading, encouraging and directing characters of the teacher will each and all find their place in his work.

The conclusion has now been arrived at that hand

work has for its fundamental principles mainly two complementary attributes, viz.: (1) progressive activity for developmental functioning, and (2) the acquisition of skill in the use of tools and material in order to foster adaptability and resource. It cannot be doubted that the former offers great opportunities in the methods of the skilful teacher for materially assisting in the mental development of his pupils ; neither can it be denied that the latter possesses advantages for manual development. It is very largely a matter of balancing the values according to the purview of the teacher and the


of the children under instruction. The outlook of the individual teacher is very largely guided and moulded in practice by the authorities governing his work; as these are adults with powers to think and decide for themselves, argument is the means to be pursued in demonstrating improved methods. In the case of the child, he has very largely to be prescribed for ; at any rate, the methods in the teaching vary, and quite rationally, with his age. Now it is conceded that in general the child's development is from general to particular, from mass to detail, from fundamental to accessory. As he

As he grows older he begins to specialize in his own small way; there is the “motor” child and the “sensor” child, the boisterous and the pensive, the budding mechanic and the precocious boy-philosopher. Then it is for those in power so to arrange the methods that they will assist in the natural development of all that is best in the child's nature, and repress what may appear evil ; to foster the general development first, and later on to help forward a particular embryonic power which may be observed. So that when the child is of tender years, forced flowers and fruit of mentality must be discouraged, and a general body of mental

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