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perfect. But though the voice of nature who have once heard of such a book as proclaims a Creator, it can do no more. the Bible, and beeu in any degree informed It declares him to be infinitely powerful of its interesting contents, but must natu: and infinitely wise, and points him outrally feel a desire to read it. The very as the great ruler of its operations ; but name it bears (which implies the BOOK OF of his mode of existence, or attributes, it BOOKS,) has something in it so extraordincan teach us nothing. From this deficiary, that curiosity, not to say devotional ency arise the vague, irreconcileable, and feeling, must be stimulated to be acquaintcontradictory systems which have been ed with it. To what a pitch of interest disseminated by the proselytes of natural then must that curiosity be raised, when theology. The maxim of Pope,
it is known to contain, not only the history "Say first, of God above, or man below,
of mankind from the creation, through a What can we reason but from what we know !" long succession of remote ages, and a cirhas been strictly exhibited in their theories, cumstantial account of events connected which are as inconsistent with the nature with it, but, above all, that it reveals to and attributes of the Divine Being, as man the great Creator of himself and of the they are repugnant to the dictates of rea- universe around him. i, son. The visions of the Brahmins, the Such is the nature of the evidence which superstitions of the Hindoos, and the reve revelation bears to the existence of a God; ries of Confucius, are examples of the and it further unfolds his character, attriabsurdities to which men are led by the butes, and moral government. mere light of nature. Yet these are intel The very nature of the Bible, in the ligent beings, and firmly persuaded of the whole of its composition, bears the clearest truth of what they advance. Nature has and most convincing proofs of a divine proved to them, equally as to the specula- origin ; and thus is an authority worthy tive modern philosopher, the existence of to be received in evidence, for however a God; and their benighted reason, lost disputes may arise respecting the interprein ignorance, has led them to clothe him tation of particular passages, the whole, as a in the semblance of the most horrid pro- body of facts, is consistent with itself; and ductions of nature. But, compared with this is the more wonderful when we conthe philosopher, they had the same evi. sider the various periods at which it was dences as himself, and the same facts were written, and the number of persons who equally open to the contemplation of both, were instrumental to its composition." They had still to form to themselves some As a history, it is most complete and idea of that Being, and his mode of exist satisfactory. The introduction of the Deity ence, and the results in each have been in the stupendous act of creation, conveys commensurate with their education. a distinct and perfect idea of the supreme
But the modern deist is blest with su- | majesty, power, and wisdom; and agrees perior mental cultivation. To him the minutely with the eyidences afforded us by voice of nature proclaims a God, and his nature. reason confirms the testimony. To the All the laws also that are contained in voice of nature he professes to listen ; but the Bible, whether ceremonial, judicial, or his education, so far from assisting him moral, are suited to the character of man in his researches, is only employed to | as a rational and accountable creature, elevate his own pride and self-sufficiency while they are perfectly consistent with the against the positive declaration of the divine attributes. power that made him.
What must at first sight make a strong! Thus natural evidence, both in the savage impression on the mind of the reader is, and the philosopher, produces no more to find that both these material parts of than a conviction of the existence of the the Bible, namely, the history and law, supreme Being, leaving man to form his though intimately connected throughout the own conjectures on his mode of existence, sacred volume, and forming together one attributes, &c.; and under these circum- whole, yet that either, 'if considered sepa.' stances we find the two characters forming rately, and independent of the other, is such opinions as are suited to their situa perfect and complete in itself. This is one tion, though, from the instances we have of the strongest proofs of the authenticity had of the tenets and practice of modern and genuineness, as well as of the divine deists, we cannot judge favourably of the origin, of the sacred records. : effect of this species of evidence on their ' Another prominent feature of evidence minds.
in them is, the simplicity, but grandeur, of 2. Supernatural or Revealed Evidence the language in which they are written. I am convinced that there are few, if any, It might have been naturally expected,
that had any man sat down to write altrovertible proofs of the divine origin of description of the creation, through its that revelation, on the evidence of which whole progress, by the agency of a great the existence, attributes, and moral governand powerful Being, he would have ex ment of God are to be established. . . hausted all the powers of language to give Yet great as is the impression such a a commensurate idea of that Being. And body of evidence is calculated to make on when he further proposed to trace the ope the human mind, the self-sufficient and ration of his moral government through the presumptuous deist is found to reject it history of mankind, he would have made with contempt and disdain. This apthem superlatively wise, happy, and obe- pears indeed unaccountable, but a slight dient, as the creatures of so pure and wise examination into his motives will explain a God. He would have niade virtue their | it. He sees by the light of nature that governing principle, and set them above he is placed in an elevated station in the the contaminating influence of vice. The chain of being : his passions lead him to laws he would have invented for their acts of vice and intemperance, and he government would have been adapted to wishes to indulge them, but this indulgence this state of mental purity and unsinning is contrary to those laws of moral rectitude obedience, and no provision would have established on the basis of revealed relibeen made to prevent the dominion of the gion for the government of society, and in passions, as a state of moral rectitude, plac order to justify himself in their practice, ing them under the restraints of reason, he boldly denies the authority on which would have precluded all suspicion of their those laws are founded, asserts the laws of rebellion against its dictates. No emana nature in his defence, and, discarding the tions of foresight would have appeared in moral attributes of God, declares himself anticipation, and no remedies would have | a deist. Who can deny but a man who been provided for unexpected disasters. can act thus, with the advantages of
Such, one would be led to expect the modern education, and the volume of inBible to be, had it been written by man; / spiration open before him, is more culpaand such we find to be the character of ble and inexcusable than those systems which men have formed "The poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind and issued to their followers. as divine Sees God in clouds, and hears him in the wind ?" revelations. Of these I need only mention If he attempts to support his infidelity the Mahometan Koran, and the visionary by reasoning, he falls into the absurdities theory of Bramah; in both which the and contradictions we have examined, Divine Being is made rather to act the which require little argument to refute, part of a magician, than of an intelligent though, to the minds of the ignorant and creator.
unthinking, they are replete with danger But totally different is the character of and mischief. But even suppose him to the inspired volume we possess. There exert the ingenuity of a Voltaire, a Bolingare no imaginary attributes assigned to broke or a Gibbon, he has still to contend the Deity, the simple but sublime descrip. with difficulties which the light of nature tion of the creation is supported and con cannot surmount, and when discoursing on firmed by the researches of the philosopher, the moral government and attributes of and the whole system of nature, displays the Deity, all is doubt, uncertainty, and that degree of order, design, and contri conjecture. On these points, which must vance, which those scriptures so amply strike the deist, in contemplating the great declare, while throughout every part of economy of nature in the disposition of their historical and prophetic contents, the the universe, as of the utmost importance, human character bears an identity, that at the evidence of nature affords no elucidaonce stamps it with the signet of truth. tion, and, sinking into total disbelief in There no vice is palliated or concealed, rejecting the clue of revelation, he doubts, and no virtue exalted beyond its just degree contrary to the evidence even of his senses, of merit; and even the most eminent cha and denies the testimony of every day's racters, as Abraham, David, Solomon, &c. experience. exhibit that mixture of human infirmity Such is the general effect of the prinwhich proves the calamitous influence of ciples espoused by the deist, and which primeval transgression, and the necessity lead to crimes of the blackest dye, Reof that perfect righteousness which can strained by no laws of moral rectitude, he only be furnished by the “ blood of Him becomes a blasphemer of his God, and a who died for our sins, and rose again for declared enemy to the friends of order, our justification."
virtue, and religion, Such then I consider to be the incon
. E. G. B."
783 Methods for the Recovery of Persons apparently Drowned. 784
For........... crocoregionoworocooo METHODS RECOMMENDED BY THE HUMANE | into the Russian language, by command of : SOCIETY OF LONDON FOR THE RECOVERY the empress. • OF PERSONS APPARENTLY DROWNED. In 1769, an edict was published in GerThis article owes its present insertion to many, extending its directions and enthe following letter, lately received from a
couragement to every accident, like death, correspondent.
that afforded a possibility of relief.
In 1771, the magistrates of the city of “ MR EDITOR,
Paris also founded an institution in favour * Sir.-We live near a dangerous river,
of the drowned; and in France they have the Idle, where many accidents frequently
been instrumental in saving forty-five peroccur. Two persons were drowned during
sons out of sixty-nine, in about sixteen the last week, one of whom I am per.
months. suaded might have been recovered, if a
In 1773, Dr. Cogan, and Dr. Hawes, of professional man had been immediately on
London, proposed a plan for the introducthe spot, but no one lives within about
tion of a similar institution into these four miles. The purport of my letter is to
kingdoms. The plan was so well receivask what are the most simple and effica
ed and encouraged, that they were soon, cious modes of recovering persons under
viz. in 1774, enabled to form a society, such distressing circumstances.
since called the Humane Society, for proYours respectfully,
moting its laudable designs. · Mipon, near Bawtry, 'H. BURR."
The following abstract of the plan of this July 31, 1829.
society, and method of treatment recomDrowning, it is well known, is the act of mended by it, will not, we apprehend, be suffocating, or being suffocated, by water. unacceptable to our readers. This society Dr. Halley observes, that people not ac- has undertaken to publish, in as extensive customed to diving begin to drown in about a manner as possible, the proper methods of half a minute's time. .
treating persons in the unfortunate circum• In Holland, where the country is inter stances, to which they extend their relief; sected with an abundance of canals and to distribute a premium of two guineas inland seas, accidents frequently occurred among the first persons, not exceeding four to the inhabitants, many of whom, it was in number, who attempt to recover any thought, were left to perish every year from person, taken out of the water for dead, a want of proper assistance. To remedy within thirty miles of the cities of London this defect, a society was formed at Am and Westminster, provided they have not sterdam in the year 1767, which offered pre been longer than two hours under the water, miums to those who should save the life of and provided the assistants persevere in the a citizen in danger of perishing by water ; | use of the means recommended for the space and which proposed, from time to time, to of two hours, whether their attempts are publish the treatment, and method of re successful or not. These rewards are also covery, observed in such cases.
to include every other instance of sudden This institution, which was every where death, whether by suffocation from noxious encouraged through the United Provinces, vapours, hanging, syncopes, freezing, &c. by the magistrates, and by the States They propose to distribute, in like manner, General, has been attended with very con- four guineas, wherever the patient has siderable success; and it appears that no been restored to life; to give to any publican, less than two hundred persons have been or other person, who shall admit the body recovered from death, by its exertions, in into his house without delay, and furnish the space of about six years. In several of | the necessary accommodations, the sum of these cases, the recovered patients had con- one guinea, and to secure him from the tinued upwards of an hour, without any charge of burial in unsuccessful cases; and signs of life, after they had been taken out to present an honorary medal to those mediof the water.
cal gentlemen, or others, who give their Instigated by this example, the magis- assistance gratis, and who are provided with trates of health at Milan and Venice issued a fumigator, and other necessaries, always orders, in 1768, for the treatment of in readiness, in all those cases in which drowned persons. The city of Hamburgh they may prove instrumental of success. appointed a similar ordinance to be read The device on one side of their medal is a in all churches, extending their succour boy, who is represented blowing an ex. not only to the drowned, but to the tinguished torch, with the hope, as the strangled, to those suffocated by noxious legend, “Lateat scintillula forsan," imvapours, and to the frozen. The first part ports, that a little spark may still remain. of the Dutch Memoirs was also translated The reverse exhibits a civic wreath, which
was the Roman reward for saving the life bricks wrapped in cloths, should be rubof a citizen, with a blank for the name of bed over the body, and particularly along a person to whom the medal may be given; the back. The natural and kindly warmth the inscription round the wreath, “Hoc of a healthy person lying by the side of pretium cive servato tulit," expresses the the body has been found in many cases merit which obtained it. tion and
very efficacious. The shirt or clothes, of Before giving any directions concerning an attendant, or the skin of a sheep fresh the treatment of the drowned patient, it killed, may also be used with advantage. will be necessary to describe the method of Should these accidents happen in the recovering the body : the implements for neighbourhood of a warm-bath, brewthis purpose are termed drags. In navi- house, baker, glass-house, saltern, soap gable rivers, and where the person falls into boiler, or any fabric where warm lees, the river clothed, the common boat.hook is ashes, embers, grains, sand, water, &c, are likely to prove the most useful, from the cir- easily procured, it would be of the utmost cumstance of its being almost always at hand; 1 service to place the body in any of these, and though not otherwise well adapted for the moderated to a degree of heat but very purpose, a body may often be recovered little exceeding that of a healthy person. by it, before other drags, kept for the pur. 3. The subject being placed in one or pose, can be procured: another circum- | other of these advantageous circumstances stance in their favour is, that in towns as speedily as possible, various stimulating (where such accidents mostly occur) there | methods should next be employed. The are generally several boats near, each fur- most efficacious are, to blow with force nished with its hook or hitcher, which may into the lungs, by applying the mouth to be employed all at the same time; while on that of the patient, closing his nostrils with the other hand it cannot be expected that one hand, and gently expelling the air again more than one drag can be got to the place by pressing the chest with the other, imitain any reasonable time; for these reasons, ting the strong breathing of a healthy perit seems, that if any diag were contrived, son. The medium of a handkerchief, or which would answer well for both boat cloth, may be used, to render the operation hook and hitcher, it would be the best for less indelicate. If the lungs cannot be rivers and canals, where the drowning sub | inflated in this manner, it may be attempted jects are mostly clothed. How
by blowing through one of the nostrils, and The following is the method of treatment at the same time keeping the other close. recommended by the society.
Dr. Monro, for this purpose, recommends **** 1. In removing the body to a convenient a wooden pipe, fitted at one end for filling place, great care must be taken that it be not the nostril, and at the other for being blown bruised, nor shaken violently, roughly han- | into by a person's mouth, or for receiving dled, nor carried over the shoulders with the the pipe of a pair of bellows, to be emhead hanging downwards, nor rolled upon ployed for the same purpose, if necessary. the ground, or over a barrel, nor lifted up the Whilst one assistant is constantly employed hills. For experience proves, that all these in this operation, another should throw the methods are injurious, and often destroy smoke of tobacco up the fundament into the small remains of life. The unfortu- the bowels, by means of a pipe, or fumiganate object should be cautiously conveyed tor, such as are used in administering clysby two or more persons, or in a carriage ters; or by a pair of bellows, till the other upon straw, lying as on a bed, with the instrument can be procured. A third athead a little raised, and kept in as natural tendant should, in the mean time, rub the
and easy a position as possible. topli belly, chest, back, and arms, with a coarse 4 2. The body being well dried with a cloth, cloth, or flannel, dipped in brandy, rum, or
should be placed in a moderate degree of gin, or with dry salt, so as not to rub off heat, but not too near a large fire. The the skin ; spirits of hartshorn, volatile windows, or door of the room, should be salts, or any other stimulating substance, left open, and no more persons admitted must also be applied to the nostrils, and into it than those who are absolutely neces- rubbed upon the temples very frequently. sary; as the life of the patient greatly de Electrical shocks, made to pass in different pends upon having the benefit of a pure directions through the body, and partiair, The warmth most promising of suc- cularly through the heart and lungs, have cess is that of a bed, or blanket, properly been recommended as'very powerful warmed. Bottles of hot water should be stimuli; and, from the trials that have laid at the bottom of the feet, in the joints already been made, they promise considerof the knees, and under the arm-pits; and able success. The body should, at intervals, a warming-pan moderately heated, or hot be shaken also, and varied in its position.
4. If there be any signs of returning of an inch in width; by this the artificial life, such as sighing, gasping, twitching, or breathing may be continued, while the any convulsive motions, beating of the other operations, the application of the heart, the return of the natural colour and | stimuli to the stomach excepted, are going warmth, opening a vein in the arm or on, which could not conveniently be the neck may prove beneficial; but the quan case, if the muzzle of the bellows were tity of blood taken away should not be introduced into the nose. The end next large ; nor should an artery ever be opened, the nose should be double, and applied to as profuse bleeding has appeared preju- both nostrils. Secondly, a syringe with dicial, and even destructive, to the small a hollow bougie, or flexible catheter, of remains of life. The throat should be sufficient length to go into the stomach, tickled with a feather, in order to excite a and to convey any stimulating matter into propensity to vomit; and the nostrils also it, without affecting the lungs. Thirdly, a with a feather, snuff, or any other stimulant, 1 pair of small bellows, such as are comso as to provoke sneezings. A tea-spoon- monly used in throwing fumes of tobacco ful of warm water may be occasionally up the anus. Phil. Trans. vol. Ixvi, part administered, in order to learn whether the ii. p. 412, 425. power of swallowing be returned ; and if The Humane Society, since its first it be, a table-spoonful of warm wine, or establishment, to the present time, has been brandy and water, may be given with ad. | instrumental in recovering a great number vantage ; but not before, as the liquor may of persons out of the multitude of cases get into the lungs, before the power of to which their attempts have been applied. swallowing returns. The other methods See Reports of the Society for the Recovery should be continued with vigour, until the of Persons apparently drowned. patient be gradually restored.
Societies of a similar nature have been * When the patient has been but a short formed at Norwich, Bristol, Liverpool, Coltime senseless, blowing into the lungs, or | chester, Hull, &c. and likewise at Cork, in bowels, has been in some cases found Ireland. The board of police in Scotland sufficient; yet a speedy recovery is not to has also interested itself in favour of the be expected in general. On the contrary, same benevolent design. the above methods are to be continued with spirit for two hours, or upwards,
ON SMOKING TOBACCO. A DIALOGUE although there should not be the least
BETWEEN ANDRONICUS AND JUNIA, symptoms of returning life. The same means of restoration are applicable to the
"Nought that is right think little; well aware various other cases of sudden death, re What reason bids, God bids."-YOUNG. cited in the beginning of this article.
When these prove unsuccessful, the sur- | ANDRONICUS. I am glad to see you, my geon's last resource is bronchotomy, or good neighbour Junia.- JUNIA. I thank opening the arteria trachæa; for perhaps | you neighbour, Andronicus.-A. As we the air entering freely into the lungs, through are both addicted to the practice of smokthe aperture made in the canal, through | ing, you will perhaps join me in the luxury which they received it in their natural state, of a pipe.-J. I feel inclined to accept will restore the play of the lungs, and all your proposal: and, until we can hit upon the motions of the breast.
a better subject, we will, if you please, disMr. Hunter, F.R.S. has, at the request cuss the moral merits of this same luxury. of a member of the Humane Society, -A. I fear, sir, this theme promises to be published proposals for recovering persons a barren one; but, pray, what are you apparently drowned ; among which he re- about to advance on this curious topic?commends the following apparatus, with a J. I have to say, that ever since I began view to the purposes of this society. to smoke, I have been unsatisfied as to the
First, a pair of bellows; so contrived with lawfulness of the practice. Often when I two separate cavities, that by opening them, have got the tube into my mouth, and prowhen applied to the nostrils or mouth of a mised myself considerable delight, I could patient, one cavity may be filled with the not help blushing to find myself attached common air, and the other with air sucked out to so dirty and pitiful a gratification. Now from the lungs; and by shutting them again, I wish particularly to know, whether you the common air may be thrown into the have ever felt in a similar manner on this lungs, and that sucked out of the lungs subject.-A. Indeed, sir, though I must discharged into the room. The pipe of respect your sincerity, I pity the infirmity these should be flexible, in length a foot or of your conscience.-J. Nay, but I wish a foot and a half, and at least three-eighths you not to parry off my appeal.-A. Why,