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On Newton's Terrestrial Gravitation to the Moon.
therefore, was an unsuitable gauge; par- ja planet and a terrestrial projectile is but ticularly a vanishing versed sine at the an analogy, not an identity of causes. All crown of an arc. The forces that move bodies operated upon by two forces, in a planet through a quadrant are equal different directions, move also like a prothroughout; and therefore the mean versed jectile, or a planet, but it would be as sine at 45° was the only measure of the absurd as gratuitous to say, that therefore actual deflection. There would be quite as they are moved by the same species or much reason for taking the versed sine identity of force. from 89° 59' to 90 as that from 0° to 1'; All these mistakes are, however, more but then the former would have given about deeply seated than can be briefly explain. 120,000 feet instead of 15%, while that ed. Geometricians, in illustrating the ce. between 45o and 45° 1' would have been lestial motions, evidently imagine, that in about 60,000 feet, and have put Newton's a diagram they include a succession of hypothesis to flight.
time. Thus they draw an orbit, performed 3. The only method by which, in a in a series of months or years, and then mean result, relevancy could be confirmed reason on the geometrical relations of the on any such calculation, would have been whole figure, as governing the planet at to draw a straight line from the apex exactly every movement. The causes are always equal in length to the quadrant meeting alike, but they are made circular, elliptical, the secant of 90°. This line would then | &c. and reasoned upon as subordinate at be in the mean direction of the whole arc, every moment to the lines and properties or at 39° 27', and would lie as a mean be- of circles, ellipses, &c. which figures are tween the chord of the quadrant, and a line but mere pictures of a long succession of drawn to meet the tangent of 45°, and results, and the shape of which pictures has hence a curvilinear orbit is a necessary re- no connexion with the simultaneously opesult. If then a perpendicular were let fall rating causes. The present is a case in point. from the tangent of the apex to this line, / A versed sine is taken at the apex of an at 197,106 Rhynland · feet, or 201,467 arc, in necessary subordination to the relaEnglish feet, from the apex, or about half a tions of the versed sine of an apex; but minute of a degree, the said perpendicu- | what have the forces of nature to do with lar, or true fall, would be 162,120 Rhyn- an apex, or with the human imagination of land feet, or 165,800 English feet, instead a versed sine at that place ? Average, or of Newton's arbitrary vanishing versed | means of the entire result, are of course the sine of 15,736 Rhynland feet, or 16,083 only quantities on which we can reason, English feet, or above 10,000 times more. and not on lines accidentally generated by . The whole of this calculation and pre our mode of drawing and viewing the tended proof is therefore a gross fallacy figure. In other words, I should say, that logical, physical, mechanical, and mathe- the general functions of the whole figure matical-and yet it is the solitary proof of alone express the forces of nature which the too famous principle of universal gra- produce it, and not the functions of any vitation. It is that vaunted process by point in relation to the rest, which rest in which Newton is said, by his school, that sense is not simultaneous. This error to “ have carried the power which makes pervades the entire Principia, and most an apple fall from a tree, to the heavens! other similar works, the causes at every &c. &c." How it has passed current for point being made subservient to its geome140 years, it is difficult to imagine. Those trical relations to the ultimate figure, and a who know nothing about Rhynland feet, present object is thereby made to portray, (an odd measure to mingle with it,) those as in present dependence, a period of time, who did not know that gravitation meant and a succession of distant effects. weight, and who knew nothing of versed! If encouraged to do so, I could give a sines, and tangents, and fluxions, were common-sense mechanical theory of planetdoubtless mystified; while those who ary motion; but I repeat my fears of being ought not to have been imposed upon, intrusive on you and your readers. In a either received it as plausible on authority, or former number I referred to some Theorems connived at what so well pleased the world. on these subjects. They were printed in
The objection No. 1, applies with equal | London, while I was on my late tour; and, force to another proof, that if the moon as is too often the case, I am sorry to say, revolved at the earth's surface, the versed | they are marred by so many errors of the sine of a second would be 16.1., for it press, that I now lament their circulation; would not hold as a measure if taken for 2 and I hope this notice will meet the eye of seconds, or for a minute, or an hour. some of their readers,
In like manner, the comparison between I may briefly observe that, planetary
898 corroncorrencouriercocorrorocierencrescurcumcr....concrn..... . ...... motion is connected with that line described | mination to the anus; but as their bodies in paragraph 3, as above. That that line become lengthened, the bristle is not in of direction, or its corresponding curve, is this way observable. The alburnum, or incrementally produced by two equal con sap wood, being thus wounded, rises up in stant forces acting at right angles. 1. The excrescences and nodes all over the branch, medium of space acting on the right-hand and deforms it; the limb, deprived of its side of the planet, as seen from the sun, nutriment, grows sickly ; the leaves turn and moved by the sun. And, 2, the sum yellow, and the part perishes. Branch of the infinite decreasing series of reactions after branch is thus assailed, until they all beyond the planet, which infinite series is become leafless, and the tree dies. well known to be always equal to 1, or to Aphides, in general, attack the young the original force, at the place of the planet. and softer parts of plants; but this insect These concur on the right-hand off qua seems easily to wound the harder bark of drants, carry the planet, at every point, in the apple, and by no means makes choice the line alluded to; and coinciding in that of the most tender parts of the branch. quadrant, turn the planet' at the same time The insect is viviparous, or produces its on its axis, with the required velocity. young alive, forming a cradle for them,
These elements I can expand to a satis- | by discharging, from the extremities of its factory and rational system, but, in the body, a quantity of long cottony matter, mean time, I have said enough to enable which becoming interwoven and entangled, any ingenious lover of truth, who has read prevents the young from falling to the Euclid, to gratify himself and others. earth, and completely envelopes the parent
R. PHILLIPS. and the offspring. This lanuginous vesKnightsbridge, August 15th, 1289.
titure seems to serve likewise as a vehicle for dispersing the animal; for, though most
of our species of aphis are furnished with ON THE APHIS LANATA, OR AMERICAN wings, I have never seen any individual of BLIGHT.
this American blight so provided; but the Our apple-trees are greatly injured, and winds wafting about small lufts of this some annually destroyed, by the agency of downy matter, convey the creature with it what seems to be a very feeble insect. We from tree to tree throughout the orchard. call it, from habit, or from some unas. | In the autumn, when this substance is signed cause, the “American blight (Aphis generally long, the winds and rains of the lanata):" this noxious creature being known season effectually disperse these insects, in some orchards by the more significant and we observe them endeavouring to name of “white blight.” In the spring of secrete themselves in the crannies of any the year, a slight hoariness is observed neighbouring substance. Should the savoy upon the branches of certain species of our cabbage be near the trees' whence they orchard fruit. As the season advances, have been dislodged, the cavities of the this hoariness increases ; it becomes cot- | under sides of its leaves are commonly tony; and towards the middle or end of favourite asylums for them. Multitudes summer, the under sides of some of the perish by these rough removals, but numbranches are invested with a thick downy bers yet remain; and we may find them substance, so long, as at times to be sen- in the pods and crevices, on the under sibly agitated by the air. Upon examin. sides of the branches, at any period of the ing the substance, we find that it conceals year, the long cottony vesture being rea multitude of small, wingless creatures, moved, but still they are enveloped in a which are busily employed in preying | fine, short, downy clothing, to be seen by upon the limb of the tree beneath. This a magnifier, proceeding, apparently, from they are well enabled to do, by means of every suture or pore of their bodies, and a beak terminating in a fine bristle. This protecting them, in their dormant state, being insinuated through the bark and the from the moisture and frosts of our climate. sappy part of the wood, enables the crea- This aphis, in a natural state, usually ture to extract, as with a syringe, the sweet awakens and commences its labours very vital liquor that circulates in the plant. early in the month of March; and the This terminating bristle is not observed in hoariness on its body may be observed every individual: in those that possess it, increasing daily; but if an infected branch it is of different lengths, and is usually, be cut in the winter, and kept in water in when not in use, so closely concealed a warm room, these aphides will awaken under the breast of the animal, as to be speedily, spin their cottony vests, and feed invisible. In the younger insects it is often and discharge, as accustomed to do in a manifested by protruding, like a fine ter- | genial season.-Journal of a Naturalist. 130.- VOL. XI.
Works and Character of Roubiliac, the Sculptor.
ON THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW WORDS
sonant to the principles of the English lanINTO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
* guage, as denoted by the analogy of similar
words, without regarding which side of the The following extract on this curious but water that analogy favoured. For example, interesting subject, is copied from Basil you in England universally say chivalryHall's travels in America, recently pub. we as generally say shivalry; but I should lished.
certainly give it according to the first way, “We had a pleasant discussion on the as more consistent with the principles of use of what are called Americanisms, the language. On the other hand, your during which Mr. Webster gave me some way is of pronouncing deaf as def-ours as new views on this subject. He contended if it were written deef; and as this is the that his countrymen had not only a right to correct mode, from which you have deadopt new words, but were obliged to parted, I shall adhere to the American modify the language to suit the novelty of way. I was at first surprised when Mr. the circumstances, geographical and poli- | Webster assured me there were not fifty tical, in which they were placed. He fully words in all, which were used in America agreed with me, however, in saying, that and not in England; but I have certainly where there was an equally expressive Eng not been able to collect nearly that number. lish word, cut and dry, it ought to be used He told me, too, what I did not quite in preference to a new one. Neverthe- agree to at that time, but which subseless,' said he, 'it is quite impossible to stop quent inquiry has confirmed, so far as it the progress of language-- it is like the has gone, that, with very few objections, course of the Mississippi, the motion of all these apparent novelties are merely old which at times is scarcely perceptible, yet English words, brought over to America even then it possesses a momentum quite by the early settlers.” irresistible. It is the same with the language we are speaking of. Words and expressions will be forced into use, in spite
BRIEF REFERENCES TO THE WORKS AND of all the exertions of all the writers in the
CHARACTER OF ROUBILIAC, THE SCULPworld.' Yes,' I observed; but surely
TOR. such innovations are to be deprecated ? It is somewhat remarkable, that the first • I don't know that,' he replied. “If a work executed in England by this celeword become universally current in Ame- brated artist, was a statue of Handel, rica, where English is spoken, why should which, a few years since, was to be seen at it not take its station in the language?' | Vauxhall, though where it is at present is ·
Because,' I said, there are words enough very uncertain, and that his last employalready; and it only confuses matters, and ment was on a monument erected to the hurts the cause of letters, to introduce such memory of this distinguished composer. words. “But,' said he, reasonably enough, One of his best executed productions, is a 'in England such things happen currently, full-length figure of Sir Isaac Newton, in and, in process of time, your new words the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge. find their way across the Atlantic, and are The statue of Shakspeare, executed for Mr. incorporated in the spoken language here. Garrick, and by him placed in a temple In like manner,' he added, “many of our erected for that purpose in his garden at words, heretofore not used in England, Hampton, was, by his will, dated Septem. have gradually crept in there, and are now ber 24th, 1778, to remain in the temple at an acknowledged part of the language. Hampton during the life of Mrs. Garrick, The interchange, in short, is inevitable; when it was to become the property of the and, whether desirable or not, cannot be British Museum, in the hall of which, stopped, or even essentially modified. I according to Mr. Smith, it may now be asked him what he meant to do in this seen. For this piece of sculpture he was matter in his dictionary. '.I mean,' he to receive three hundred guineas, provided said, 'to give every word at present in he procured the best marble he could general use, and hope thereby to contribute afford for the money. Unfortunately, in some degree to fix the language at its however, the block was found to be so full present station. This cannot be done com- of veins, that Garrick not only refused to pletely; but it may be possible to do a take it, but was induced to ask the artist great deal.' I begged to know what he | if the face of Shakspeare was marked with proposed to do with those words which mulberries? To appease his anger, Rouwere generally pronounced differently in biliac assured him it was the best he the two countries. In that case,' said he could afford for the price, but that he "I would adopt that which was most con- would cut off the head, and replace it
902 coorw.................socorrorr.o.o.concres with another, carved from a fine piece of was horror-stricken on beholding the corpse clear marble, which was done accordingly, of a black woman laid out upon the bed. to the satisfaction of his employer. The He immediately vociferated the name of only really public statue of his execution Roubiliac, who, on entering the room, to be seen in London is, a spirited figure made the following apology. “Oh dear! of Sir John Cass, in a niche of the school- | my good friend, I beg your pardon, I did house endowed by Sir John, at the north not remember poor Mary vas dere. Poor end of the Minories.
Mary, she die yesterday vid de small poc. Of Roubiliac's private monuments, there Come, come, and you must take part vid are several in this country. Westminster | my bed. Come, poor Mary vas my hosAbbey contains seven : viz. Mrs. Nightin- | maid for five or six years more." gale's, Sir Peter Warren's, Hargraves, Fleming's, Argyle's, Handel's, and General Wade's. While Roubiliac was engaged
THE HEBREW INSTITUTION. in superintending the fixing of these mo
I MR. EDITOR, numents in their assigned positions, it was SIR,—At the conclusion of an illustration bis practice to wander away from his of Jotham's fable, inserted in your number workmen, and stand even for hours, fixed for March last, I noted that, for reasons in the most enthusiastic admiration, gazing there stated, “The two principal societies at some of the exquisite specimens of in London, which are exclusively employed sculpture which adorn that venerable pile. in diffusing divine truth amongst the seed Among these, the monuments of Vere and of Abraham, at home and abroad, are at Lord Norris excited the highest degree of this moment occupied in raising the means his rapture.
for forming asylums for the protection and Mr. Smith, the author of “ The Ancient instruction of inquiring and believing HeTopography of London," relates, that while brews. There all of these may be proRoubiliac was giving directions relative to tected during a limited time, acquire a the statue of Sir Peter Warren, he, as usual, trade, whereby they may be enabled to slipped away to gaze upon one or other obtain in future their own maintenance, of his favourites. On one of these occa- and during their abode therein may receive sions, Smith's father, then a youth, went | Christian instruction and consolation in to him to deliver a message. He found the regular means of grace, without beRoubiliac with his arms folded, standing coming proselytes to any sector party before the north-west corner figure, viz. the bearing the Christian name; and of these figure of one of the six knights who sup- inquirers, there are numbers at this moport the cenotaph of Lord Norris,-ab- ment. The asylum forming by the Lonsorbed in the deepest admiration, blended don society is at Warsaw, the capital of apparently with expectation ; but of what, Poland; and the asylum forming by the the youth could not conjecture. Three Philo-Judæan society is in London." times he delivered his message, but in vain. Subsequent to the above communication, a He commenced a fourth repetition, when suggestion was made to the committee of the the enwrapped artist, grasping him by the Philo-Judæan society, by a body of most reelbow, exclaimed, in a low and smothered spectable individuals who had read their tone—“ Hush-hush-hush! He'll speak prospectus, that a society ought to be formed
for the sole purpose of carrying this benevoAnother anecdote, related on the same į lent scheme into effect. A committee, conauthority, is too characteristic to be omitted. stituted upon a liberal basis, without refer. A gentleman, intimate with Roubiliac, ence to any party or society whatever, being having staid one night at Slaughter's Coffee formed, the Philo-Judæan society cordially house until past 12 o'clock, discovered, as surrendered up to them all the means which he was about to withdraw, that he had their exertions had com passed, and heartily forgotten to take the key of the street-door “bade them God speed.” of the house in which he lodged, and as | A new society has thus arisen, denomihe had engaged not to disturb the other nated most fitly, the “Society of Friends inmates after this hour, was in some per- of the Hebrew Nation." Their motto is, plexity how to act. The artist, perceiving “Not by might, nor by power, but by my his embarrassment, told him he had a spare Spirit, saith the Lord of hosts.” “Freely bed, which was much at his service. The ye have received, freely give." Under the gentleman accepted his invitation, and on auspices of Jehovah, the Hebrew institu. being shewn to his room, the sculptor tion, (for the original name is retained,) is wished him a good night. The stranger designed to afford protection, religious baving, however, nearly undressed himself, instruction, and the means of earning å
livelihood, to two classes of individuals, viz. 1 ginally given to themselves, and in that to such descendants of Abraham as have grace of God which bringeth salvation, first rendered themselves destitute, by a pro- proclaimed in Jerusalem by their own fession of faith in Jesus Christ; and to brethren, through Jesus Christ, according those sincere inquirers into the truths of to the flesh their elder brother, who is Christianity, who, being Israelites, might Lord of all, and who is now taking posotherwise be prevented, by their relative session of His dominion from sea to sea, circumstances, from prosecuting such re- and from the river unto the ends of the search.
earth, my soul, bowed even to the ground in Premises having been engaged, and fur- commiseration, yearned over these outcasts nished by the committee of this society, in with feelings inexpressible. Thou, O Randolph-street, Camden Town, immedi- | Jehovah, help; give peace, give salvation, ately on the north of London, Mr. E. H. give rest to thy people. Simon, a Hebrew convert to the faith of When some spake unto Jesus, in the Christ Jesus, the Saviour of the world, has days of His flesh, of the temple in Jerubeen elected superintendent of the Hebrew salem, how it was adorned with goodly institution therein; and he entered upon stones and gifts, He said, “As for these his office on the first day of the present things which ye behold, the days will month. On Tuesday, the fifth of August, come, in the which there shall not be left the committee assembled upon the pre- one stone upon another, that shall not be mises, in order to open the institution, and thrown down. And when ye shall see personally examine such Hebrew candi- Jerusalem compassed with armies, then dates as were duly recommended, and in know that the desolation thereof is nigh. waiting for admission thereto. The meet. For there shall be great distress in the land, ing was opened with solemn prayer. Seve- and wrath upon this people. And they ral candidates presented themselves on this shall fall by the edge of the sword, and occasion, and much of that simplicity of shall be led away captive into all nations: manner peculiar to convicted sinners, in and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of earnest, searching for the Saviour of men, the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles was manifested by these children of faithful be fulfilled." The times of the Gentiles Abraham, while, in artless accents, they are hastening to be fulfilled, the redemption explained their views of sin, guilt, and sale of Israel draweth nigh, the generation of vation by faith, through the sacrifice of this nation hath not passed away into Jesus, the Son of God, during the strict annihilation, or even into an amalgamation examination to which they were subjected. with other nations, they exist unto this day Every candidate which the committee, a distinct people, according to the words upon mature deliberation, deemed quali- of our Lord, Luke xxi. 32. a cry is abroad fied, was admitted, as a probationer, into amongst them, that the Lord's time is the institution; and may He, who foretold come to visit His people; - may it be ours to all nations by His holy word, Luke 21. to fan this spark into a holy flame, as the signs of the times, and the time when instruments in the hands of the Son of He would restore to His brethren, the man; that we may be accounted worthy to Hebrews, peace and rest, give unto this escape all these things that shall come to feeble beginning of good, increase, and His pass, and to stand before Him. everlasting blessing.
W. COLDWELL. While I witnessed this assembly, and
King Square, Aug. 6, 1829. officially engaged in the proceedings, and beheld the children of that potent patriarch Abraham, who exclaimed before a king, REMARKS ON COUNTY ASYLUMS. “I have lifted up my hand unto the Lord, Health is often spoken of as the greatest the most high God, the possessor of hea blessing of this sublunary state, and it is ven and earth, that I will not take from a not unfrequently mentioned without any thread even to a shoe-latchet, and that I reference to the condition of the mind. will not take any thing that is thine, lest But great as is the blessing of bodily thou shouldst say, I have made Abraham health, it bears no comparison with the rich!” soliciting at the hands of Gentiles a value of that which is mental. We can morsel, and a momentary refuge from often struggle under the difficulties of phyurgent want and destitution, caused by sical disease, so as to perform the necescruel persecutors, merely because they sary duties of life, while a disordered mind sought the truth, and from the lips of Gen- unfits it for all that is useful, and tending tiles, and from their books, craving instruc- to social happiness. “The spirit of a man tion in the law of Jehovah, which was ori- | will sustain his infirmity; but a wounded