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shadede haage appears on theuglass, and vanishes down, and the spectrum up; this the light of the window through it assumes is downright demonstration that the colours a similar redness. And the surface being of the latter have erossed at the irregular inclined, this red, the deepest and strongest focus.

Ti L osta of all colours, fines off into less glass, that . As to polarization, be seems to think is, into less shade, yellow, and into more, it a hoar: but* consenting to examine ot, blue. But why not fine off into less shade, he finds it, all-absurd as it is, not inconlighter and still lighter red, why into sistent with the old principles ; but how orange and yellow ? Because being in he solves the phenomena on the new, we shade, orange and yellow actually are can convey no idea without the figure. A lighter shades or tints of red. The parent Dial. vit. Inversion by reflection ion shade on the glass fines off till too weak spherical surfaces is regulated by the same to be distinguished as red; and as it law respecting the angle of inclination, fines off, farther, for it is not yet pure as inversion by transmission. For this too light, it must take an appearance com- it is necessary to consult the plates.' He pounded of less red, and more light; and then shews why the eye can only see the what is this but yellow, or, if you will, sun's image on that spot of a piece of orange? The conflict lies between dark water, where the altitudes of the sun and red and sheer light. So far as our eyes eye are equal; why objects are reflected on can distinguish it, the red prevails, and themselves only on the perpendicular, and after that the light predominates and makes why the eye, object, and image must be on it first orange, and then yellow, the lightest the same plain. of all colours. As to blue, he is in some Dial. viit. His account of the rainbow doubt whether to call it a colour or not. differs little from that of others, except that It is then shewn that as light is of no he excludes refraction. He then explodes cotour before refraction, so mere refraction the fallacy of homogeneous and heteroge. could never colour it. No, no, says the neous light, and closes the work with a author, when I shall see the letters formed strict examination of the six leading exi by the same ink in my pen assume differ | periments of the Opticians, including the ent colours, according to the different in. | famous experimentum crucis, which are clinations given them, then I may be supposed to prove the different refrangitempted to believe that rays might be bility of rays. But to follow him through coloured by being differently refiacted. this part of his subject, the reader will find If indeed there were such rays, observes it useful to have both works before him.'in Cal.). True, replies Mu. they ought to exist before they are coloured or refracted.

Dial. vi. Prismatic spectrum, and polarity of light. If the former were an

Review.- The Reigning Principles of original image independent of that on the

Astronomy erploded: and all the Phe. glass, it would improperly be called a

nomena solved on Principles entirely spectrum, the two things are as different

| new, and in perfect harmony with in themselves, 'as a shadow from its sub

Nature, Reason, and Common Sense. stance. The image never is seen but on

By the Author of Mulamen and Calthe glass. The spectrum is never seen

lacles. 8vo. pp. 88. Longman, Lonthere, but only on a proper surface at, or, don. a 14. 'it ,14 ming to be as here, beyond the focus ; thrown in- This writer possesses as strong a repugnance verted on the wall, as in case of the focal to the principles of astronomy, as to those of spectrum, and that in the eye. Philosophers optics. . In Mulamen and Callacles he affect not to know that the prism has a regards gravitation projection, and a vas focus; because they see no possibility of cuum as creatures of imagination, which their rays crossing there. They admit the have no real existence, and which, if they spectrum to be on the wall, where it ap- did exist, would neither account for the pears to be;. but the real image which formation nor revolutions of the heavenly they see on the prism, they tell us is not bodies; nay, would have inevitably prethere, but at the bottom of the eye forsooth. vented their ever revolving or existing at Whereas the picture in the latter place is all. Yoshl's.ro i n tesi Didw only at spectrum, vand positively never is Most philosophers are of opinion, that seenoisla ai word, that the spectrum is an the natural state of matter is rest. And to invertedi copy of the image on the glass, save themselves the trouble of inquiring the followings very simple experiment, he into the cause and origin of the planets) thinks, places beyond dispute between the and their motion, they are content to prisml on its axis either way, the image ascribe both to the immediate act of God.

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3 Review.ma Onthe Divine Origin of Christianity.

746.

WITH

But our author i says; mattery never i was bodies are more, and falling ones less supte zor (could be lat rest. The boriginal state portedas Ji di voint wobuw di 10 trail soli ofl allı material things was most probably With any thing like a gravitating powers chaotic, and that could be no other than our author's system is so much at variance, what they would again reverti to, if all that he says the weighto of bodies is as the bodies were reduced to their first prin- square of their distance directly, and not! ciples, and left floating in the air or ex- inversely, for the upper regions of the systel panse, that is, in a perfectly fluid state, a tem are more rarep and of slower motion, little- denser perhaps than common-air: than the more central parts. And, in fines and it is not easy to conceive how such a they all move vin parts of the medium fluidicouldı long remain at rest, or ever be lighter than themselves, and -are i consen solat all. And since all motion in such a quently precipitated, accelerated, &c. as medium must be curvilinear, every mate on the old principles; and their being so rial substance once put in motion would / is itself the very main-spring of their per acquire weight, or tendency to the centre petual motion, nor can they ever cease toi ofis its own motion : for previous to their move, so long as the same laws of nature moving they could have neither. Now are in force. Such is a brief sketch of the no body can so move, but its exterior limb author's astronomical theory. 'n Onde must run over more space, and meet with - Having thus given a brief but impartial more resistance, than the interior, and by analysis of the two preceding works by the these means the body itself is necessarily same author, we feel but little inclined to pressed towards the centre: this is the animadvert on their peculiarities. All only centripetal force in nature : and theories are open to investigation, and acting in that direction, thither every body infallibility is a prerogative which no mani gomoving would fall, if at liberty; but has a right to claim either in science or being more or less supported by the very theology. To rigorous examination we) motion itself, as well as by the medium, are indebted for most of the important dis) it can only fall round the centre, that is, coveries with which science is enriched se revolve. The grosser particles, however, and were this to be laid aside, no further still floating around, would descend to the progress would be made in our acquisition centre ultimately, and there coalesce and of knowledge. Our author has stated his form the heavenly bodies; while the lighter opinions fully and fairly, and given the ones would continue to revolve or rotate reasons on which they are founded. His with those fixed masses, as atmospheres. appeal is made to the test of rigorous! Many such local centres would naturally scrutiny, and by this the fate of his books take place, each involving to a greater or will ultimately be decided. Luteix, less extent the surrounding atoms, all bear, ing down to them by the same general law, here called the law of curvilinear

Review,-- The Divine Origin of Chris-motion: while all these separate vortices,

tianity deduced from some of those Evi. being involved in the general vortex,

dences which are not founded on the would bear down at the same time to the

Authenticity of Scripture. By John common centre of the system, and so all

Sheppard, i vols. 12mo. pp. 400—383. revolve round the sun.

Whittaker. London, 1829. Nie woll's On these plain and well-known prin- AFTER the many able works which have eiples of nature, the author attempts to been written on the evidences of Chris. shew that the planets would all describe tianity, it would seem that every new ellipses, and areas equal to the times, that attempt must be either presumptuous or their central tendency would be inversely superfluous. . In reference to the defence as the square of their distances, and the of our holy religion against the attacks of square of their times as the cube of the infidelity, the plausibility of this reasoning distance. Hence, the phenomena of the is generally admitted, yet we never heara tides are, according to the same natural similar objections urged against the mumerand mechanical laws, perfectly solvable, ous treatises on experimental and practical and also those of the exhausted receiver, godliness, which daily issue from the press! which last are allowedly insolvable on New- In the latter case, the malignant influence tonian principles.' The versed sine of the of sin is presumed to furnish a sufficient least arc, this writer does not admit to be reason for their appearance, yet in reference the measure of the force by which ibodies to the former, no one who contemptatesi falbo it is the same in quality, for both the prevalence of infidelity can reasonably are nothing but unsupported weight, but suppose, that while objections are circuts not the same in quantity ;, fovorevolving lated in all the formidable atray that learn

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ing and ingenuity, can devise, the Chris. | current oral objections to it; in public, appeals i

as to facts by early apologists ; in details by tian advocate should sit in silence, and

Christian writers, of events, the general truth of make no effort to repel the assailant.

which is amply contirmed by their opponents: It is an admitted fact, that the fortress

together with implications in the silence of some

Jews and Heathens, and in the conduct of others; of revelation has long since been rendered which coneur to furnish very strong grounds for impregnable by the ramparts thrown beneving its supernatural origin, P. 04. around it; but it is equally true, that the In support of these propositions, Mr. S. i weapons of infidelity now wielded by its has adduced a body of evidence, derived votaries, have many times been brought from sources to which their clauses rem into action, and as often wrenched from spectively refer. We have perused what the besiegers' hands. The rust of antiquity he has advanced, with much satisfaction; having been, however, artfully rubbed off, being convinced that its various branches many of these old and blunted instruments are calculated to obviate objections, to assume the appearance of being new, and throw light on obscurities, to remove diffias such they are frequently imposed upon culties, and to furnish the mind with topics the public. Whenever attempts of this of argument in favour of the Christian kind are made, it is a duty incumbent on cause, around which it throws a fortificathe defenders of the Christian citadel, totion that infidelity has no weapons to subexpose the cheat, and bring again into due. notice the means of repulse, which have always been crowned with success. From the observations thus made, it

Review.-Christian Biography; a Dicwill be natural for the reader to expect,

tionary of the Lives and Writings of

the most distinguished Christians of that the work before us is simply a com

all Denominations, both at home and pilation of arguments and reasonings, which owe their birth to other authors, and to

abroad, from the Revival of Literature

to the present period. By William other days. This the writer in his intro

Jones, M.A. 12mo. pp. 460. duction gives us fully to understand, dis

Tegs. claiming “all pretensions to extensive read.

London. 1829. ing, or scholarship, properly so called. It is no bad compliment to a book, to say He has, however, contrived to range over that its contents justify its title, and this a vast field of evidence, where he has col- may be fairly affirmed of the volume now lected a host of witnesses both from friends under inspection. Nor is this all ;, the and foes, which concur in the aggregate to biographical sketches seem to have been establish the authenticity of the sacred written with impartiality, wholly unin- ; writings.

fluenced by the peculiarities of the various The sources whence the evidence in churches or sects to which the individuals these volumes is drawn, are comparative, respectively belonged. From the author's historical, incidental, and collateral; but delineations, we can scarcely gather whe the result accumulates to a vast amount, ther he is a Churchman, or a Methodist, sufficient to satisfy any one who wishes to or a Dissenter, and, satisfied with his equibe convinced of the truth of scripture. tableness, we inquire not into the localities To the internal testimony which the Bible of his creed. To avoid partiality on an affords, 'Mr. Sheppard rarely makes any occasion like this, every one must allow appeal ; to Paley's evidences it therefore to be an exceedingly difficult task, and, bears no resemblance. Historical facts therefore, the author by whom it is creditfurnish his primary basis; Mahomet andably accomplished, merits the greater Budho assist in rearing the superstructure ; praise. . and both heathen and infidel writers are In glancing over the list of names alpha-1 laid under heavy contributions.

betically arranged in this volume, we finds . The substance of these volumes is con an omission of many which we should tained in the two following propositions. have been gratified to see introduced, but 1

in a work on so diminutive a scale, nothiógs "1. There may be enough known of Christi. anity, (without investigating either its miraculous

short of this was to be expected. Wei or prophetic proof, and without studying the writ. have not, however, to complain that the ten accounts of its progress, whether as given by

room is occupied by names of little or no 1 friends or enemiey) from a view of its distinctive character, of its actual effects, of its continued account in the Christian world, or which and prospective spirit and tendency, and of its we think ought with justice to be omitted acknowledged origin, to yield complex presumption that it is not of men, hut of God."-p. 1.

nor are the sketches spun out to an immo-q 11. There are statements concerning Chris derate length. A condensed history of the tianity (and other coeval religions), in extant Jewish and Heathen writers; in citations from

leading events in the life of the individual the lost works of its adversaries in notices of is accompanied with a list of his publica")

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tions, and a survey of his peculiar senti. Papal 'hydra, and cut off many of his ments. On these latter, Mr. Jones gene- heads; and should the primitive gigantic rally makes a few observations; but in no reformers, now rise with all their former case have we found his zeal intemperate, characteristics, they would be deemed or his remarks injudicious. So far as our intolerant, ferocious, and half savage, in views can extend over this ample range of their language, zeal, and uncourteous inbiographical literature, we are not aware flexibility. that he has distorted the creed of any one, Forming our estimate of what ought or painted it in colours which its partisans then to be, from what appears proper now would not candidly acknowledge.

to us, we can find many things to censure, Of these memoirs, the greater part have and even to condemn; but this is an imbeen long before the public, sometimes proper ground for decision. To judge extended to an immoderate length, and with impartiality, we must recall departed encumbered with much irrelevant matter. days and manners, place ourselves in the From these, Mr. Jones has selected such situations of those whom we half charge portions as may be said to be merely bio with indiscretion, and then ask how we graphical, characteristic, and incidental, should, or ought to have acted under the leaving all besides in their native soil. To same circumstances. These considerations others less voluminous, he has added his will lead us to extend our local toleration own gleanings from various sources, and beyond the boundaries with which we are thus rescued the memories of illustrious now circumscribed, and to include within individuals from that brevity which would its embrace a mode of conduct which we rather light them onward to oblivion, than should exonerate from condemnation, withraise them to that rank which their virtues out making it a subject of imitation. and talents merit in the eyes of posterity. These observations, however, belong not

Nor is it to eminent characters exclu- to the biographer, but to his subjects. His sively English, that the author has con- duty was imperative. He was to give the fined his delineations. He has ranged men and their writings as he found them, over the continent, and collected together leaving principle, spirit, and manner, to names of renown from most of the nations shift for themselves. In this he has acted of Europe, thus placing before us many of with commendable fidelity, so far as he the great and good, who have stood as has proceeded. We have only to regret champions in the Christian cause. These that the work has not been so extended, assume a variety of attitudes, according to as to include many worthies in the Christhe channels into which their energies, | tian army, whose names now find no place leaming, and piety were directed. They in his pages. Another edition, enlarged to nevertheless all appear as so many parts of double the size of the present volume, may one great whole, all aiming at the same hereafter accomplish this desirable object. ulterior object, and conspiring to give an impulse to morals, to encourage learning, to cultivate intellect, and to spread among Review.- Biographical Sketches, and mankind the great principles of the Chris Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs, &c. &c.. tian system.

By Captain Thomas Brown, F.R.S. E, The periods of time over which Mr.

80.8c12mo. pp. 570. Simpkin. LonJones has extended his researches, furnish

don. 1829. a great variety of character, not only as to the individuals themselves, but in relation THERE are few questions more difficult to their diversified writings, and the sub- to decide than those which arise from the jects on which they employed their pens, approximation of instinct to reason, the and exerted their talents. Hence, these links by which they are connected, or, in sketches embody, in an incidental manner, the estimation of some, the principles by much of the spirit, and habits of thought which they are identified. It is not our and reflection, which have prevailed in dif- province to investigate these abstruse and ferent ages, from the Reformation down 10 very interesting questions ; but with the the present hour. In each period, the surprising instances before us of animal. instrument appears suited for the task to be sagacity, with which this volume abounds, accomplished, and in this the divine wis- we find ourselves at a loss to assign to the dom shines with perspicuous lustre. The empire of instinct any exclusive limits, that placidity and refinement of the present shall not encroach on the dominion of readay, would not have served the Christian son. cause, when Luther and his associates in The author in this work takes a com Christian arms and armour attacked the prehensive range through the canine genus,

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distinguishing their various species, the and which appear to be well authenticated, regions of their abode, their natural history, throw a powerful weight in the seale of degrees of sagacity, and exclusive pecu- canine ability, and assuming them as data, liarities. Interwoven throughout, we have scarcely any that may hereafter come to numerous anecdotes respecting this intel- our notice, ought to be deemed incredible, ligent race of animals, some of which are unless they actually surpass the bounds of astonishing, others are highly amusing, possibility, and these, few persons will on while all charm either by their novelty, or all occasions have the hardihood to assign. by the intense interest which their variety

.3000 is calculated to excite.

SES In an Appendix, which occupies nearly REVIEW.- A Universal Prayer; Death: one hundred pages, the author gives direc- a Vision of Heaven; and a Vision of tions for the breeding, feeding, and training Hell. By Robert Montgomery. 12mo. of dogs in general, adverts to their various pp. 220. Maunder. London, 1829. diseases, and the modes of cure, furnishes a dissertation on the game laws, and states This is the third edition of a work which the degrees of punishment to which an was reviewed a few months since, when it infraction of them exposes the delinquent. first made its appearance in quarto. It is On these and similar topics this volume now in a less expensive form, and therecontains much useful information, which fore more within the reach of a great nummay be perused with great advantage by ber of readers, to whom seven shillings the mere sportsman, who looks no further and sixpence is an object of less moment than his field diversion; by the curious, than fifteen, and we doubt not that the who read for nothing beyond entertain- demand will be proportionably greater. . ment; by the naturalist, who feels an Some authors are meritorious but not interest in contemplating the varieties of fortunate, while others are fortunate withanimal life; and by the philosopher, who out being meritorious; but it is the lot of wishes to trace the gradations by which Mr. Montgomery to be both. He started the scale of animated nature ascends in all at once into poetical existence and popuits quickening advances from simple exist-larity; and although several years have ence through the intermediate stages of elapsed since he became known to the instinctive sagacity, up to its approximation public, the tide still continues to flow in. to rational and intellectual life. e his favour. His lines are smooth, harmo

In collecting the facts and sketches of nious, and full of vigour; and if he never natural history with which this volume mounts into those elevated regions where abounds, the author must have expended Milton gathered immortality, he never demuch time; and the diligence exercised in scends to any thing that is mean and grohis researches, must have engrossed novelling. His muse first spread her wings small portion of his attention. But as a a little above midway between the base sremuneration for this trouble and these and the summit of the Aonian mount, and exertions, he has provided for his readers from her first effort she has continued graa fund of useful entertainment, in which dually to ascend. both the young and the old will find a The present edition is neatly printed; peculiar interest. The character of the the type is clear, the page is clean, and the dog, an animal always esteemed for his paper is excellent. The matter being the fidelity, generosity, and intelligence, he has same as in former editions, dictates no placed in a very favourable light, by enu- deviation from the opinion formerly given. merating deeds of usefulness, and patience, Mr. Montgomery being young in years, which the lords of creation might be proud an admiring public will expect more from to own. Poo l Istvo mort stosuse his pen. To meet, therefore, the views of

That dogs are capable of receiving in those who are looking upwards, his own struction, is a fact with which every person reputation points out the path he must puris acquainted; but few are aware to what sue. Future silence will be much better an extent this education may be carried. than a future failure; by the former, hope We sometimes read and hear of astonish- will be assisted by patience, but by the ing instances of acquirement, the truth of latter, the lustre of his former fame will which we receive with much hesitation. receive a tarnish, that time will hardly ever But this incredulity arises more from our efface. Mr. M. has deserved an honournever having witnessed what we are called able distinction in the poetical world, and on to believe, than from any reasons we has acquired it; but he will do well to can adduce to counteract the statements remember, that popular applause is held on given. The facts recorded in this volume, a precarious tenure,

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