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bearing, and rich in rational entertainment | taste for beauty and ingenuity of contrito the botanist. To such an one, the vege- vance, or sharpening the powers of disa table companions of a rural walk, speak a crimination. What, then, can be better language, not only intelligible, but delightful, adapted for young persons ?” hovom us to a degree not at all comprehended by To some young persons, and to females those, who are satisfied to know that a tree especially, the Linnean nomenclature may is a tree, that a shrub is a shrub, a flower a at first sight appear a little repulsive; but flower ; in short, by those who see and this impression will vanish with the slightthink after the fashion of Wordsworth's est familiarity; and few females, with an wanderer
average endowment of those qualifications "A primrose on the rivulet's brim,
of shrewdness and perseverance which A yellow prinir ose was to him,
generally ornament the sex, will be long in And it was nothing more !"
learning what may be called the grammar The study here recommended is one, the of the science. Nor, with the aid of fascinations of which begin to be perceived Withering's popular Arrangement of British almost in the acquisition of the very alpha- plants, or Sir J. E. Smith's elegant work, bet of its language; and herein it possesses the English Flora, would any fair aspirant in a high degree the poetical charm of to botanical knowledge fail, in the course association. There is, indeed, a species of a single season, to become acquainted of exquisite heraldry in that generic and with the name and scientific designation of specific emblazonry which distinguishes
almost every vegetable within her range of one flower, and one family of flowers, daily observation.
H. from another. The detection of a single
: Sheffield, May, 1829. species of plant, is generally the key to an aequaintance with a whole family; the history, habits, and appearances of which, have all their respective points of attraction
OBSERVATIONS ON THE WAKEFIELD,
ASYLUM. with the initiated; while, on the other hand, those, who have never passed beyond
MR. EDITOR, the vulgar vocabulary of the rustic, or the SIR, I beg to assure my candid readers, common-places of the gardener, are little that it is with extreme reluctance I write aware of the pleasures which they miss. any thing in the least calculated to wound Such individuals act as if they either the feelings of any one; but such are my thought the most exquisite productions of impressions and convictions upon a subir nature unworthy of their notice, or find it, ject highly important to the interests of convenient to spurn at the application of suffering humanity, that I consider the prothe student at all events, they shut them- mulgation of them an imperative duty. selves cut from the participation of an Some thirteen years ago, a very highly equally innocent and fertile source of respected magistrate published in the rational amusement.
Monthly Magazine, vol. 40, page 26, a It might appear enthusiastic, to assertwarm recommendation of county asylums that any great moral influence necessarily for the reception of pauper lunatics, obe: resulted from an attention to this, of, viously anticipating the greatest possible indeed, to any other purely human science, good from one about to be established in but it may be safely contended, that, in his own county. Feeling a great respect the study, collection, and arrangement of for the character of this gentleman, but Aowers or other objects of natural history differing from him in opinion upon the
less harm, at least, bas generally accrued subject, I wrote him my objections in a to the student, than, happily, has sometimes private letter. In answer, he invited, or been the case, in connexion with the pur- | rather, as I thought, challenged me to a suit of other equally attractive, but more public discussion of the merits of county dissipating sources of juvenile gratifica- asylums; observing, that a measure of the tion. So it i
. Bors kind in question should be as public as pose $It is, indeed, to young persons in general, sible, that it might operate as an example, that these remarks are more especially or a warning In consequence, I wrote: addressed. To such, Sir J. E. Smith, in two letters for the same Magazine, and inte the preface to his elaborate “ [introduction reply he admitted, that he had no known to Physiological and Systematical Botany," ledge of what was required in the treate says, “I would recommend botany for itsment of the insane, that he and his brother own sake. . I have alluded to its benefits as magistrates depended upon the law, which à mental exercise ; nor can any study they presumed must be good and proper; exceed it in taising curiosity, gratifying a and they have now been acting runder the
provisions of the county asylum daw for 1. Wakefield asylum before its advantages upwards of ten years. ;
were proved, I trust he will have no ob - What I asserted was, that a county asys jection to publish a brief history of them lum law was very much calculated to now; and I beg to recommend the Imperial increase the evils it was intended to Magazipe, as the medium of such publidiminish, for that a less proportion of those cation. . pauper lunatics who were visited by insa | What I have heard of the Wakefield nity would recover, than had recovered county asylum is briefly as follows; viz. previously, and that it would consequently that it was erected in a most excellent cause an accumulation of incurable pauper situation, the building quite suitable for lunaties. All this I had said hundreds of the accommodation of one hundred and times before I had any actual proof of fifty patients at a time, with every arrangewhat I so eonfidently assertedby merely ment and convenience for domestic ecoreasoning from the nature of insanity, and nomy. That it was intended for the reon what is required in the perfect cure ception of none but pauper lunatics; but of it.
for some time at first, being far from full, Far be it from me to impugn the mo other patients besides paupers were adtives of the magistrates acting for the mitted; and that lately, there being plenty West Riding of Yorkshire; on the con of pauper lunatics, all others are excluded; frary, I believe that they were highly and that now the average number of these honourable and humane; but it is pos patients is two hundred and fifty, with sible that they may have mistaken the numbers waiting for admission, and num. path of humanity and public utility in this bers discharged not curred, for the sake of important particular. No one can doubt I giving admission to fresh cases. And that the purity of intention in the statesman an order has lately been passed for the who framed the county asylum law, yet sum of four thousand pounds, for the purI much doubt his possessing any correct pose of additions to the building. Now; information on the subject of insanity, and as the magistrates had the power, and it of what the proper treatment of it requires. may be supposed the will, to order all the And as the acting under the provisions of pauper lunatics to be sent to the county this law is quite optional on the part of the asylum on its first establishment, it seems magistrates, the doing so involves them in strange that it was not full, or nearly so, in a most awful responsibility. If we justly the first instance, or that there should be brand with infamy the medical pretender, such an overflow now. The increase of who, for the sake of gain, tampers with population in the West Riding of Yorkthe lives of his fellow-creatures, and is the shire for the last ten years, can have been cause of premature death; what shall we but trifling; and the increase of fresh cases say of a legislative measure to monopolize of insanity, we may suppose, has been the means of curing the most afflictive trifling 100. We must, therefore, believe malady that human nature is liable to, if that the overflow of patients at this time is it does not provide the best means of owing to another cause, viz. that a less cure ?
proportion of those visited by insanity; The ostensible purpose of county asy- have recovered under the operation of the lums is, the providing for pauper lunatics, county asylam law, than did recover before dangerous idiots, and criminal lunatics, this institution was in existence., better treatment in regard to their com A few days since, I saw the tenth annual forts, and better chances of cure for those report of the Wakefield county asylum, thought curable. Have they answered this from which it appears that one thousand purpose? I strongly suspect that they one hundred and fifty patients had been have not; but the world knows very little admitted; that of these, five hundred and about these county asylums. Contem eleven had been discharged cured, eighty. plated with feelings of superstitious horror eight discharged not cured, two hundred by the lower classes of society, and merely and ninety-nine had died, and two hun. as a means of security from the annoy. dred and fifty-two remained in the house. ances that more liberty for the lunatic and If five hundred and eleven have been peridiot might occasion by the higher, they manently recovered, I can have little more are little spoken of, and strange laws have to say; well knowing, that for a few years been passed respecting them in legislative at first, a large proportion would be adsilence. It is very desirable that the world mitted of old and incurable cases, but I should know more of them, either as exam- have my doubts whether half that number, ples or wamings; and as the gentleman or any thing like it, have been perfectly before alluded to gave publicity to the recovered. For I find that in the last
Observations on the Wakefield Asylum.
grenzthirty easestof relapse were admitted;i|asdi It is too much for us to say that wershould that iis, cases whicho had been previously be sure of making lunatics and idiotsaimdote
disebargedicured;it randzione of the phys comfortable inndargeizasylums, othan they sicians to the institution told me, a short can be in the bosom of their own families, stimelisince, that the calculation of cures or in their down parisho workhouses; itheir was, in the proportion of lonerin ten cases. comforts depending on thebstate of their But even supposing that these five hundred feelings and former impressionszigoi 901): and elevenswere all perfect cures, they are for the pecuniary management ofothesasga (not so many as: In should have expected lum at Wakefields seems to have been con. under the care of the respective i parish ducted upona zetose bplan of economyrin -apothecaries, and that tooo with this great some particulars, but not so in others di The advantage, that many of them would have pay for the patients appearsasmall, yes, the recovered without there opprobrious term saving to a great amount The amount of insanity being imputed to them. But of salaries and servants' wagegiliss statedivas these five hundred and eleven cases, I am more than £8001 for one year and the ! very sorry to believe, that a great propor- sums for luxuries, of which it may be prestion are either numbered with the dead or sumed the poor patients do not partake, the incurables. The list of deaths is very are considerable, while the charger for cheavy, two hundred and ninety-nine, being plain food averages about two shillings more than a fourth of the cases. Lunatics and sixpence per week, or say fourpence are, generally speaking, as tenacious of halfpenny per day each. Unfortunately life, as others, after the first paroxysm of for me, I have no experience in cheap the disease is over, which it must be with living, but I should think fourpence halfthose taken to a county asylum; and if to penny per day for adults and many of b the above number is added a list of those them with voracious appetites, mustarbe
who have died since being discharged, the too little; most assuredly it is so for those bwhole, wel might suppose, would greatly under the process of cure, for they require o teduce the number of incurables living an ample quantity of good nourishing food. mail Death must be a great blessing to incur- An explanation of this part of the manageSable pauper lunatics; still, an unaccount- ment might benefit other institutions of the
able numbers of such deaths will cause like kind. magings S d Jyon ysbrui' unpleasant reflections. The great accumu. I wish to observe, however, that I have Vlation of tincurables, being eighty-eight never heard of any misconduct or neglect
discharged, and upwards of two hundred, being imputed to the managers or servants as we may suppose, remaining in the asy- of the Wakefield asylum, or indeed of any dum, besides, no doubt, many others in their other county asylum, The'fault is not lin respective parishes, seems unaccounted for any thing that is practicable in these priimcif the path of the magistrates acting sons, but in the lawothat established them; founder the county asylum law has been and tino principle nothingocould, as dubeochitherto overmarked with deaths or incur lieve, be more calculated to preventie. stables, it may not only benefit their iown covery from insanity than county asylans. e counties, but others, if they will turn out . This I have often said, and I must icon1 cof it into the best path for recovery. For tinue to say it, for sit prevents dthe admitosafter thirteen years of practical close study bitance of patients till, generally speaking,
of the disease, since I so strongly recom- they are not csusceptible of spermanent - mend a different system, I dor stilli confit cure, zud tudo 9dt to invitat edi d dently assert, that insanity is in almost all vitin the incipient oor quite recent state of y cases a perfectly curable complaint ; and insanity, the mentah caffection) is only a
that those cureda may be rendered more symptomatic disease, and the cure mainly, 3isafe from a second attack, than they ever if not entirely, depends upon the medical
could havey been previously from a first; potreatment, and it would be ridiculoush to hand that the number of deaths under the suppose that the best and most, skilful 9 diseases the number of incurables, and, medicals treatinent is not too be obtained,
generally speaking, all the cevils of insanity, or is not to practised, int county asylums. uonight be greatly reduced by an judicious But such is the power of habit on the funcretreatments My a opinions in detail y may lotions of thought that delay. alone will con
cben found anderwmy name in the Monthly vert the mentall affection into a idiopathic -$Magazinezovoh041) and the sothreersuc- f disease, and then the cure mainly depends -9ceeding vols., and in Ither Imperial Maga upon moral treatment ;da streatment..not sizinecunder the head Remarksoon Mental practicable inocounty-asylums suchitas I ofAffections,prin voly 4, and all the succeedt have seenoor heard of, and the lawraetulinglyols. suodo zadoas id lo decod 19919cally prevents admittance in most instances,
wzA blei Country Wakesurosidist9200
albithew seconds stage of the disease] has | pears from the daws of the yconfession, stakeneplacebas nitsa panlom to owe od where the dies dedicatióniszor, dedicatio, yer I cannot but consider the taking charge is repeatedly discriminated from the pro
of the insane, and not affording them the pria festivitaso sanctip or rcelebratio sancti. Ileast means of recovery possible, as highly They remained equally distinct aitilbnthe i culpable, and I am fully persuaded that if Reformation on the dedication day in 1536 the magistrates of i England, were fully being ordered for the future to be kept on awareiiofo the importance of establishing the first Sunday in October, and the festhe besti system of treatment for cure of tival of the påtron saint to be celebrated ono sinsanity, they would never lend themselves lòngere" The latter was, by way of prestof the worst. od 100 d. 0:19. te eminence, denominated the chirch'sltholi911 The magistrates of the West Riding (of day, or its peculiar festival; and while
Yorkshire may exercise the best system this remains in many parishes at present, without additional expense to their respec- the other is so utterly annihilated in all, stive parishes, and what would, no doubt, that bishop Kennet, says Mr. Whitaker, ima short time, reduce it, and, along with knew nothing of its distinct existence, and this, greatly diminish all the evils of in- has attributed to the day of dedication 1sanity sdo g oz Tuos. BAKEMELLES, it what is true only concerning the saints'. agaišorino Vale, near Stone. June 3d. 1829. day. Thus instituted at first, the day of 99090110 112 Dets. 1711
the tutelar saint was observed, most proYigtbild**,19
E b ably by the Britons, and certainly by the 953112 11t "COUNTRY WAKES.
Saxons, with great devotion.' And the Is
evening before every saint's day, in the WAKES, formed from the Saxon wacce, Saxon-Jewish method of reckoning the sigilia, excubia,"watch, vigils, or country hours, being an actual part of the day, and
wakes, areri certain ancient anniversary b therefore like that appropriated to the 9 feasts, vin't several parishes; wherein the duties of public religion, as they reckoned Ipeople were to be awake at the several Sunday from the first to commence at the
vigils, or hours to go to prayer. They are sunset of Saturday, the evening preceding jusually observed, in the country, on the the church's holiday would be observed
Sunday next before the saint's day to with all the devotions of the festival. 91The 9 whom the parish-church is dedicated. i people actually repaired to the church, $591 The idearned Mr. Whitaker, in his His. and joined in the services of it; and they aitory of Manchester, has given a particular thus spent the evening of their greater fesYaccount of the origin of wakes and fairs tivities, in the monasteries of the north, as
He observes, that every church at its con- early as the conclusion of the seventh cen. -isecration received the name of some par tury. .. Botas y , s q svt0001 i ticular saint: this custom was practised : These services were naturally denomi
among the Roman Britons, and continued nated from their late hours waceán vor -among the Saxons, and in the council of wakes, and vigils or, eves. - That of the
Cealehythe, in 816, the name of the denot anniversary at Rippon, as early as the - [minating saint was expressly requiredTto commencement of the eighth century, is -Jibe inscribed on the altars, and also on the expressly denominated the vigiloj But that
walls of the church, or a tablet within it. of the church's holiday was named" cyric taThe feast of this saint became, of course fi weccan, or church wake, the church vigil,
the festival of the church. Thus Chris orchureh wake. And it was this comtotian festivals, in the room of the primitive | mencement of both with a wake, which s ayat ac, (agapas) or love-feasts, were sub has now caused the days to be generally vstituted for the idolatrous anniversaries of preceded with vigils, and the church holiIsheathenism: accordingly, at the first intro. day particularly to be denominated the oduction of Christianity among the Jutes of church wake. So religiously were the deve I Kent, popei Gregory the Great advised and festival of the patron saint) observed bwhat had been previously done among the for many ages by the Saxons, even as late
Britons, viz. Christian festivals to be in as the reign of Edgar, the former being. -ostituted in the room of the idolatrous, and spent in the church, and employed on - the suffering-day of the martyr whose relics prayer. And the wakes, and all the other pimere reposited in the church on the day holidays in the year, were put upon the zlon which the building was actually dedi same footing with the octaves of Christtocated, to be the established feast of the smas, Easter, and Pentecost.-loWhen GreI parish. & Both were appointed and oblgory recommended bthe festival of a the -Iserved, and they were clearly distin patron saint, bes advised the peopleAto
guished abrfirst among the Saxons, aslap- erect booths of branches about the chuck
on the day of the festival, and to feast and in the churches, and also on Sundays, till be merry in them with innocence. Ac- the indecency and scandal were so great cordingly, in every parish, on the returning as to need reformation. R e turns anniversary of the saint, little pavilions were constructed of boughs, and the people indulged in them to hospitality and
CURIOUS ANECDOTES OF ANIMALS, mirth. The feasting of the saints' day, Birch and Sloane, M S$. Np. 4486. Anon. 10", however, was soon abused; and even in PLUTARCH hath a very curious treatise on the body of the church, when the people the sagacity of animals, and, among other were assembled for devotion, they began | instances, he admires the considerateness, to mind diversions, and to introduce drink- | (if I may so call it) of ants. « For those ing. The growing intemperance gradually that have no burdens,” says he, go out of stained the service of the vigil, till the fes- the way, and leave free room to pass for tivity of it was converted, as it now is, those that have; and those things that are into the rigour of a fast. At length they too heavy, or difficult to carry, they will too justly scandalized the puritans of the nibble and tear till they have made them seventeenth century, and numbers of the more manageable." wakes were disused entirely, especially in I myself was a witness a year or two the east, and some western parts of Eng | ago to as remarkable a piece of sagacity land; though the order for abolishing them and considerateness, in that little animal, was reversed by the influence of Laud; as this of Plutarch. For one evening, but they are commonly observed in the meeting with a colony of them, I had the north, and in the midland counties. curiosity to observe their different employ
This custom of celebrity in the neigh- ments. Among the rest I perceived one bourhood of the church, on the days of that was pulling along with his mouth, particular saints, was introduced into Eng. what, for his little strength, I might call a land from the continent, and must have piece of timber; the rest of them were been familiar equally to the Britons and busy in their own way, and seemed to take Saxons; being observed among the churches no notice of him, which gave me some of Asia, in the sixth century, and by those concern. It was not long before he came of the west of Europe in the seventh. to an ascent-in the language of ants, I And equally in Asia and Europe, on the presume, called a hill. But no sooner continent, and in the islands, these cele did his timber become too much for his brities were the causes of those commercial abilities, than three or four of them immemarts which we denominate fairs. The diately came behind, and pushed it up, people resorted in crowds to the festival, As soon, however, as they had got it upon and a considerable provision would be level ground, they left it to his care, and wanted for their entertainment. The pros | pursued their own journey.' pect of interest invited the little traders of As this timber was smaller at the end the country to come and offer their wares; by which he pulled it than at the other, it and thus, among the many pavilions for was not long before he met with a fresh hospitality in the neighbourhood of the difficulty. For unluckily he had drawn it church, various booths were erected for the between two posts, as I imagine he called sale , of different commodities. In large them, where it stuck. After several fruittowns, surrounded with populous districts, less efforts, finding it would not go through, the resort of the people to the wakes would he took the wisest method that any person be great, and the attendance of traders under the like circumstances could do, numerous ; and this resort and attendance which was, to come behind it and pull it constitute a fair. Basil expressly mentions back. I staid till he had turned it round, the numerous appearance of traders at and got clear of the posts, when I was these festivals in Asia, and Gregory notes obliged to leave him, but not without such the same customs to be common in Europe. reflections as you will easily guess at. 11 And as the festival was observed on a Plutarch, in the same treatise, observes, feria or boliday, it naturally assumed to that Cleanthes, though he could not allow initself, and as naturally communicated to sects to have the use of reason, yet had an the mart, the appellation of feria or fair. opportunity once of seeing, what I sup Indeed, several of our most ancient fairs pose, staggered the philosopher not a little. appear to have been usually held, and "A company of ants," he says, “eame have been continued to our time; on the to an ant-hill belonging to another tribe, original church holidays of the places : and brought along with them a dead ant." besides, it is observable, that fairs were That severale ants came up routs of the generally kept in church-yards, and even ground, and, as it were, held a conference