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stemple, must have given it a singular and daries, from Zemindar, a landholder, held gloomyo magnificence, scarcely possessed immediately of government, on payment

by any other city in the world.orgote of a rate which was fixed by Lord Cornsi o The most pleasing feature in the scenery wallis, and does not increase with any Caround the city, is the valley of Jehosha-fresh improvement or enclosure. These phat. Passing out of the gate of St. Ste- lands may be sold or divided by the prophen, you descend the hill to the torrent of prietors, remaining subject to the tax, but

the Kedron; a bridge leads over its dry cannot be touched by the government so 1 and deep bed; it must have been a very long as the tax is paid. The great Ze

narrow, though in winter a rapid stream, mindars generally live in Calcutta, or the On the left is a grotto, handsomely fitted other cities, where some of them have very up, and called the tomb of the Virgin splendid palaces, under-letting their terriMary, though it is well known she neither tories to dewans, or stewards, answering to died nor was buried at Jerusalem.--Ibid. what the Scots call taxmen, who, as well as

| the smaller landholders, generally occupy

dingy brick buildings, with scarcely any als 1 GARDEN OF GET SEMANE."

windows, and looking a little like deserted vi hai

manor houses in England. Placed in the SA Few steps beyond the Kedron, you middle of the villages, whose bamboo huts

come to the garden of Gethsemane, of all seem far cooler and cleaner dwellings, they gardens the most interesting and hallowed; are overhung with a dark and tangled but how neglected and decayed! It is shade of fruit-trees, and surrounded by surrounded by a kind of low hedge, but stables, cowhouses, threshing-floors, circuthe soil is bare; no verdure grows on it, lar granaries, raised on posts, and the usual save six fine venerable olive-trees, which litter of a dirty and ill-managed farm; but have stood here for many centuries. This the persons who reside in them are often spot is at the foot of Olivet, and is beau. really very wealthy, and when we meet tifully situated: you look up and down the theme on horseback on a gala day, with romantic valley, close behind rises the their train of servants, their splendid shawls, mountain ; before you are the walls of the and gold and silver trappings, might almost devoted city. While lingering here, at meet the European idea of an eastern evening, and solitary, for it is not often a Raja. Under them the land is divided footstep passes by, that night of sorrow into a multitude of tenements, of which the and dismay rushes on the imagination, cultivators are said to be often rated very when the Redeemer was betrayed, and high, though they are none of them atforsaken by all, even by the beloved disciple. tached to the soil, but may change, if agIbid. p. 333. Vilelang

n

grieved, to any landlord who is likely to use them better. K

o d GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE OF THE

Round the villages there are large or-

chards of mangoes, cocoa-nuts, and planCOUNTRY IN BENGAL AND 'BAHAR. 335 DI

tains, together with many small crofts, enteset t . (By Bishop Heber.)

closed with fences of aloes, prickly pear, 6" From all which I have been able to and sometimes pine-apples, and cultilearn, the peasantry and (native) merchants vated with hemp, cotton, sugar canes,

are extremely well content with us, and mustard, gram, (a kind of vetch) and of bprefer our government very much to that late years with potatoes, and some other of any existing Asiatic sovereign. The kinds of European vegetables. All beyond great increase of population in Bengal and this is rice, cultivated in large open fields Bahar, the number of emigrants which annually overflowed by the Ganges, or the come thither from all parts of India, the many canals which are drawn from it, and extent of fresh ground annually brought divided into little portions, or guillets, not into cultivation, and the ostentation of laid out like our corn-fields in ridge and wealth and luxury among the people, furrow, but on a flat surface, the soil being which, under the native princes, no one returned to its place after the crop is dib(except the immediate servants of govern- bled in, and intersected by small ledges of ment) ventured to show, seem still more earth, both to mark propriety, and to retain convincing proofs that they are, on the the water a sufficient time on the surface. whole, wisely and equitably governed. The There is no pasture ground. The cattle, country (as far as I have yet seen, and sheep, and goats are allowed, during the every body tells me it is the same through day, to pick up what they can find in the mall Bengal) is divided into estates, gene- orchards, stubbles, and fallows, and along really of considerable size, called Zemin, I the road-sides, buto at nights are als

IX T81

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fetched up and fed with gram!" No manure, tonmustard, oil, charcoal, and in general is employed, the dung being carefully the different articles brought to market, collected for fuel, (except what little is except rice and fruit. They are not high, used by the devout to rub their faces and at least they would not be thought so in bodies with,) nor, with an occasional fal- Europe i and of the whole thus collected, low, and this is, I understand, but seldom, one half is laid out in making and repairis any other manure required than what ing roads, bridges, tanks, canals, and other the bountiful river affords. I have not yet public works. The company have a seen them at plough, but am told that their monopoly of salt and opium, the former instruments are the rudest that can be con- being only made at the public' works, ceived, and, indeed, their cattle are gene- the latter grown on the public domains. rally too small and weak to drag any tackle The former is, however, sold at a rate which is not extremely light and simple; which in England we should think low, yet their crops are magnificent, and the about 4s. the bushel, and the latter is soil, though much of it has been in con- chiefly for exportation. Justice is adstant cultivation beyond the reach of his ministered in Calcutta by the supreme tory, continues of matchless fertility. No court, according to English law, but elsewhere, perhaps, in the world is food at- where by local judges appointed by the tained in so much abundance, and with ap- Company, from whom an appeal lies to a parently so little labour. Few peasants separate court at Calcutta, called the Suder work more than five or six hours in the Dewannee, which is guided by the Hinday, and half their days are Hindoo festi-doo and Mussulman code, drawn up by

vals, when they will not work at all. Sir W. Jones. Of the English criminal i PS Rent is higher than I expected to find law, those Hindoos with whom I have con

it in this neighbourhood, (Calcutta.) Şix versed speak highly, and think it a great • rupees, about twelve shillings the English security to live in Calcutta where it preacre, seems a usual rate, which is a great vails. The local judges (who are all sum among the Hindoos, and also when English) are often very popular; and in compared with the cheapness of provisions general the people seem to allow that jusand labour; about 6d: being the pay of a tice is honestly administered ; and my labourer in husbandry, while ordinary rice informants have spoken of the advantages is at an average of less than a }d, for the possessed in these respects by the Company's weight of Alb. English : In consequence, subjects over those of Oude, or their own I do not apprehend that the peasantry are former condition under the Mussulmans. ill off, though, of course, they cannot live in these points I have drawn my informaluxuriously. Fish swarm 'in every part of tion partly from a few of the wealthy nathe river, and in every tank and ditch. I tives who occasionally visit me, partly During the wet months they may be from my own servants, whom I have enscooped up with a hand-net in every field, | couraged to speak on the subject, in some and procured at all times at the expense of small degree from what I have picked up a crooked nail and a little plantain thread. in my rides and walks round this place, They, therefore, next to rice and plantain, and still more from the different missionconstitute the main food of the country. aries, who mix with the lower classes, and Animal food, all the lower castes of Hin speak their language "more fluently than doos eat whenever they can get it, beef most Europeans besides. Perhaps, as I and veal only excepted ; but, save fish, myself improve in the language, I' may find this is not often in their power. Except that I have been in some points misinfood, in such a climate their wants are, of formed or mistaken; but I think the accourse, but few. Little clothing serves, counts which I have had seem not unlikely and even this is more worn from decency to be correct, and their result is decidedly than necessity. They have no furniture favourable, both as to the general condition except a cane bedstead or two, and some of the country and the spirit in which it is earthen or copper pots; but they have a governed."

1 148 satiny full allowance of silver ornaments, coral y uit XD

. rude oila * beads, &c., which even the lowest ranks in wear to a considerable value: and which OBSERVATIONS ON THE RUINS OF YORK seems to imply, that they are not ill off NO ang 12 0 CATHEDRAL. 'ittir; for the necessaries of life, when such super- MR. EDITOR.landi pe Maplew e fluities are within their reach. Innen Moderne SIR, During my periodical tour into the

"I have not yet been able to learn the north this spring, an opportunity was ,exact amount of the land tax paid to afforded me of examining, with my own government. The other taxes are on cot- eyes, the condition of that ancient and 127.-VOL. XI.

2 R

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venerable Cathedral Church in York, 1 naked area open to the ethereal azure, and which the incendiary Martin so wantonly not a vestige of its former glory above, consigned to the flames; and on reflecting below, around, remaining : the roof, with that the last of my three essays, on “The all the ornamental beauties beneath its Architecture of the Dark Ages," would shadow, having, by the action of the deappear in your number for June, I felt vouring element, been converted into charmyself, on beholding these interesting ruins, coal and ashes. called on to offer such remarks as may On examining those lofty and massive serve to illustrate certain positions contained piers supporting the arches on which the in these essays, together with such reflec north and south walls of the choir rest, I tions as the survey of this venerable fabric, was struck with astonishment at the intennow wofully shorn of its ancient grandeur, sity of heat which must have been generated might suggest; because this Cathedral during the conflagration. These piers are Church is one of the finest, if not the finest, composed of magnesian limestone, and it is specimen of the Architecture of the Dark supposed they were quarried from an exAges now extant. If you think them tended stratum of this material, which, in worthy of a place in your valuable miscel- the form of a segment, occupies a vast lany, please to insert them, as an addenda tract of country, east of the mountains, to my former papers.

from the neighbourhood of Derby, north, 'Wm. Coldwell. into Northumberland ; and in that portion

of this stratum which crosses BramahKing Square, London.

Moor, near Aberford, between Tadcaster ON beholding for the first time the and Leeds, the quarries are shewn, from remnants of a splendid fabric, upon which, whence it is asserted the stone was raised when in all its pristine grandeur, during a for the erection of this vast monument of long period, the eye has periodically dwelt the industry and skill of our ancestors. On with exquisite pleasure, sensations are examining the state of these piers, I found called into existence which no similar large portions of the clustered columns , object can inspire. On beholding for the which surround them, and which for the first time a commanding ruin, we survey it most part are of the same material, ready with peculiar interest and feeling; but this to crumble into dust : fragments which i feeling differs in its cast essentially from detached with ease, without the aid of any the former. In the latter instance, the eye, instrument, being resolvable into a fine never having beheld the original grandeur powder by the action of my finger and of the edifice, whose desolation it surveys; |thumb. Thus it appears that the intensity that grandeur, if it appears at all, must be of the heat during the conflagration, not. called forth into to by the imagination, for in withstanding the vast space of the choir, the memory it can have no abode ; but the its two side aisles, and the open transept magnificence of a fabric on which the eye immediately adjoining, was so great, that has dwelt with delight from year to year, it sublimed the carbon, which is the adalthough it has suddenly passed away, hesive matter or cement of the limestone, rushes into existence in all the vigour of its and reduced the lime to its native staté, former bloom, being called forth by me- viz. an impalpable oxide, or earth. r is mory the instant we behold its ashes. The piers themselves, however, do not Successively viewing its place, each mem- appear to be materially injured ; surroundber arises in its order, until the lineaments ed by clusters of columns, which broke of all group themselves before us, arrayed, and kept at a respectful distance the fury by the potency of imagination and memory, of the fames, the heat was not sufficiently in all the splendour of real existence; and | intense to penetrate these masses of limeit is like awaking from a delightful dreamstone throughout, and sublime the carbon into the aching void of midnight darkness, therein: they are all, without a single exwhen the reality of their destruction is ception, reparable; and the repairs of whelmed upon the soul by the ruins which these piers, which, as a matter of the first yawn around.

importance, ought to be attended to in the Such feelings passed in succession over first instance, is in a state of advancement. my mind as I entered the choir of this This reflects the highest credit' on the venerable Cathedral Church, and took my l judgment and activity of the architect, stand upon the accustomed spot from under whose direction the re-edification of which I had periodically viewed its hoary this interesting monument of antiquity ris grandear during half a century. It is in progress. gone, and will return no more, 'I exclaimed, The arches, supported by these piers, when, awaking from a reverie, I beheld the are so lofty, that the heat of the confla

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gration did not materially damage them ; , distinct, so that no direet communication and the falling beams from the roof, in exists between any two portions thereof, passing, have not inflicted any sensible have in this instance, and no doubt in injury: except repointing and slight re many others, preserved three-fourths of the pairs, nothing will therefore be called for whole fabric from destruction. When the on their account. The walls, founded confiagration was at its utmost height in upon these arches, which supported the the organ-loft, at such an elevation that it roof, escaped also in a similar manner; even calcined the capitals of the piers and little more than ordinary repairs will which sustain the arches of the centre be needful to restore them.

tower, and the fames in all their fury Looking at the foregoing circumstances rushed into the transept beneath the central in all their bearings, I conceive I have not arch, without control, even here were the in the preceding essays overrated the bounds of its destructions: for the floor and merits of this species of architecture, inroof of the lantern, and the roofs of the preferring it to the Grecian orders for transepts, notwithstanding the height it certain purposes. If an edifice, constructed had attained, were yet at such an elevation upon the models of Greece, of similar above its aspirings, that the flame could dimensions, and composed of the same not approach them. materials as York Cathedral, had been What a contrast do the absence and subjected to a calamity of this description, presence of a roof present to the observer I conceive it would have become a total on perambulating a large edifice! The ruin. The Grecian columns would have absence of a roof in a climate like that of been calcined throughout near their bases, England, is most sensibly felt, even in the by the intense heat of such a conflagration, finest season of the year. At one moment and the weight of the incumbent arches to behold the solar rays descend over the and walls, as well as the crowning roof, elevated cornice, and enrich the arches, would have brought down the columns, | columns, and ornamented capitals within, the arches, and the walls; involving the with their grandest hues; to feel them whole choir in one common ruin, if not the diffusing genial warmth, and to view them whole fabric east from the centre tower or dealing out the grateful vicissitudes of light lantern.

and shade through all the space penetrable The division of the roof into three com- by the heavenly luminary, is most exhilaratpartments, viz. the centre or roof over the | ing and delightful; but the next moment, choir, and the roofs over the two side driven by the pitiless storm of wind and aisles, has been the means of saving two | rain, which, descending in torrents, drenchout of the three from destruction. Hades every elevated object, and inundates the the roof extended from the north to the floor of a costly fabric, beneath a sheltering south wall of this Cathedral Church, with- roof at hand, while it reminds you of the out any division, the whole roof must have want, enhances the value of that crowning been involved in ruin; and the falling of finish to an English edifice. I felt all the such massive principal beams, as would force of this contrast on flying from the have been necessary for the construction choir, over which there is now no roof, to of such a roof, with all their rafters and the north side aisle, where the roof is framings, must have dashed every object entire, during my visit to this dilapidated below them into atoms, and thrown out the

Cathedral. walls of the fabric.

The floor and roof of the central tower or The vast quantity of timber which con- lantern, the roofs of the transepts or cross stituted the organ loft, with all its pews, aisles, the roof of the nave and its two side fronts, and ornaments, created, during the aisles, as well as the two magnificent towers conflagration, such an intense heat in the which compose the west front, of which immediate vicinity of the transept, that the you gave to the public a beautiful and columns of the piers which sustain the lan- correct print in your number for March term, and even their capitals, notwith- last, are all untouched ; not the slightest standing their great elevation, were con injury having been sustained from the considerably damaged thereby. Yet, here the flagration in any portion of this Cathedral fury of the destructive element was coin- Church west of the choir. pletely arrested, by the peculiar construc- On surveying that interesting object, the tion of the order in which this church is great east window, I was pleased to find it built; and the roofs of the transepts escaped uninjured, save a small aperture, which uninjured : thus the division of these Gothic may be easily repaired : it is now boarded edifices into compartments, and the roofing up, for greater security, until the repairs of of each of these compartments being quite the choir are completed; and others of the

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painted windows are similarly protected. | and interesting scene that presentétbritself Ther beautiful pavement of the choir, and when he rand: Dr. Tritton, the then presithe steps to the altar, are in a state of dent of the Geological Society, with their ruin z indeed, on every hand, ruinvisibly geological companions, were all in the reigns throughout the choir, while every basin together, expressing their surprise in other portioncof this vast. fabric is as entire extacies that strongly marked their feelings, as it was prior to that conflagration which at the novel sight. I much regret they completely desolated this grand compart did not see the whole surface after the ment. i sitt af 1. *

excavation was completed. i jour Whatever men dedicate to God, who " It may be pleasing to you to know giveth to mankind life and all things, I how the remains were deposited. They conceive ought to be watched over as were scattered over a large surface, and sedulously as whatever they reserve to the principal masses of bones and antlets themselves. The recorded experience of were imbedded in clay, from sixteen to all ages proves to us that an impartial twenty feet below the surface of the earth; Providence superintends the whole crea- but some were found as low as twentytion: Jehovah is not more partial to His nine feet, scattered among the flints. These own, than to the private wealth of indivi- are different in their appearance from duals; and therefore He does not launch those found in the clay, being of a dirty His thunders upon the head of the culprit white colour, and of much lighter weight. who puts forth His sacrilegious hand to the Some few were in the iron stratum, and property consecrated to Himself, more than so coloured with it, that part of the jaw upon the thief who plunders, or the incen- of a deer, now in my possession, looks as diary who consumes, the possessions of if it were composed of iron. others : for all is His, even this earth, with “There are some fine specimens of the all its fulness; and no gift of man can effect of extraordinary pressure. I have possibly enrich Him. Man, therefore, two bones longitudinally pressed, that seem when he dedicates aught to God, should to adhere as if they had grown together, watch over the dedicated thing in a manner and Mr. Gladdish has the under jaw of a similar to that in which he watches over deer, so completely brought together, that what he calls his own; and, it is deeply to it has the appearance of a double sow of be lamented that so large a portion of the

hat so large a portion of the teeth in one bone. sacred edifices throughout this country are “As the discovery of this deposit is orie totally unprotected.

among the finest proofs of the wonderful (To be concluded in our next.)

effects of the great flood, I must beg your acceptance of a small portion of two antiers, taken from the different depths I

have named, by which you will see the ANTEDILUVIAN REMAINS AT GRAVESEND.

difference of weight and colour. I send (In a Letter to a Friend.) ;

you, too, a specimen of the iron stratum, “The interesting Gravesend Chalk Basin with which I hope you will be pleased. ! is cleared of its contents. The original “I have not yet seen any paper from remains, the sand, the clay, the flints, and the Geological Society on the subject, but every other interesting geological substance, I am very desirous to know what is the is taken out, and, in a very little time, the | opinion of the learned in this particular basin itself will be no more. Yet, while a and interesting branch of science, on this particle of its extraordinary surface re soon to be removed spot of terrestrial malmains, it will create surprise and wonder

į “ H. SWINNEY, in the mind of every one, who looks with « Gravesend, April 16th, 1829."..) 116 feeling on the great changes that this terrestrial globe has undergone.

(«The erosion, as the great Dr. Buck- / DESCRIPTION OF TWO TUMULI, OR TWIN land termed it, throughout the whole

BARROWS, IN THE PARISH OF THICKSENbasin, is such an evidence of the agitation

DALE, YORKSHIRE. .. . 10 and powerful whirling of the water, and * MR. EDITOR, the ponderous flints that were in it, when Sır.--Should the following description of the flood passed over, as cannot fail to | two tumuli, which was read some years ago draw forth expressions of astonishment., to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, be

“Dr. Buckland told me he had never sufficiently interesting, you are welcome to seen any thing like that part of the basin | insert it in the columns of your Magazine. which was exposed when he visited it; These tumuli, or twin barrows, are placed por shall I ever forget the extraordinary alone in a field, and were surrounded

ter

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