Elements of Surveying and Leveling
A. S. Barnes & Company, 1883 - Surveying - 564 pages
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Common terms and phrases
adjusted angle axis azimuth base bearing called centre claim clamp column compass correction corresponding Cosine Cotang course curve declination departure determined difference direction distance divided draw east equal error example feet field figure fixed given gives greater ground half height hence horizontal inches intersection land latitude length limb logarithm manner marked means measured meridian method moved necessary needle notes object observed obtained parallel passed perpendicular plane plate plot position principal radius reading recorded reference represent result rule scale screws shaft shown side sight Sine slope square stakes station subtracted suppose surface survey surveyor taken Tang tangent telescope transit traverse triangle true tunnel turn vernier vertical
Page 18 - The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees, and each degree into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds, and these into thirds, fourths, &c.
Page 96 - IL + .VC; hence, the double meridian distance of a course is equal to the double meridian distance of the preceding course, plus the departure of that course, plus the departure of the course itself: if there is no preceding course, the first two terms become zero.
Page 1 - The declination of the sun, given in the Ephemeris of the Nautical Almanac, from year to year, is calculated for apparent noon at Greenwich, England. To determine it for any other hour at a place in the...
Page 3 - Caution as to the False Image. In using the compass upon the sun, if the revolving arm be turned a little one side of its proper position, a false or reflected image of the sun will appear on the silver plate in nearly the same place as that occupied by the true one. It is caused by the reflection of the true image from the surface of the arm, and is a fruitful source of error to the inexperienced surveyor. It can, however, be readily distinguished from the real image by being much less bright, and...
Page 25 - C' (89) (90) (91) (92) (93) 112. In any plane triangle, the sum of any two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the opposite angles is to the tangent of half their difference.
Page 9 - THE logarithm of a number is the exponent of the power to which it is necessary to raise a fixed number to produce the given number...
Page 143 - ... being about three feet above the surface, and the posts about four feet apart: then lay a plank, or piece of timber three or four inches in width, and smooth on the upper side, upon the posts, and let it be pinned or nailed, to hold it firmly. 2. Prepare a piece of board four or five inches square, and smooth on the under side. Let one of the compass-sights be placed at right angles to the upper surface of the board, and let a nail be driven through the board, so that it can be tacked to the...
Page 1 - Territory about eight hours. Having thus the difference of time, we very readily obtain the declination for a certain hour in the morning, which would be earlier or later as the longitude was greater or less, and the same as that of apparent noon at Greenwich on the given day. Thus, suppose the observation made at a place...
Page 170 - Let this board be so fixed to a vertical staff as to slide up and down freely; and let a small piece of board, about three inches square, be nailed to the lower edge of it, for the purpose of holding a candle. About twenty-five minutes before the time of the greatest eastern or western elongation of the pole-star, as shown by the tables of elongations, let the theodolite be placed at a convenient point and leveled.