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Dialogue on Smoking Tobacco.

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chase, and the theatre, might all think them- offend, I will eat no flesh while the world selves entitle to plead their tastes and par- standeth, lest I make my brother to tialities, the necessity and utility of recrea- offend," 1 Cry viii. 7-13. Now, so far tion, &c. as a sufficient justification of as there exists an analogy between this their attachment to these follies.-A. By case, and that of smoking tobacco, so far no means. None of those amusements is my opposition to it sanctioned by the are entitled to the same apology as smok. authority of scripture. Ministers of the ing. For they are all of them calculated gospel especially, and other public relito foster bad passions; they are adverse to gious characters, whose conduct) is often serious reflection, and improving conver regarded, by the young and the ignorant, sation, and the anxiety and hurry with as the standard of rectitude, may do much which they are connected, unfit them for mischief by their attachment to this foolish the purpose of recreation. Besides, on custom. these, and many other amusements, public A. I see by the clock it is time to break opinion has stamped an odium, and it up our conversation.-J. I believe it is. regards them as - incompatible with the But I beg to trepass a few moments longer christian character; none of which objec- on your patience, while I ask you two tions lie against smoking.

questions relative to our subject. The first J. But you have a wife, children, and is, If a person addicted to smoking should servants. Now, if you consider smoking have strong and troublesome doubts upon as so great a privilege, why do you not his mind respecting the propriety of the pracinvite each and all of them to partake with tice, what ought he in that case to do?you in the enjoyment?-A. I should object A. If he cannot banish these doubts, he to my wife, children, and servants smoking, ought to relinquish the practice ; for the for three separate reasons; the obviousness existence of these doubts will make him of which vacates the necessity of repeating wretched, and will make the practice itself them.-J. Still no man can rationally sinful. «He that doubteth is condemned hope to succeed in dissuading others from if he eat; for whatsoever is not of faith is a practice which he himself follows. The sin.”-J. I ask you farther, If a pious man lower branches of your family may believe discover, after repeated trials, that the use themselves as much entitled to the grati- of tobacco hurts his soul, ought he not in fication as yourself, being totally ignorant that case to relinquish it ?-A. By all of the refined reasons by which you are means. For no temporal pleasure can induced to indulge in it; and as the mere compensate for the loss of the smallest love of the pleasure would probably be measure of virtue, much less for the loss their only motive, they would naturally of the soul. “Therefore," says our Lord, imagine it to be your only one also, and “if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, your character would thereby be impaired and cast it from thee, for it is better for in their estimation. On this ground, thee to enter into life with one eye, rather therefore, I must object to its expediency, than with two eyes to be cast into hell though Í should concede its lawfulness. fire."-J. I thank you for your candid A parallel question to ours was, that of concession. Allow me to close the debate eating meats offered in sacrifice to idols, by quoting a few lines from Cowper's Proreferred to by St. Paul, in his first epistle gress of Error. to the Corinthians. The apostle acknowledges that the action was completely

“None sends his arrow to the mark in view,

Whose hand is feeble, or his aim untrue; indifferent in itself. “Howbeit,” says he, For though, ere yet the shaft is on the wing, " there is not in every man that know

Or when it first forsake th' elastic string,

It err but little from the intended line, ledge : for some, with conscience of the

It falls at last far wide of his design. idol unto this hour, eat it as a thing offered So he who seeks a mansion in the sky, unto an idol; and their conscience being

Must watch his purpose with a stedfast eye,

That prize belongs to none but the sincere, weak is defiled." And he proceeds to The least obliquity is fatal here. say, “ If any man see thee, which hast

" With caution taste the sweet Circean cup, knowledge, sit at meat in the idol's temple, He that sips often, at last drinks it up. shall not the conscience of him which is

Habits are soon assumed, bnt when we strive

To strip them off, 'tis being flayed alive. weak be emboldened to eat those things

Called to the temple of impure delight, which are offered to idols. And through He that abstains, and he alone, does right. thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish,

If a wish wander that way, call it home,

He cannot long be safe whose wishes roam;. for whom Christ died? But when ye sin But if you pass the threshold, you are caught, so against the brethren, and wound their

Die then, if power Almighty save you not,

There hardening by degrees, till doubly steeled, weak conscience, ye sin against Christ.

Take leave of nature's God, and God revealedi. Wherefore, if meat make my brother to !

W. R.

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BOTANY SIMPLIFIED.

ceived the plant increase in size and (By Thomas Rose.)

beauty till it reached the period of matuIn the Imperial Magazine for July, (col. rity, when it burst forth into blossom, 626,) appeared an article, by H. of Shef. After remaining in this state some little field, recommending the study of botany time, you noticed symptoms of decay, and to the fair sex; and to that paper the pre in a day or two more beheld the once sent synoptical view of the science may be beautiful flower withered and shaken. In deemed an appendix.

place of the florescence, you found a pod or The uninviting aspect of philosophy is seed-vessel, which gradually ripened, till, at most frequently produced by the impene- length, it yielded seeds similar in every trable veil of learned jargon which conceals respect to those you had committed to the her natural beauties. The excellency of ground. some sciences, indeed, would seem to con 1 Plants are to be distinguished into sist in the multiplication of crude theories annual, biennial, and perennial. Annual and unpronounceable names, whilst every plants are such as spring up, flower, profresh discovery, instead of simplifying their duce seeds, and die, in the course of the principles and dispelling obscurity, throws year; for example, sweet pea, convolvolus, à darker mystery over them, by which &c. Biennial plants continue for a second they are removed still further from ordinary year, at the end of which they totally capacities. Orderly arrangement is, how decay; to this division belong the carnaever, necessary in every branch of natural tion, sweetwilliam, &c. Perennial plants philosophy, and in none more so than in are those whose roots retain their vigour botany, whose most interesting feature is for many years, among which are the the comparison which it institutes between daisy, bindweed, &c. the numerous particulars of the vegetable The essential parts of a plant are five : kingdom, by collecting them into distinct the root, stem, leaves, props, and fructifispecies, referring them to their proper cation. Let us consider each of these genera, arranging them into orders, and separately. finally placing them in classes.

1. The root is that part which pene. The progressive stages of vegetable ex- trates the earth, and draws from thence istence are too obvious to require extended the nutritive moisture which is necessary explanation. The simplest plant will serve for the support of the plant. It consists of for a general illustration, equally as well two parts, the stock, or body of the root, as the monarch of the grove;" the natu- and the small fibrous parts, by which it is ral principle by which both are produced enabled to imbibe nourishment for the and carried forward to maturity being the support of the vegetable. same. I would then ask some female phi Roots are of several kinds : such as, losopher, what observations she has made simple, having no subdivisions, like that of on the flowers which,

the radish; ramose or branching, divided “ Touch'd by her fair tendance, gladlier grew." into lateral branches ; bulbous, furnished

Did not you first cast a few small seeds with a bulb, as in the tulip; or fibrose, conon the parterre, each of which contained sisting only of fibrous threads, as in grasses. the embryo of a future plant ? After a 2. The stem or trunk is that part of a little time you perceived two porous sub-plant which, rising out of the root, prostances rise above the mould; these were duces and connects the branches, leaves, the original seed, much swollen, and divided and fructification. It is divided into sevein two, they are called the seed lobes, and ral kinds. are of a perishable nature. You, perhaps, The stem, properly so called, serves to drew one of these imperfect plants from elevate the leaves, branches, flower, and the earth, and found that it had shot down-fruit of the plant, and is either simple or wards a slender white thread called the compound. Simple stems are without root; whilst those which remained stand-division, as in the palm. Compound ing, daily developed new features. A stem stems throw out numerous branches transwith two leaves emerged from the lobes, versely. which, though delicate at first, gathered A straw, the stem of corn and grass, is strength, shot up with increasing height, usually jointed and hollow. and threw out small branches from its A stalk is any trunk which serves only sides. You then observed the decay of to elevate the flowers of the plant. the seed-lobes, which had sheltered and A peduncle, or foot-stalk of a flower, is protected the infant plant, till, at length, a thin trunk bearing the fructification only, the latter was left entirely to itself. If and connecting it with the common stem you continued your observations, you per- of the plant.

129.-VOL. XI.

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A petiole, or foot-stalk of a leaf, is al The stamens are those little threads trunk which runs tapering through the which are seen standing in the centre of whole length of the leaf, joining it to the the flower, and are the masculine features common stem.

of the plant. 3. The leaves of a plant are porous Each stamen consists of three parts: the bodies, whose office is to attract and trans- filament, or thread; the anthera, or sumfuse the air and moisture, and to throw a mit; and the pollen, or dust. The first of grateful shade over the more delicate parts; these elevates the anthera of the stamen, they are of the same use in the vegetable and at the same time connects it with the as lungs in the animal economy. Leaves flower. The pollen is a fine dust, conare divided into simple and compound. tained within the anthera, or upper part of Simple leaves are those which have each the stamen, which at a proper period is a petiole, or foot-stalk, to themselves, as scattered upon the stigma of the pistil, to in the vine. They are distinguished by a impregnate the germen. difference in respect to their general shape, The pistil is the germinating part of the when free from angles and indentations; flower, usually placed in the centre of the by their angles; by their indentations; by stamens, either elevated to an equal height their tips; by their outermost boundaries with them, or reposing nearly at the bottom or margins; and by the variety of their of the flower-cup. It is divided into three surfaces.

parts: the germen is connected with the Compound leaves are two or more sim- base of the flower, and contains the rudiple leaves connected with the same foot- / ment of the fruit; the stigma is the sumstalk as in the rose. They differ in respect mit of the pistil, covered with a moisture to their structure, by which is to be that receives the dust of the stamens; and understood the insertion of the lesser leaves the style, or connecting thread between that compose them, and by their degree, the germen and stigma, conveys the fecunwhich has reference to the subdivisions of dating principle to the first mentioned the common foot-stalk. There are other organ. distinguishing characteristics of leaves, that The seed-vessel is the germen grown to are not, however, of sufficient importance maturity after the other parts of the flower to be mentioned here.

have passed away; its form is much diver4. The props of a plant are those parts sified, and constitutes a characteristic of the which tend to strengthen its structure, to plant. support the fructification, and to defend The seeds are the small bodies, of varithe young shoots. These are leafy appen- ous shape, which are yielded by the seeddages to the stalk, sheltering a shoot, a vessel when perfectly ripe, containing the thorn protruding from the wood of the rudiment of a new plant. Each seed conplant, as in the blackthorn ; a prickle, as sists of two lobes, which, when separated, in the rose; a tendril, as in the vine; discover the infant vegetable lying between enabling it to cling round some other them, whose principal features at this time body; or glands, as on the stalk of the are the plume, which ascends from the moss rose, serving to carry off the excre- seed, above the surface of the ground, and tory matter of the plant.

the unformed root, which shoots downward 5. The fructification of a plant is that into the earth. part which, though of the shortest continu- ! The base of the fructification is the conance, is, of all others, the most important, tinuation of the stem, and is that part in as it contains the principle of reproduction, which the other members are inserted. Its and includes the flower and fruit. It is name varies according to its use, figure, divided into seven principal parts, the and situation; but the definition just given flower-cup, the petals, the stamens, the is sufficient to answer general purposes. pistil, the seed-vessel, the seeds, and the Having thus briefly noticed the principal base, which serves to connect the whole. divisions of a plant, and explained their

The flower-cup is immediately con- connexion with each other, let us take a nected with the stem, and serves to enclose philosophical view of the vegetable eco. and hold together the other parts of fructi nomy. fication.

Seeds are not in all instances sown by The petals are the leaves of the flower, the hand of man; some are furnished with so called to distinguish them from those of | a downy covering, which enables the air to the plant. They are wonderfully varied in scatter them over the earth, and others are colour and construction, and form a deli- carried by the birds. It is not, therefore, cate defence for the immediate agents of under the culture of human art alone that propagation.

vegetable wonders rise and meet the eye;

805
Botany simplified.

806

coronare...............core.. the wild luxuriance of nature is seen in tube, which by its attractive powers draws the brakes and thickets, and exists in the from the earth the gaseous fluids, neces“lone wilderness," into whose mazes mansary to vegetable existence. In the second has never penetrated.

instance, it is a number of capillary vessels When the seed is committed to the connecting with the main tube, through ground, the process of vegetation begins. which the gases ascend into every part of The external" covering falls off, and the the plant by means of the stem and seed absorbs the surrounding moisture, till branches, each of which consists of one or the enclosed plant gathers sufficient strength more conducting tubes. to burst asunder the lobes, and emerge into How imperfect had been the mechanism new being. The root penetrates into the of vegetation, if plants had not been furearth, and the plume rises, under the pro- nished with leaves: at some periods the tection of the lobes, above the surface. plentiful supply of gaseous fuid would The latter do not, at this early stage of have rendered them gross and unhealthy the plant's existence, merely serve to de- through repletion, whilst at others a scanty fend it from injury; the young vegetable supply of nutriment would have induced is at present unable to provide itself with their decay. The leaves may be viewed necessary nourishment, and is as much as excretory and secretory ducts, that serve dependent on the seed-lobes as the new either to carry off the unhealthy grossness born infant on the sheltering arms and of the plant, or to furnish it with the nutritious breast of its mother. As a fond means of support in seasons of scarcity. parent, therefore, protects and nourishes By experiments with the air-pump, atmoher helpless babe, so the seed-lobes ward spheric air is found to be as necessary to off any rude assault from the tender plant, vegetable as to animal existence, and the and prepare nutritive juices for its support, respiration of plants is performed by means till its organs are sufficiently strong to per- of their leaves. These appendages are form their destined functions.

spongy, porous bodies, consisting of three Every day gives new strength to the distinct parts: the skeleton, or frame work, infant plant. The stem increases in thick. the external skin, full of minute pores, and ness, and shoots up in height, and the first the colouring matter of the leaf, which is leaves begin to be fully developed; these adapted to absorb moisture. Either the are usually different in form from those superfluous nutriment of the plant is, which succeed them. The seed-lobes are therefore, brought through the capillary now visibly decaying, and in a few days | vessels into the absorbent of the leaf, and they perish altogether; the plant is then thrown off through the pores; or, if necesleft dependent on itself. It is impossible sary, the treasures of the night-dew are not to observe the analogies which run gathered into the absorbent, and transthrough the natural world. How strongly mitted into every part of the vegetable. does the decay of the seed-lobes picture | Nor do the uses of the leaves end here: the dying parent, who, after exhausting all without their grateful shade, many of the her energies for the present and future wel- more delicate plants could not sustain the fare of her child, sinks down, worn out heat of the sun, which would dry up their with maternal solicitude, on the bed of juices, and cause them quickly to wither.

When the plant has arrived at its full The first leaves of the plant do not con- strength, a wonderful phenomenon takes tinue for a great length of time; but shortly place, to which its prior existence was only give place to what may be called the pro- preparatory. It bursts forth into beautiful per foliage. Branches, also, begin to and delicate blossoms, which gradually shoot from the sides of the stem, each expand into perfect flowers. The period under the protection of a leafy prop; these is now drawing on, when the plant, having gather strength, till in the end they are fur- provided for the continuation of its species, nished with leaves similar to those on the begins to decay. The petals lose their main stem, and give birth to other shoots. brilliancy of colour, and fall from the stem,

The plant has now acquired that strength leaving the fruit or seed.vessel to ripen. and vigour which promise to conduct it to When the stamens and pistils are on the maturity; let us then more particularly same plant, or included within the same consider the mechanism of its several flower, it is easy to conceive that the least parts.

motion of the plant, when the flower is The root consists either of one tapering ripe, will scatter a portion of the pollen on tube alone, or of this with subordinate the stigma; and where the stamens and branches proceeding from the sides. In pistils are on different plants, situated at a ihe first case the root is a single capillary | distance from each other, the fertilizing

INTINDIHIRISH

death.

1923.

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dust is carried by the wind to the proper | Leicester, are intersected, and their proorgan. The economy of vegetable exist- ducts opened to regular and expeditious ence is completed when the plant has communications with London, the head of flowered, and produced seeds for the pro the British empire, and the first commerpagation of the species.

cial city in the world. : It is not necessary to occupy more space If the source and course of the Thames in this compendium, by enumerating the are noble, its termination is noblissimus: classes, orders, &c. of the Linnean system, presenting an ample front to the foaming which are distinguished by the number, brine, it rolls into the North sea, like an situation, &c. of the fecundating organs, as ocean into an ocean, fraught with the these can easily be learned from any ele freight of every clime this capacious sphere mentary work on botany.

affords : nor do the most stately barks disJuly 1st, 1829.

dain its channel. Ships of every grade, from the coaster to the tall East Indiaman,

and from the bomb to the first-rate man of OBSERVATIONS ON LONDON BRIDGE.

war, sail amidst its ample width, and anThe Thames is a noble river; its situation chor in its deeps with ease and safety : in the south of England is well known; while vessels of the lesser class, innumeraand in every sea-port in the known world ble, crowd its tide, and form “the floating its name is familiar with the merchants. millions of the Thames.” “And last, not The Thames is, indeed, a noble river, be- least," upon its banks are founded those cause all its parts sustain this exalted great societies which forth to heathen darkcharacter. Its source is an ample spring, ness send the word of God; the prophets, which flows so copiously, that its current, also, send they, teaching words of truth, with the tributary rills around, form, during and, in His name who died for sinful the first mile of its course, a river suffi men, proclaiming grace to all. cient to work the machinery of a cornmill, During a course of more than seventy Its course is long and interesting, and miles, including the sinuosities of its chanstreams innumerable mingle with its flow- nel, the tide flows up the Thames, rendering. It laves the most exalted seat of ing the navigation easy by its current uplearning in the world; and the palaces of ward, and commodious by the increased royalty crown its margin in its progress to depth of water which the tide produces. A the ocean.

tide is the propagation of a wave, and Stretching from west to east, across the pressing up a river, its impetus is conisland of Great Britain, amidst the southern tinued to a given distance from the ocean, provinces, after flowing through the metro- in accordance with certain circumstances polis, it disembogues itself into the North which occur in the channel along which it sea on the east, while on the west its current flows. If the bed of a river is a plane affords facilities to a junction with the At-| which possesses considerable inclination lantic ocean and the Irish sea, as well as towards the ocean, the tide is impeded the principal sea-ports and manufacturing by its ascent, gradually dies away, and districts throughout the island.

at no great distance from the sea ceases These junctions are effected by means of entirely. If the channel of a river mecanals, one of which connects the Thames anders considerably throughout its course, with the Severn, and others with the these sinuosities check the progress of the Avon, the Mersey, and the Trent; which tide, by continually throwing its current last affords a second outlet into the North into the bight, and thus at every turn less. sea. Thus, does this noble river become ening the original impetus of the wave, navigable, taking in its artificial as well as by causing it to set out anew. If the natural ramifications, throughout the great- bed of a river contains abrupt ascents, est portion of England. The important they arrest the impetus of the wave at sea-ports of Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull, these points, and there the current beare thus opened to its commerce, as well as 1 comes stationary; until the flowing tide the lesser, viz. Chepstow, Gloucester, Run- surmounts the impediment, and, rippling corn, Chester, York, Selby, Goole, Thorne, over, sets out anew with enfeebled force. Gainsborough, Grimsby, Louth, Boston, But if the bed of a river is an inclined Spalding, and Lynn, without incurring the plane, approaching the horizontal, and dangers of the seas; while the immense quite regular, the tide flows along its chanmanufactories in the west of England and nel freely, ascends to a great distance Wales, and in the counties of Worcester, from the ocean, and rises to a considera. Warwick, and Stafford, Salop, Chester, ble height above its ebb. Lancaster, York, Nottingham, Derby, and There exist no natural impediments of

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