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I.-A. Tarquinius, on being informed of these transactions, became inflamed, not only with grief for the disappointment of such promising hopes, but with hatred and resentment; and, finding every pass shut against secret plots, determined to have recourse to open war; and, to that end, he went round to all the cities of Etruria, in the character of a suppliant, addressing himself particularly to the people of Veii and Tarquinii, entreating them, “ not to suffer him, who was sprung from themselves, and of the same blood;

who was lately possessed of so great a kingdom, now exiled and in want, to perish before their eyes, together with the young men his

Others had been invited from foreign countries to Rome, to fill the throne; but he, when in possession of the government, and while he was employing his arms in extending the limits of the Roman empire, was expelled by a villanous conspiracy of men who were most closely connected with him; who, because no one of their number was qualified to hold the reins of government, had forcibly shared the several parts of it among them, and had given up his property to be plundered by the populace, to the intent that all might be equally guilty. He only wished to be restored to his own country and crown, and to be avenged on his ungrateful subjects. He besought them to support and assist him, and, at the same time, to take revenge for the injuries which they themselves had sustained of old, for their legions so often slaughtered, and their lands taken from them." These arguments had the desired effect on the Veientians, every one of whom earnestly, and with menaces, declared that they ought now at least, with a Roman at their head, to efface the memory of their disgraces, and recover, by arms, what they had lost. The people of Tarquinii were moved by his name, and his relation to themselves: they thought it redounded to their honour, that their countrymen should reign at Rome. Thus two armies of two states followed Tarquinius to demand his restoration, and prosecute war against the Romans.

B. When the Auruncians were defeated, the Romans, having vanquished so many different powers, within the space of a few days, expected the fulfilment of the promises made them by the consuls, and strengthened by the engagements of the senate. But Appius, instigated both by his own natural haughtiness, and a desire to undermine the credit of his colleague, issued his decrees on suits between debtor and creditor, with all possible severity; in consequence of which, both those who had formerly been in confinement, were delivered up to their creditors, and others also were taken into custody. When this happened to be the case of any of the soldiers, he appealed to the other consul; a crowd gathered about Servilius, reminded him of his promises, upbraided him with their services in war, and the scars which they had received ; insisted that he should lay the affair before the senate ; and that, as consul, he should support his countrymen, and, as a general, his soldiers. The consul was affected by these remonstrances; but circumstances obliged him to decline interfering, not only his colleague, but the whole faction of the nobles, having gone so violently into opposite measures. By thus acting a middle part, he neither avoided the hatred of the commons, nor procured the esteem of the patricians; the latter considering him as destitute of the firmness becoming his office, and as too fond of popular applause, while the former looked upon him as a deceiver; and it shortly appeared that he was become no less odious than Appius. A contest arose between the consuls as to which of them should dedicate the temple of Minerya.

C. With the same view, Cæso Fabius, whose election to the consulship, with Titus Virginius, was owing as much to the support of the commons, as to that of the patricians, would not enter on business, either of wars of levies, or any other matter, until the hopes of concord, which had already made some progress, should be ripened into a perfect union between the plebeians and patricians. In the beginning of the year, therefore, he proposed, that “ before any tribune should stand forth to press the agrarian law, the senate should seize the opportunity, and take to themselves the merit of conferring that favour: that they should distribute among the commons, in as equal proportion as possible, the lands taken from their enemies : for it was but just that they should be enjoyed by those whose blood and labour acquired them."

II. History and Geography.

1. This book embraces a period of about 41 years, from B.C. 507 to B.C. 466.

2. The Tribunes of the people were originally appointed for the purpose of affording protection to the commons against any abuse on the part of the patrician magistrates, the oppression of the latter having become so intolerable that the plebeians seceded to Mons Sacer in 494, B.C. The persons of the Tribunes were declared sacred and inviolable, and anyone who invaded this inviolability was to be made an outlaw and forfeit his property. Thus, in their origin, the Tribunes were a protecting magistracy of the plebs, and to this office their powers were limited; though afterwards they became a magistracy for the whole Roman people.

3. Nexus--one imprisoned for debt. A creditor, after allowing thirty days for the payment of a debt, had the privilege, on nonpayment of the same, of keeping his debtor in chains for sixty days; at the end of which time, if the debt was still unpaid, the creditor might sell the defaulter as a slave or put him to death.

Nexum—the state or condition of a nexus, as described above.

4. Spurius Cassius was consul in B.C. 502, again in B.C. 493, and for a third time in B.C. 486. He carried the first agrarian law, which brought upon him the enmity of his fellow-patricians, who accused him of aiming at regal power, and put him to death.

5. The patrician Claudii were of Sabine origin, and came to Rome in B.O. 504, when they were received among the patricians. Their first representative was Appius Claudius Sabinus Regillensis, who in his own country bore the name of Attus Clausus. He and his descendants were noted for the bitter hatred which they showed to the plebeians.

6. The exile of Coriolanus was caused by his haughty bearing towards the Commons, which excited their fear and dislike, and, thanks to the exertions of the Tribunes, Sicinius and Brutus, Coriolanus was impeached and condemned to exile, B.C. 491.

7. Clusium, an Etruscan city, situated on an eminence above the river Clusis.

Tarquinii, in Etruria, situated on a hill and on the river Marta, S.E. of Cosa.

Veii, on the river Cremera, about twelve miles from Rome ; one of the most ancient and powerful cities of Etruria. Cumae, a town in Campania ; the oldest Greek colony in Italy. Circeii, an ancient town of Latium, on the promontory Circeium. Velitrae, an old town of the Volsci, in Latium. Norba, a town in Latium, on the slope of the Volscian mountains. Ostia, a town at the mouth of the Tiber, and the harbour of Rome.

The chief tributaries of the Tiber are the Topino, Nera, and Teverone on the left bank; and the Nestore, Chiana, Ricano and Galera on the right bank.

8. The Aequi dwelt in the upper valley of the Anio, in the mountains forming the east boundary of Latium.

The Volsci dwelt on both sides of the river Liris, and extended down to the Tyrrhene Sea.

The Hernici inhabited the mountains of the Apennines, between the lake Fucinus and the river Trerus.

The Sabini inhabited the country between the Nar, the Anio and the Tiber, between Latium, Etruria, Umbria and Picenum.


1. On the capture of Carthage the wife of Hasdrubal, having reproached him with unnatural conduct in having been satisfied with getting Scipio to spare his life alone, dragging with her by her right hand and her left the children of a common marriage who did not refuse to die, threw herself into the flames of her burning country.

2. Aemilius Paullus, after surfeiting the ancient poverty of our city with the wealth of Macedon, to such a degree that then for the first time the Roman people were freed from paying tribute, made his own household not a whit the richer, thinking it a glorious feat to have enabled others to reap money from that victory, whilst he reaped glory for himself.

3. A stag, superior in contest, tries to drive away a horse from their common grazing ground, until proving second best in the course of continued conflict, it entreated the help of a man, and received a bit. But when in victory and noisy triumph it left the foe, it did not shake off the rider from its back, nor the bit from its mouth.


N. V. Edax imber.

Edaces imbres.
A. Edacem imbrem.

Edaces imbres.
G. Edacis imbris.

Edacium imbrium.
D. Edaci imbri.

Edacibus imbribus.
A. Edaci imbre, or -i.

Edacibus imbribus.



or -um.






N. V. Solers senex.

Solertes senes.
A. Solertem senem.

Solertes senes.
G. Solertis senis.

Solertium senum.
D. Solerti seni.

Solertibus senibus.
A. Solerti (or -e) sene.

Solertibus senibus.
N. V., A. Anceps certamen.

Ancipitia certamina.
G. Ancipitis certaminis.

Ancipitum certaminum.
D. Ancipiti certamini.

Ancipitibus certaminibus.
A. Ancipite certamine.

Ancipitibus certaminibus. N. V. Neuter, neutra, neutrum. Neutri, neutrae, neutra. A. Neutrum, -am,

Neutros, -as, G. Neutrius, -ius, -ius.

Neutrorum, -arum, D. Neutri,

Neutris, -is, -is. A. Neutro, -a,


N. V. Mendax.

Mendaces, -ia.
A. Mendacem, -ax.

Mendaces, -ia.
G. Mendacis.

D. Mendaci.

A. Mendaci.

N. V. Locuples.

Locupletes, -ia.
A. Locupletem, -es.

Locupletes, -ia.
G. Locupletis.

Locupletium, or -um.
D. Locupleti.

A. Locupleti.

2. Positive.



Superus, Superior, Supremus, or summus.

Infimus, or -imus.



Locuples, Locupletior, Locupletissimus.
(See Latin Grammar Made Easy, pp. 9, 10.)
3. Possum

potis sum—to be in the


of. Anceps

ancaput-two-headed. Particeps pars capio-sharing. Tibicen

tibia cano—to sing to the flute.

tuba cano to sing to the trumpet.
Ibi from the pronominal root “i.”
Ubi from the pronominal root “u.”

[These two letters are closely allied; e.g., maximus or

maxumus, finitumus or finitimus, &c. The -bi in

each word is a locative suffix.] 4. Perf. Indic.




Momorderunt. Morsum.


Perf. Indic.




Orti sunt.

Orsi sunt.


(See Latin Grammar Made Easy, pp. 17–21.)
5. The Kalendae were the first day of the Roman month.

The Nones and Ides were respectively the 5th and 13th of the Roman month, but in March, May, July, and October, the Nones and Ides fell respectively on the 7th and 15th.

6. Oratio Obliqua is any statement, command, or question, indirectly put, depending on some verb in Oratio Recta. The main verb goes into the Infinitive; the subject into the Accusathe

pronoun of the first person becomes the reflexive pronoun of the third person, and all other pronouns are formed into those of the third person. Subordinate verbs go into the Subjunctive; Imperatives become Subjunctives. Questions, if requiring an answer, are constructed with the Subjunctive; if requiring no answer, and so equivalent to assertions, they are constructed with the Infinitive.



Oratio Recta. Caesar loquitur :-Mihi videtur me hodie victurum esse hostes, nisi Di obstant.

Oratio Obliqua. Caesar dixit sibi videri se eo die victurum esse hostes, nisi Di obstarent. (See Latin Grammar Made Easy, pp. 26, 27.) 17. Oportet










(See Latin Grammar Made Easy, p. 16.)

Ò. When “that-not” expresses a negative purpose, ne must be used. When it expresses a consequence, ut-non must be used.

E. g. Cimon was of such liberality that he did not, &c. : Cimon tanta largitione fuit ut—non.

He warned me that I should not, &c. : Me monuit ne, &c.
9. Rogo, doceo, oro, posco, moneo, celo.
Act.-Hoc te rogo. Pass.-Hoc tu rogaris a me.
Act.—Doces me litteras. Pass.-Ego doceor litteras a te.
Act.—Poscit eum pecuniam. Pass.—Is poscitur pecuniam ab illo.
(See Latin Grammar Made Easy, p. 13.)

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